Chapter One



"....Divine Encounters are the ultimate human experience perhaps because they were also the very first human experience; for when God created Man, Man met God at the very moment of being created.

"....No one after Adam and Eve could attain the experience of being the first humans on Earth, with the attendant first Divine Encounters. But what has ensued in the Garden of Eden has endured as part of human yearning unto our own days.

"....The chain of events leading to the Expulsion from Paradise raises a lasting question: How did Adam and Eve hear God - how does God communicate with humans at such, or any Divine Encounters? Can the humans see the divine speaker, or just hear the message? And how is the message conveyed - face-to-face? Telepathically? In a holographic vision? Through the medium of dreams?

"We shall examine the ancient evidence for the answers. But as far as the events in the Garden of Eden are concerned, the biblical text suggests a physical divine presence....

And they heard the sound of the Lord God
walking in the garden in the cool of the day;
And Adam and his wife hid themselves
from the presence of the Lord God
amongst the trees of the garden.

"God is physically present in the Garden of Eden.... can they see the deity? The biblical narration is silent on the issue; it makes clear however, that God can see them - or, in this instance, was expecting to see them but could not because they were hiding. So God used his voice to reach them....

"....A trialogue ensues.... it suggests that the Adam could talk from the very beginning.... The Lord God then declares the punishment [for eating of the forbidden fruit]....

"....By this time the encounter is clearly face-to-face, for now the Lord God not only makes skin-coats for Adam and his wife, but also clothes them with the coats.... the biblical passage cannot be treated as only symbolical. It clearly lets us know that in the beginning, when the Adam was in the Garden of Eden, humans encountered their Creator face-to-face.

"Now, unexpectedly, God gets worried. Speaking again to unnamed colleagues, Yahweh Elohim expresses his concern that "now that the Adam has become as one of us, to know good and evil, what if he shall put forth his hand and also take of the Tree of Life, and eat, and live forever?"

"....The decision to create The Adam stems from a suggestion to fashion him "in the image and after the likeness" of the divine creators. The resulting being, the handiwork of the Elohim, is brought forth "in the image of Elohim." And now, having eaten the fruit of Knowing, Man has become godlike in one more crucial respect. Looking at it from the view point of the deity, "The Adam has become as one of us" except for Immortality. And so the other unnamed colleagues of Yahweh concur in the decision to expel Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, placing Cherubim with a "revolving flaming sword" to block the humans’ way back if they ever tried.

"Thus did Man’s very creator decree Man’s mortality. But Man undaunted, has searched for immortality ever since through the medium of Divine Encounters.

"Is this yearning for Encounters based on a recollection of real happenings, or an illusionary search based on mere myths? How much of the biblical tale is fact, how much fiction?

"....The veracity of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) - be it its tales of Creation, of the Deluge and Noah’s Ark, of the Patriarchs, of the Exodus - has come into doubting criticism in the nineteenth century. Much of that skepticism and disbelief has been muted and countered by archaeological discoveries and increasingly validated the biblical record and data in an ever-receding order - from the near past to the earlier times, carrying the corroboration farther and farther back through historical times to prehistorical ones....

"....The archaeologists’ spades not only verified the existence of Shine’ar/Sumer. The finds also brought to light ancient texts from Mesopotamia that paralleled the biblical tales of Creation and the Deluge....

"....History, as the great scholar Samuel N. Kramer has so excellently expounded in his 1959 book of that title, Begins at Sumer.

"It all began, we learn from the various texts, a very long time ago, with the splashing down in the waters of the Persian Gulf or the Arabian Sea of a group of fifty ANUNNAKI - a term literally meaning "Those Who from Heaven to Earth Came...." Other settlements followed in pursuit of the visitors’ mission: Obtaining gold by distilling the water of the Persian Gulf - gold needed urgently back on the home planet of the Anunnaki so that their dwindling atmosphere could be protected by a shield of suspended gold particles....

"....The evidence presented and analyzed by us in books I - V of The Earth Chronicles series and the companion book Genesis Revisited, indicated a vast elliptical orbit for Nibiru that lasts 3,600 Earth-years, a period called SAR in Sumerian....

"....Therein , in the Sars, lies the secret to the apparent immortality of the ancient "gods...." The orbit of Nibiru lasts 3,600 Earth-years; but for those who live on Nibiru, that amounts to only one of their years.... in the eyes of the Earthlings (for that, literally, is what Adam - "He of Earth" - meant in Hebrew), the life cycles of the Anunnaki were such that, in human terms, they were immortal for all practical purposes.

"....Man, The Adam, was not yet on Earth when the Anunnaki arrived. For forty Sars the Anunnaki who were sent to the Abzu toiled mining the gold; but then they mutinied.

"....Enki, the scientist, had a solution. Let us create a Primitive Worker, he said, that will take over the backbreaking toil. The other leaders of the Anunnaki present wondered: How can it be done, how can an Adamu be created? To which Enki gave this answer:

The creature whose name you uttered
it exists!

"He found the "creature" - a hominid, the product of evolution on Earth - in southeast Africa, "above the Abzu." All that we need to do to make it an intelligent worker, Enki added, was to:

Bind upon it the image of the gods.

"The assembled gods - the Anunnaki leaders - agreed enthusiastically....

"....In Chapter 1 of Genesis the discussions that led to this decision is summed up in one verse: "And Elohim said, Let us make the Adam in our image, after our likeness."

Mr. Sitchin goes through the process that was used to create the worker, which readers may find in his previous books.

"....In ancient Egypt, where the gods were called Neteru ("Guardians") and identified by the hieroglyphic symbol of a mining axe, the act of creating the first Man out of clay was attributed to the ram-headed god Khnemu ("He who joins"), of who the texts said that he was "the maker of men . . . the father who was in the beginning." Egyptian artists too, as the Sumerians before them, depicted pictorially the moment of the First Encounter; it showed Khnemu holding up the newly created being, assisted by his son Thoth (the god of science and medicine).

"....But, like any hybrid.... (The Adam, male and female) the "Mixed Ones" could not procreate. The biblical tale of how the new being acquired "Knowing," the ability to procreate in the biblical terminology covers with an allegorical veneer the second act of genetic engineering. The principal actor in the dramatic development is neither Yahweh-Elohim nor the created Adam and Eve but the Serpent, the instigator of the crucial biological change....

"....Indeed, the frequent Sumerian symbol for Enki was that of a serpent.... As we shall show later on, Enki’s use of genetic engineering in the Garden of Eden also led to the double helix motif in Tree of Life depictions....

"....As we trace these double and triple meanings of Enki’s epithets (Serpent-copper-healing-genetics), it behooves to recall the biblical tale of the plague that befell the Israelites during their wanderings in the Sinai wilderness: it stopped after Moses had made a "copper serpent" and held it up to summon divine help.

"It is nothing short of mind-boggling to realize that this second Divine Encounter, when Humankind was given the ability to procreate, was also captured for us by ancient "photographers" - artists who carved the scene in reverse on the small stone cylinders, images that were seen in positive after the seal was rolled in wet clay.

Mr. Sitchin also mentions depictions of Enki with his symbolic epithets.

"....All these texts and depictions, augmenting the biblical narrative, have thus combined to paint a detailed picture, a course of events with identifiable principal participants, in the saga of Divine Encounters. Nevertheless, scholars by and large persist in lumping all such evidence as "mythology." To them the tale of events in the Garden of Eden is just a myth, an imaginary allegory taking place in a nonexistent place.

"An interesting light is shed on the "Geography of Creation" (to coin a term) and, consequently on the initial Divine Encounters, by the Book of Jubilees. Composed in Jerusalem during the time of the Second Temple, it was known in those centuries as The Testament of Moses, because it began by answering the question, How could Humanity know about those early events that even preceded the creation of Humankind? The answer was that it was all revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai, when an Angel of the divine Presence dictated it to Moses by the Lord’s command. The name Book of Jubilees, applied to the work by its Greek translators, stems from the chronological structure of the book, which is based on a count of the years by "jubilees" whose years are called "days" and "weeks."

"....The Book of Jubilees, using the enigmatic count of "days," states that Adam was brought by the angels into the Garden of Eden only "after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created"; and "his wife they brought in on the eightieth day." Adam and Eve, in other words, were brought into being elsewhere.

"The Book of Jubilees, dealing with the expulsion from Eden later on, provides another morsel of valuable information. It informs us that "Adam and his wife went forth from the Garden of Eden, and they dwelt in the Land of Nativity, the land of their creation." In other words from the Edin they went back to the Abzu, in southeastern Africa. Only there, in the second Jubilee, did Adam "know" his wife Eve and "in the third week in the second jubilee she gave birth to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth to Abel, and in the fifth she gave birth to a daughter, Awan." (The Bible states that Adam and Eve had thereafter other sons and daughters; noncanonical books say they numbered sixty-three in all).

"Such a sequence of events, that places the start of Humankind’s proliferation from a single primordial mother in the Mesopotamian Eden but back in the Abzu, in southeastern Africa, is now fully corroborated by scientific discoveries that have led to the "Out of Africa" theories regarding the origin and spread on Humankind. Not only finds of fossil remains of the earliest hominids, but also genetic evidence of the final line of Homo sapiens, confirms southeast Africa as the place where Humankind originated.

Mr. Sitchin gives at this point a thorough explanation of the plausible location of Eden, which the reader may view on previous books as well; then he continues:

"Confirmation of southern Mesopotamia, ancient Sumer as the E.DIN, the original biblical Eden does more than create a geographic congruency between the Sumerian texts and the biblical narrative. It also identifies the group with whom Humankind had Divine Encounters. The E.DIN was the abode ("E") of the DIN ("The Righteous/Divine Ones"). Their full title was DIN.GIR, meaning "The Righteous Ones of the Rocketships," and was written pictrographically as a two stage rocket whose command module could separate for landing. As the script evolved from pictographic to the wedgelike cuneiform the pictograph was changed by a star symbol meaning "Heavenly Ones"; later on, in Assyria and Babylon, the symbol was simplified to crossed wedges and its reading in the Akkadian language, changed to Ilu - "The Lofty Ones."

"The Mesopotamian Creation texts provide not just the answer to the puzzle of who were the several deities involved in the creation of The Adam, causing the Bible to employ the plural Elohim ("The Divine Ones") in a monotheistic version of the events and to retain the "us" in " Let us make Man in our image and after our likeness"; they also provide the background for this achievement.

"The evidence leaves little room for doubting that the Elohim of Genesis were the Sumerian DIN.GIR. It was to them that the feat of creating The Adam was attributed, and it was their diverse (and often antagonistic) leaders - Enki, Enlil, Ninmah - who were the "us" whom the first Homo sapiens first encountered.

"The expulsion from the Garden of Eden brought to an end the first chapter in this relationship. Losing Paradise but gaining knowledge and the ability to procreate, Humankind was henceforth destined to be bonded with Earth -

In the sweat of thy brow
shalt thou eat bread,
until your return to the earth,
for from it was thou taken.
For thou art earthdust
and unto earthdust thou shalt return.

"But that is not how Humankind saw its destiny. Being created in the image, after the likeness, and with the genes of Dingir/Elohim, it saw itself part of the heavens - the other planets, the stars, the universe. It strives to join them in their celestial abode, to gain their immortality. To do so, the ancient texts tell us, Man has continued to seek Divine Encounters without weapon-bearing Cherubim blocking the way.


Chapter Two

"....The Expulsion was only the start of a new phase in that relationship that can be characterized as hide-and-seek, in which direct encounters become rare and visions or dreams become divine devices.

"The beginning of this post-Paradise relationship was far from auspicious; it was, in fact, a most tragic one. Unintentionally it brought about the emergence of new humans, Homo sapiens sapiens. And as it turned out, both the tragedy and its unexpected consequence planted the seeds of divine disillusionment with Humankind.

Mr. Sitchin relates here the incident of Abel-Cain, the sons of Adam and Eve, according to the Book of Genesis; he then continues:

"What was this "mark of Cain"? The Bible does not say, and countless guesses are just that - guesses. Our own guess (in the Lost Realms) was that the mark might have been a genetic change, such as depriving the line of Cain of facial hair - a mark that would be immediately obvious to whoever shall find them. Since this is a mark of recognition of Amerindians, we have suggested that since Cain "went away from the presence of Yahweh and resided in the Land of Nod, East of Eden," his wanderings took him and his offspring farther into Asia and the Far East, in time crossing the Pacific to settle in Mesoamerica....

"....Whatever the destination of Cain or the nature of the mark were, it is clear that this final act in the Cain-Abel drama required a direct Divine Encounter, a close contact between the deity and Cain so that the "mark" could be emplaced.

"....To find answers regarding those early times, we have to fish for information in the extra-biblical books, of which the Book of Jubilees is one. Called by scholars Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, they include the
Book of Adam and Eve that survived in several translated versions ranging from Armenian and Slavonic to Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic (but not the original Hebrew).

"....Since the death of Adam was the first natural passing of a mortal, Eve and Seth knew not what to do. They took the dying Adam and carried him to the "region of Paradise," and there sat at the Gates of Paradise until Adam’s soul departed from his body. They sat bewildered, mourning and crying. Then the Sun and Moon and the stars darkened "the heavens opened" and Eve saw celestial visions. Raising her eyes she saw "coming from the heavens a chariot of light, born by four bright eagles. And she heard the Lord instruct the angels Michael and Uriel to bring linen clothes and shroud Adam as well as Abel (who has not yet been buried); so were Adam and Abel consecrated for burial, then the two of them were carried by the angels [messengers] and buried, "according to the commandment of God, in the place where the Lord obtained the soildust" for the creation of Adam.

"There is a wealth of pertinent information in this tale....

"....In the case of prophetic dreams (of which more later) such a throwback in time would only serve to reinforce the fact that such dreams have been indeed deemed an undisputed channel between the deities and humans throughout recorded history.

"....The existence of pictorial depictions from that far back, in prehistory [preceding the Deluge] [(that had occurred, by our calculations, some 13,000 years ago)] is no secret. What is virtually a secret is the fact, that besides animals, and some human figures, those drawings and paintings also depicted what we nowadays call UFOs.

"We refer to what is known as Cave Art, the many drawings found in caves in Europe where Cro-Magnon Man made his home. Such "decorated-caves" as scholars call them have been found especially in the southwest of France and the north of Spain.... they created astoundingly beautiful works of art. Occasionally depicting humans as hunters, and sometimes their hunting weapons.... the depictions by and large are those of Ice Age animals: bison, reindeer, ibexes, horses, oxen, cows, felines, and here and there also fish and birds. There is no doubt that the anonymous artists painted what they had actually seen. Timewise they span millennia from about 30,000 to 13,000 years ago.

"....The inclination to view the Cave Art as religious art also stems from the plastic finds. These consist mainly of "Venus" figurines - statuettes of females known as the Willendorf Venus
(image right) whose date is approximately 23000 B.C. Since the artists could also render the female shape perfectly naturally.... it is believed that the ones with exaggerated reproductive parts were intended to symbolize or seek - "pray for" - fertility; so that while the natural ones represented "Eves," the exaggerated ones ("Venuses") expressed veneration of a goddess.

"....Merlin Stone, [among others on the book] in his book When God Was a Woman considered the phenomenon "dawn of a Stone Age Garden of Eden" and linked the worship of a Mother Goddess to the later goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon. One of the nicknames of Ninmah, who had assisted Enki in the creation of Man, was Mammi; there is no doubt that it was the origin of the word for "mother" in almost all languages. That she was revered already some 30,000 years ago is no wonder - for the Anunnaki had been on Earth for far longer, with Ninmah/Mammi among them.

"The question is, though, how did Stone Age Man, more specifically Cro-Magnon Man, know of the existence of these "gods"?

"Here, we believe, come into play another type of drawings found in those Stone Age caves. If they are mentioned at all (which is rarely), they are referred to as "markings." But these were not scratches or incoherent lines. These "markings" depict well-defined shapes - shapes of objects that, nowadays are referred as UFOs . . .

"....Since all the other depictions in the decorated caves are of animals, etc., actually seen and most accurately rendered by the cave artists, there is no reason to assume that in the case of the "markings" they depicted objects that were abstract imaginings. If the depictions are of flying objects, then the artists must have actually seen them.

"Thanks to those artists and their handiwork, we can rest assure that when Adam and Eve - in pre-Diluvial times - claimed to have seen "celestial chariots," they were recording fact, not fiction.

"....We have already examined such sources in respect to the creation of the Adam and of Eve and the Garden of Eden. Let us now examine the Cain-Abel tragedy. Why did the too feel obliged to offer the first fruits or yearlings to Yahweh, why did he pay heed only to the offering of Abel, the shepherd, and why did the Lord then rush to appease Cain by promising him that he, Cain would rule over Able?

"This answers lie in a realization that, as in the tale of creation, the biblical version compresses more than one Sumerian deity into a single, monotheistic one.

"Sumerian texts include two that deal with disputes and conflicts between farming and shepherding. They both hold the key to an understanding of what had happened by going back to a time before of domestication of either grains or cattle, a "time when grains had not yet been brought forth, had not yet vegetated . . . when a lamb had not yet been dropped, there was no she-goat." But the "black-headed people" had already been fashioned and placed in the Edin, so the Anunnaki decided to give to NAM.LU.GAL.LU - "Civilized Mankind" - the knowledge of and tools for "the tilling of the land" and the "keeping of sheep"; not however, for the sake of Mankind but " for the sake of the gods," to assure their satiation.

"The task of bringing forth the two forms of domestication fell to Enki and Enlil....

"....After an initial idyllic period, Lahar and Anshan ("grains" and "woolly cattle") began to quarrel. A text named by scholars
The Myth of Cattle and Grain reveals that in spite of the effort to separate the two by "establishing a house," a settled way of life, for Anshan (the farmer) and putting up sheepfolds in the grasing lands for Lahar (the shepherd) and in spite of the abundant crops and bountiful sheepfolds, the two began to quarrel. The quarrel began as the two offered these abundances to the "storehouse of the gods." At first each just extolled his own achievements and belittled those of the other. But the argument became so volatile, that both Enlil and Enki had to intervene. According to the Sumerian text, they declared Anshan - the farmer - the more surpassing.

"More explicit in its choice between the two food producers and two ways of life is a text known as
The Dispute Between Emesh and Enten, in which the two come to Enlil for a decision as to who of them is the more important. Emesh is the one who "made wide stalls and sheepfolds"; Enten, who dug canals to water the lands, asserts that he is the "farmer of the gods." Bringing their offerings to Enlil, each seeks to be granted primacy. Enten boasts how he made "farm touch farm," his irrigation canals "brought water in abundance," how he "made grain increase in the furrows" and he "heaped high in the granaries." Emesh points out that he "made the ewe give birth to the lamb, the goat to give birth to the kid, cow and calf to multiply, fat and milk to increase," and also how he obtained eggs from nests made for the birds and caught fish from the sea.

"But Enlil rejects the pleas of Emesh, even repriminds him: "How could you compare yourself to your brother Enten!" he tells him, for it is Enten "who is in charge of the life-producing waters of all the lands." And water spells life, growth, abundance.

"....It is noteworthy that in the above quoted lines Enlil calls Emesh a brother of Enten - the same relationship as that between Cain and Abel. This and other similarities between the Sumerian and biblical tales indicate that the former were the inspiration for the latter. The preference of the farmer over the shepherd by Enlil can be traced to the fact that he was the one to introduce farming while Enki accounted for the domestication of livestock.

"....All in all, there can be little doubt that the Cain-Abel rivalry reflected a rivalry between the two divine brothers. It flared up from time to time....

"....A question rarely asked is, where did Cain obtained the very notion of killing? In the Garden of Eden Adam and Eve were vegetarians, eating only fruits of the trees. No animal was slaughtered by them. Away from the Garden there were only four humans, none of who has yet died (and certainly not as result of foul play). In such circumstances, what made Cain "come upon his brother Abel and kill him"?

"The answer, it seems, lies not among men but among the gods. Just as the rivalry between the human brothers reflected a rivalry between the divine brothers, so did the killing of one human by another emulated the killing of one "god" by another. Not of Enki by Enlil or vice versa - their rivalry never reached such vehemence - but still the killing of one leader of the Anunnaki by another.

"The tale is well documented in Sumerian literature. Scholars call it The Myth of Zu.... [Ninurta, the foremost of Enlil carried out the sentence].

"....Sumerian texts, the origin of and inspiration for the tales of Genesis, not only fill the bare-bones biblical versions with details, they also provide the background for understanding the events. One more aspect of the human experience this far can be explained by the divine encounters. The sins of Adam/Eve and of Cain are punished by nothing more severe than Expulsion. That too appears to be an application of an Anunnaki form of punishment to the created humans. It was once meted to Enlil himself, who "date-raped" a young Anunnaki nurse (who in the end became his wife).

"By combining the biblical and Sumerian data, we are now in a position to put the record of Mankind’s beginnings in a time frame supported by modern science.

"....A point that is usually ignored, but which we find highly significant, is that all through the narratives concerning Man’s creation, the Garden of Eden episode, and - most intriguing - in the story of the birth of Cain and Abel, the Bible refers to the humans as THE Adam, a generic term defining a certain species. Only in chapter 5 of Genesis, that begins with the words "This is the book of the genealogies of Adam," does the Bible drop the "the." It is only then that it starts to deal with a specific forefather of the human generations; but significantly, this listings omits Cain and Able, and proceeds from the person called Adam straight onto his son Seth, the father of Enosh. And it is only for Seth’s son Enosh that the Hebrew term meaning "human being" is employed; for that is what Enosh meant: "He who is human." To this day the Hebrew word for "Humankind" is Enoshut, "that which is like, that which stems from, Enosh."

"....whom the Bible considers the real progenitor of Humankind as it came to be in the ancient Near East.

"....It is in respect to Enosh that the Bible states (Genesis 4:26) that it was in his time that Humankind "began to call upon the name of Yahweh." It must have been an important development, a new phase in Humankind’s history, for the Book of Jubilees states in almost identical words that it was Enosh "who began to call on the name of the Lord on Earth." Man had discovered God!

"Who was this new human, "Enosh-man," from a scientific point of view?

"....Was he [Enosh] the progenitor of what we call Neanderthal Man, the first true Homo sapiens? Or was he already the ancestor of Cro-Magnon Man, the first true Homo sapiens sapiens that still walks the Earth as the current human beings? Cro-Magnon Man (so named after the site in France where his skeletal remains were found) appeared in Europe some 35,000 years ago, replacing there the Neanderthal Man (so named after the discovery site in Germany) who can be traced there to 100,000 years ago.... caves in Israel reveal Neanderthals were migrating through the Near East at least some 115,000 years ago, and Cro-Magnons had dwelt in the area already 92,000 years ago. Where do The Adam and Eve, the first created humans, and Adam and Eve, the progenitors of Seth and Enosh, fit into all that? What light do the Sumerian King Lists and the Bible shed on the issue, and how does it all correlate to modern scientific discoveries?

"....The genetic markers for Homo sapiens, first studied through the Mitochondrial DNA that is passed by the female alone, and then through studies of Nuclear DNA that is inherited from both parents.... indicate that we all stem from a single "Eve" that lived in southeast Africa between 200,000 to 250,000 years ago. Studies released in May 1995 of the Y chromosome indicate a single "Adam" ancestor some 270,000 years ago.

"The Sumerian data, we have concluded, places the creation of The Adam at about 290,000 years ago - well within the time scales for the two progenitors that modern science now suggests. How long the stay at the Garden of Eden, the attainment of the ability to procreate, the expulsion back to southeast Africa, and the Cain-Abel birth had taken place, the ancient texts do not state. Fifty thousand years? Whatever the exact time lapse, it seems evident that the "Eve" who was back in southeast Africa, bearing offspring to the Adam, fits well chronologically with the current scientific data.

"With those early humans gone from the stage, the time came for the specific Adam and his line to appear.

Mr. Sitchin includes in his book an interesting calculation of time from Adam (the specific individual) to the Deluge.

"Moreover, as we have shown earlier in this chapter, THE Adam and the person Adam were not one and the same. First there was the interlude in the Garden of Eden, then the Expulsion. How long that interlude lasted, the Bible does not say.

"....The solution offered here by us leads to astounding results. It places the Adam-Seth-Enosh line right in the time slot when Neanderthals and then Cro-Magnons passed through the Lands of the Bible as they spread toward Asia and Europe. It means that the individual (not the generic) Adam was the biblical Man whom we term Neanderthal, and that Enosh, whose name meant "Human" was the biblical term for what we call Cro-Magnon - the first Homo sapiens sapiens, indeed the forefather of Enoshut, today’s humanity.

"It was then, the Bible asserts, that humanity "began to call upon the name of Yahweh." Man was ready for renewed Divine Encounters; and some that then occurred were truly astounding


Chapter Three


"....All three require accepting as truthful the Sumerian assertion that there have been a developed civilization before the Deluge, one that was wiped out and buried under millions of tons of mud by the avalanche of water that engulfed Mesopotamia. This Sumerian assertion was not doubted by later generations.... The Bible too, describes an advanced civilization with cities, crafts, and arts in respect of the line of Cain. Though no such details are provided in respect to the line of Seth, the very tale of Noah and the construction of the ark implies a state of affairs where people could already build seagoing vessels.

"That such civilization expressed itself in urban centers in Mesopotamia (the core of such advances) but in only magnificent artistry among the European branch of Cro-Magnons is quite possible. As a matter of fact, some of the images painted or drawn by the cave artists depict inexplicable structures or objects. They become meaningful if one accepts the possibility that Cro-Magnons had seen (or perhaps even travelled by) masted seagoing vessels - a possibility that could explain how Man crossed the two oceans 20,000 or even 30,000 years ago to reach America from the Old World.

"....The first one is the tale recounted in what scholars call The Legend of Adapa. An intriguing aspect of the tale is that, prior to the heavenly ascent, Adapa was involved in an involuntary sea crossing to an unknown land because his boat was blown off course - an episode that is perhaps reflected in the recollections of early Americans and in the Cro-Magnons cave depictions.

"Adapa, according to the ancient text, was a protégé of Enki. Allowed to live in Enki’s city Eridu (the very first settlement of the Anunnaki on Earth), "daily he attended the sanctuary of Eridu." Choosing him to become "as a model of men," Enki (in this text called by his initial epithet-name, E.A) "gave him wisdom, but did not give him eternal life." It is not just the similarity between the names Adapa and Adam, but also this statement, that led various scholars to see in the ancient tale of Adapa the forerunner (or inspiration for) the tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, who were allowed to eat of the Tree of Knowing but not of the Tree of Life....

"....One day "at the holy quay, the Quay of the New Moon" (the Moon was then the celestial body associated with Ea/Enki) "he boarded the sailboat," perhaps intending to just sail to catch fish. But then calamity struck....

".... a major storm, "the South Wind, began to blow. It apparently unexpectedly changed direction, and instead of blowing from the sea toward land it blew toward the open ocean. For seven days the storm blew, carrying Adapa to an unknown distant region. There, stranded, "at the place where is the home of the fishes, he took up a residence." We are not told how long he was stranded at that southern location, not how he was finally rescued.

"....In his heavenly abode, according to the tale, Anu wondered why the South Wind "has not blown toward the land for seven days." His vizier Ilabrat answered him that it was because "Adapa, offspring of Ea, had broken the wing of the South Wind." Perplexed, Anu ("rising from his throne") said, "Let them fetch him hither!"

""At that, Ea, he who knows what pertains to Heaven," took charge of the preparations for the celestial journey. He made Adapa wear his hair unkempt, and clothed him in mourning garb." He then gave Adapa the following advice:

You are about to go before Anu, the king;
The road to heaven you will be taking.
When you approach the gate of Anu
the gods Dumuzi and Gizzida
at the gate of Anu will be standing.
When they see you, they will ask you:
"Man, on account of whom do you look thus,
for whom so you wear mourning garb?"

"To this question, Ea instructed Adapa, you must give the following answer: "Two gods have vanished from our land, that is why I am thus." When they question you who the two gods were, Ea continued, you must say, "Dumuzi and Gizzida they are." And, since the two gods whose names you tell as being the vanished gods for whom you mourn will be the very same two who guard the gate of Anu, Ea explained, "They will glance at each other, and laugh a lot, and will speak to Anu a good word about you."

As you stand before Anu
they will offer you bread;
it is Death, do not eat!
They will offer you water;
it is Death, do not drink!
They will offer you a garment;
put it on.
They will offer you oil;
anoint yourself with it!

"You must not neglect these instructions," Ea cautioned Adapa; "to that which I have spoken, hold fast!"

"Soon thereafter the emissary of Anu arrived. Anu, he said, gave the following instructions: "Adapa, he who broke the South Wind’s wing - bring him to me!" And so speaking,

He made Adapa take the way to heaven,
and to heaven he ascended

And it happened as Enki said it would....

"....Evidently Anu had such suspicions right then and there, for having heard Adapa’s tale he was puzzled, and asked:

Why did Ea to an unworthy human
disclose the way of heaven
and the plans of Earth -
rendering him distinguished,
making a Shem for him?

"And, continuing such rhetorical questions, Anu asked: "As for us, what shall we do about him?"

"....Adapa’s peculiar behavior amazed Anu. "Anu looked at him, and laughed at him." "Come now, Adapa," Anu said, "why did you not eat, why did you not drink?" To which Adapa responded, "Ea, my master, commanded me, ’you shall not eat, you shall not drink.’"

"When Anu heard this, wrath filled his heart." He dispatched an emissary, "one who knows the thoughts of the great Anunnaki," to discuss the matter with the lord Ea. The emissary.... repeated the events in Heaven word for word. The tablet then becomes too damaged and illegible, so that we do not know Ea’s explanations for his odd instructions (that were, obviously, intended to sustain his decision to give Adapa knowledge but not immortality).

"No matter how the discussion ended, Anu decided to send Adapa back to Earth, and since Adapa used the oil to anoint himself, Anu decreed that back in Eridu, Adapa’s destiny will be to start a line of priests who will be adept at curing diseases. On the way back,

Adapa, from the horizon of heaven
to the zenith of heaven cast a glance;
and he saw its awesomeness.

"The interesting question, what was the transportation by which Adapa had made the round-trip, seeing in the process the awesome expanse of the heavens, is answered by the ancient text only indirectly, when Anu wonders out loud why did Ea "make a Shem" for Adapa. This Akkadian word is usually translated "name." But as we have elaborated in The 12th Planet, the term (MU in Sumerian) obtained this meaning from the shape of the stones erected to "commemorate the name " of a king - a shape that emulated the pointed skychambers of the Anunnaki. What Anu wondered, then, was, Why did Ea provide a skyrocket for Adapa?

"Mesopotamian depictions show "Eaglemen" - Anunnaki astronauts in their dress uniforms - flanking and saluting a rocketlike Shem. Another depiction shows two such "Eaglemen" guarding the gateway of Anu (illustrating perhaps the gods Dumuzi and Gizzida of the Adapa tale). The gate’s lintel is decorated with the emblem of the winged Disc, the celestial symbol of Nibiru, which establishes where the gate was....

"....Tablets that cataloged literary works kept on shelves of the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh mention, in their undamaged portions, at least two "books" relating to Adapa’s knowledge....

"....One other book (i.e. a set of tablets) by Adapa that was listed on the shelves of the library of Nineveh was titled "Celestialship which to the Sage of Anu, Adapa [was given]." The Legend of Adapa texts repeatedly refer to the fact that Adapa was shown "the ways of heaven," enabling him to travel from Earth to the heavenly abode of Anu. The implication that Adapa was shown a celestial route map ought to be taken as based on fact, for - incredibly - at least one such route map has been found. It is depicted on a clay disc, undoubtedly a copy of an earlier artifact, that was also discovered in the ruins of the royal library of Nineveh and that is now kept in the British Museum in London. Divided into eight segments, it depicted (as evident from the undamaged portions), precise geometric shapes (some, such as an ellipse, unknown from other ancient artifacts), arrows, and accompanying notations in Akkadian that referred to various planets, stars, and constellations. Of particular interest is an almost-intact segment whose notations.... of space flight instructions identify it as the Route of Enlil from a mountainous planet (Nibiru) to Earth. Beyond Earth’s skies (the "Way of Enlil") lie four celestial bodies (which other texts identify as Sun, Moon, Mercury, and Venus). In between, the flight passes by seven planets.

"....Significant, too, though in other respects, is the fact that the route passes between the planets named in Sumerian DIL.GAN (Jupiter) and APIN (Mars). Mesopotamian astronomical texts referred to Mars as the planet "where the right course is set," when a turn is made as the drawing on the segment indicates. In Genesis Revisited we have presented considerable ancient and modern evidence in support of a conclusion that an ancient space base had existed on Mars.

"The missing text or the damaged portions of Adapa Legend might have shed light on a puzzling aspect of the tale: If Ea foresaw all that would happen at the heavenly abode, what was the purpose of scheming to send Adapa aloft if, in the end, he was to be deprived of Eternal Life?

"Tales from post-Diluvial times (such as that of Gilgamesh) indicate that offspring of human and a god (or goddess) deemed themselves worthy of Immortality, and went to great lengths to join the gods to attain that. Was Adapa such a "demigod," and did he nag Ea to endow him with Immortality? The reference to Adapa as "offspring of Ea" is translated by some literally as "son of Ea," born to Enki by a human female. This would explain Ea’s scheme to pretend that Adapa’s wish is being granted, while in fact he maneuvered for the opposite result.

"In Sumerian times the "Sages of Eridu" were a class unto themselves, ancient savants of blessed memory. Their names and specialties were listed and recorded with great respect and reverence in countless texts.

"According to those sources, the sages of Eridu were seven in number.... The Assyrian text calls [Enoch] Utu-Abzu; Professor Borger concluded that he was the Assyrian "Enoch," because according to the biblical record, it was the seventh pre-Diluvial Patriarch, whom the Bible calls Enoch, who was taken by God to the heavenly abode.

"...."Enoch walked with the Elohim," and was taken aloft by Elohim." The Hebrew term, as we have shown, stood for DIN.GIR ["The Righteous Ones of the Rocketships"] in the Sumerian sources of Genesis. Thus it was the Anunnaki with whom Enoch "walked" and by whom he was taken aloft. This gloss, as well as scientific data that could come only from the Sumerian sexagesimal system of mathematics and the Sumerian calendar that had originated in Nippur, are clues to the ancient sources of compositions thanks to which we know much more about Enoch than the laconic biblical sentence.

".... According to the Book of Jubilees, Enoch spent his time by "writing down the condemnations and judgments of the world," on account of which "God brought the waters of the Flood upon all the land of Eden."

"Even greater detail is provided by the Pseudepigraphic Book of Enoch, in which the tale of Enoch is not part of the patriarchal tale but the principal object of a major work....

"....The Hebrew original of the Book of Enoch is lost, but had surely existed because fragments thereof, mixed in with an Aramaic dialect (Aramaic having become by then the language of common daily usage), have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Widely quoted and translated into Greek and Latin, it was considered as holy scripture by nearly all the writers of the New Testament. With all that, the composition has survived mainly owing to much later translations into Ethiopic (known as "1Enoch") and Slavonic ("2 Enoch," sometimes called The Book of the Secrets of Enoch).

"The Book of Enoch describes in detail not one but two celestial journeys....

"....The Bible states that Enoch "walked with the Elohim" well before he was taken aloft; the Book of Enoch enlarges on that pre-ascend period. It describes Enoch as a scribe with prophetic powers....

Mr. Sitchin describes Enoch’s ascents in several paragraphs, it is astounding, the encounter with other celestial beings, his visions and his realities, his return to Earth and his final ascent:

"The second and final ascent of Enoch to Heaven, the scribe of the Book of Enoch stated at the book’s conclusion, took place exactly on the day and hour he was born, at age 365. [Mr. Sitchin explains at length the significance of this number as well].

"Was this tale of Enoch’s heavenly ascent(s) the equivalent of, or inspired by, the Sumerian tale of Adapa?

"Certain details that are included in both tales point in that direction. Two angels, paralleling the gods Dumuzi and Gizzida in the Adapa legend, bring the Earthling "before the face of the Lord." The visitor’s garments are changed from earthly ones to divine ones. He is anointed. And finally, he is given great knowledge that he writes down in "books." In both instances, the visitor writes what is being dictated to him. These details appear within a framework that without doubt establishes the Sumerian origins of the Enoch "legend."

"We have already pointed out that by ascribing Enoch’s Divine Encounters to the "Elohim," the biblical narrative divulged its Sumerian source. [Numerology and Planet system are again explained in the book].

"....(It is noteworthy that in Jewish medieval mysticism known as the Kaballah, the abode of God the Almighty is in the tenth Sefira, a "brilliance" or heavenly place, a Tenth Heaven. The Sefirot (plural) were usually depicted as concentric circles, often superimposed on the figure of Kadmon ("The Ancient One") the center of which is called Yesod ("Foundation"), the tenth Ketter ("Crown" of God the Most High). Beyond it stretches the Ein Soff - infinity, infinite space.)

"These are all definite links to the Sumerian sources. But whether it was the tale of Adapa that is reflected in the Enoch record is uncertain, for one can find more similarities between Enoch and a second pre-Diluvial Sumerian individual, EN.ME.DUR.ANNA ("Master of the Divine Tablets of the Heavenly Bond"), also known as EN.ME.DUR.AN.KI ("Master of the Divine Tablets of the Bond Heaven-Earth").

"....Enmeduranki was taken by two divine chaperons heavenward, to be taught a variety of sciences. Whereas in the case of Adapa the possibility (mentioned above) that he was a seventh (sage) is not absolute (some Mesopotamian sources list him as the first of Eridu’s seven sages), the seventh position of Enmeduranki is certain; hence the scholarly opinion that it was he who was the Sumerian equivalent of the biblical Enoch. He came from Sippar, where in pre-Diluvial times the Spaceport of the Anunnaki was located, with Utu ("Shamash" in later times), a grandson of Enlil, as its commander.

"....The text detailing the ascent and training of Enmeduranki was pieced together from fragments of tablets, mostly from the royal library in Nineveh, then collated and published in an edited version by W.G. Lambert ("Enmeduranki and Related Material" in the Journal of Cuneiform Studies). The basic source is the record of pre-Diluvial events inscribed on clay tablets by a Babylonian king in support of his claim to the throne because he was a "distant scion of kingship, seed preserved from before the Flood, offspring of Enmeduranki who ruled in Sippar....:

Enmeduranki was a prince in sippar,
beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
Shamash in the Bright Temple
appointed him as priest.
Shamash and Adad [took him]
to the assembly [of the gods].

"....Having been taught the "secrets of Heaven and Earth," specifically including medicine and mathematics, Enmeduranki was returned to Sippar, with instructions to reveal to the populace his Divine Encounter and to make the knowledge available to Humankind by passing the secrets from one priestly generation to another, father to son....

"....According to this rendition of the heavenly ascent of Enmeduranki, his abode was in Sippar (the post-Diluvial "cult center" of Shamash), and it is there that he used the Divine Tablets to teach secret knowledge to his successor priests. This detail forges a link with the events of the Deluge, because according to Mesopotamian sources as also reported by Berossus.... the tablets containing the knowledge revealed to Mankind by the Anunnaki before the Deluge were buried for safekeeping in Sippar.

"In fact, the two tales - of the Sumerian Enmeduranki and of the biblical Enoch - contain even stronger links than that one to the Deluge. For, as we shall examine the story-behind-the-story, we shall come upon a sequence of events whose principal motivation was Divine Sex and whose culmination was a deliberate plan to eradicate Mankind.