by Wallace Thornhill
By attending to all of the most obvious features seen on the Sun; the photospheric granules, spicules, sunspots, chromosphere and corona, Juergens produced a detailed engineer's model of an electrically powered Sun that seemed to account logically and simply for all the phenomena.
The fixed belief that
stars are isolated bodies in space, demanding internal thermonuclear
energy to power them for billions of years, has resulted in untold
waste in astrophysics and nuclear energy research.
He said he could "find no disparities" in the model, which is unusual. Looking at the night sky, the process had to be simple and well-controlled. Otherwise the sky would look like the fourth of July.
So was born the SAFIRE Project (Stellar Atmospheric Function in Regulation Experiment):
As the name might suggest, it was designed to mimic the critical features of the Sun and its plasma environment in a continuous and easily controlled way.
Meanwhile the thermonuclear Sun model remains theoretical and unpredictive.
Attempts to produce
fusion energy like the Sun on Earth have got nowhere. The field of
fusion energy is chronically unstable and unproductive.
The SAFIRE team did a number of high-energy experiments, which met predictions such as transmutation of elements and extremely high energy levels, but also showed the potential for remediation of radioactive waste.
The Sun's energy is produced right before our eyes by electrical energy from the galaxy producing benign nuclear energy in the Sun's atmosphere.
So the recent discovery by ESA's Cluster mission of highly ionized iron atoms in the solar wind is not a surprise. 2
It adheres to the principles of physics and aims at simplification, in stark distinction to the explosion of imaginary particles and unexplained forces of the last century.
For example, the Electric Universe has a single force operating in the universe - the electric force.
All matter in the universe is connected by the electric force.
And since the electric force can be either attractive or repulsive, there is a balance possible between the force of cohesion and the force that keeps things apart.
The electric force is instantaneous, which is essential for coherence and stability of orbital systems on all scales.
It could begin to be taught in primary school.
Its history is inspiring. In the mid-1800s to early-1900s Kristian Birkeland was performing his electrical 'little Earth,' or Terrella, experiments in Norway, and Gauss and Weber were discovering the electrical structure of matter.
Weber predicted the orbital structure of the atom, based on his generalized electrodynamic law, about 40 years before J. J. Thomson discovered the electron and produced his 'plum pudding' model of the atom.
More than a century later, physicists have
still not learned the lesson and have a structureless 'plum pudding'
model of subatomic particles, filled with fanciful quarks that "wink
in to and out of existence!"
So, when astrophysicists turn to particle physicists to solve their intractable problems and particle physicists use it as an excuse for squandering billions of dollars on nonsensical particle experiments, few will admit that both fields are in crisis. It truly is the blind leading the blind.
Their mysteries are of
their own making.
Meanwhile, it served the egos of his followers to consecrate his work and treat dissent as blasphemy. Future historians of science will judge the last century harshly.
School children in future will know the answer to the basic question,
They will tell you that gravity itself is a type of electric force. It is an Electric Universe...
We are led to believe that we are isolated by the immensity of time and space on an atom of rock, circling a dust mote of a star. We got here by a miraculous creation ex nihilo event, followed by a random process of explosions, collisions and accretions (and this in an expanding universe). We are told that life itself is the result of a meaningless sequence of random events.
None of these processes are understood. This hasn't stopped the mathematicians.
Until there is a simple,
testable theory that can explain the natural spiral shape of
galaxies without invoking unseen matter or strange forces,
scientists cannot claim they understand gravity or that gravity
rules the universe.
This, perhaps, is the
greatest hurdle - to discard our training and prejudices and
approach the problem with a beginner's mind.
This paper outlines the conceptual possibilities as simply as possible under a number of headings in an attempt to correct our seriously distorted view of the universe.
Here we are not talking about atoms. We must go down one more level and propose that all subatomic particles, particularly the electron and proton, are orbital systems (like atoms) of smaller electric charges of opposite polarity that sum to the charge on that particle.
This orbital model was an
indispensible insight of the great German physicist
Wilhelm Weber in
the middle of the 19th century.
There must be orbital motion of charges within the electron to generate its magnetic dipole. The transfer of electrical energy between the charges in their orbits must be resonant and instantaneous to conserve energy and for the electron to be a stable particle.
Therefore Wilhelm Weber's presently dismissed electrodynamic law in fact applies.
The same argument applies to its positively charged partner, the proton. This sub-subatomic model satisfies Einstein's view that there must be some lower level of structure in matter to cause resonant quantum effects.
Moreover Weber's law,
being instantaneous, removes the 'spookiness' of the connection seen
between widely separated (so-called 'entangled') particles that
Einstein complained about.
Simply stated in a review 4 of the seminal work of Prof. André Assis' Relational Mechanics: 5
This should have been sufficient to discard Einstein's relativity!
His principle of the equivalence of his 'inertial frames of reference' has the effect of making arbitrary moving observers the centers of their own individual universes, which is nonsense. To do physics requires absolute standards of measurement, not relative standards.
If further argument were necessary, Einstein went on in his general relativity to discard the indispensable force of gravity! (more on this below).
In 1992 Prof. André Assis of the State University of Campinas in Brazil published a paper showing how the works of the great experimentalists of the 19th century, particularly Wilhelm Weber, could explain magnetism, gravity and their magnitudes in terms of charge neutral electric dipole interactions!
Assis noted that the model could also apply to the electron and proton since they exhibit inertia.
The orders of magnitude
of the forces match observations, which is a remarkable fact.
Like gravity as we experience it, the London force is only attractive because the electric dipoles can rotate into alignment like bar magnets on a glass tabletop.
This induced-dipole to
induced-dipole electrical attraction is the force that permits
matter to condense into liquids and solids.
The orbital distortion (see diagram below) is then due simply to the offset of the heavy nucleus inside each atom of a body toward the center of mass of that body. Gravity is produced by the sum of the radially aligned subatomic electric dipoles formed by all the electrons and protons within a celestial body.
The gravitational force depends only on mass because it is a subatomic phenomenon.
And as a subatomic phenomenon, gravity cannot be shielded electrically. So, the inertia of a body is due to its gravitational interaction with all other bodies in the universe.
The inertial mass is equivalent to the gravitational mass.
'G' also depends upon stored electrical energy, or charge distribution, within the gravitationally induced spherical electric (or surface charge) of a celestial body.
For example, comet nuclei
are observed to be rocky with sharply featured geology and no
surface ice - dismissing the dirty snowball model.
Changes in their surface charge gives rise to rotational disturbances and so-called "non-gravitational" acceleration. Moving remotely in the electric field of the Sun, comets have plenty of time to charge more negatively.
As they accelerate in the inner solar system toward the Sun the rapidly increasing electric stress on the comet causes a plasma discharge - including a huge plasma sheath (coma) and well-collimated cold cathode discharge jets.
Charge exchange with the solar wind changes the mass and moment of inertia of the comet causing unexplained gravitational accelerations and rotational anomalies. Mineral particles and atoms, including oxygen, are sputtered electrically from the surface.
There is no "non-gravitational" force on the nucleus.
The oxygen atoms combine with protons from the solar wind to give the misleading OH signatures attributed conventionally to water ice from the comet nucleus. 8
The repulsive gravitational force on the Earth from the rest of the universe is sufficient to accelerate the 6 x 1024 kilogram Earth by 60 km/sec every 6 months as it circles the repulsing Sun.
Gravity is a real force.
Repulsive Gravitational Force
The father of plasma cosmology, Hannes Alfvén, considered gravitational,
That is why gravity applies only inside the Sun's plasma heliosheath, or 'heliosphere,' which shields us from the local galactic electromagnetic environment.
It does not work for
The notion of 'pushing gravity' has been around since Isaac Newton but has struggled to find a sensible physical explanation - until now, when gravity is finally understood.
Arp showed the visible universe is much smaller than cosmologists think because he found physical associations between high-redshift quasars and low-redshift active galaxies.
In one fine example, the quasar is in front of the galaxy! 10
So redshift is largely an intrinsic effect in the young quasar rather than a Doppler effect from recession at high velocity.
Edwin Hubble was right to believe the expanding universe hypothesis implausible. 11
Quasars are not isolated objects near the edge of the visible universe. They are ejected from the cores of active galaxies.
Their redshift decreases and brightness increases with distance from their parent. High redshift and faintness are a measure of the youthfulness of a quasar and not its distance from us. 12
What we see is Hubble's
"small, finite universe"... The big bang never happened...!
The nonsense of quantum
phenomena only occurring at the atomic scale is apparent here.
As the neutrons decay into electrons and protons they begin to slow in the galactic magnetic field and form condensed matter with gravitational polarization and mass. As Arp observed, the quasar increases in mass and slows down.
The light electrons are slowed more than the protons by the parent galaxy's magnetic field, so the quasar begins life electron-deficient.
The electrical polarization within the quasar steadily increases with the arrival of electrons from the galactic jet 'umbilical cord' and their recombination with protons to form hydrogen atoms.
As the energy state (electrical polarization) of the electrons and protons in the quasar atoms increases, the energies (masses) of one or the other will reach a quantum threshold (like an atom) and jump to a new resonant state.
This will cause the emitted spectrum of the atoms to increase in frequency - that is, the redshift to decrease - in a quantum transition.
Supernovae Type 1a cannot be used as 'standard candles' because their intrinsic luminosity is dependent upon the power available from their host galaxy.
The higher the redshift, the lower the power and luminosity, which has given rise to the erroneous theory of an accelerating expansion of the universe and the introduction of another ad hoc 'fix' - mysterious 'dark energy.'
The visible universe is not expanding.
Arp found it to be relatively static and balanced, which is why he reasoned that gravity is cosmically a repulsive force.
It is such filaments
between galaxies that produce the observed cosmic web. Gravity
cannot do that.
Inside the Milky Way,
In addition, secondary bodies are formed by electrical expulsion from stars undergoing sudden electrical stress in which the only recourse to restore equilibrium is to expel bulk charged matter in a nova or flaring event.
That is generally the origin of close orbiting 'hot Jupiters,' and the many satellites of more distant gas giant planets in the process of capture of a gas giant by a star.
For example, the ephemeral icy rings of Saturn signify Saturn's recent electrical capture by the Sun, causing an expulsion event from the planet. This gains profound importance when it was subsequently found that the water on Earth matches that found at Saturn! 16
The mystery of the origin
of Earth's abundance of water may finally be solved.
Accreted matter spirals in toward the axis of the twin filaments to form a single rotating body, or a pair of close-orbiting bodies.
It has been found that protostars and young stars are more likely to be found in binary pairs inside "elongated core structures" strung at intervals along a cosmic Birkeland current channel inside a molecular cloud.
Similarly, interplanetary Birkeland current "thunderbolts" during close encounters may form smaller binaries in dusty plasma that may fuse together to form the classic dumb-bell shape, seen in many comets and asteroids.
And the puzzling edge-on 'boxy/peanut' shaped central bulge of some spiral galaxies may be simply explained using this model.
Gravitational accretion theory doesn't work.
The electromagnetic accretion process known as Marklund convection 18 separates the elements by increasing ionization potential, radially from the current channel axis.
The result is the heavier elements are coolest and found closest to the axis while helium and hydrogen form the outermost atmosphere.
The hypothetical extreme conditions for thermonuclear energy generation in the core of a star are not fulfilled. Planets are formed in the same process. The distinction is simply due to a body's mass and response to the ambient plasma electrical environment.
The stars and planets
grow in mass and are eventually left behind as their electrical
umbilical cord snakes about. 19
The electric charge on the surface of a celestial body will contribute to the strength of the dipole field within the body and so affect its gravitational mass.
For example, the existence on Earth of megafauna and megaflora in the past signals that the Earth has had a dramatic change in its electrical environment in the geologically recent past.
It has been calculated on the basis of the cross-sectional strength of bone and muscle that for those giants to exist and be fleet-footed the Earth's former gravity must have been as low as a third or a quarter of today's strength. 21
Each planet in the solar
system has its own history. It is obviously not a graded system
formed by primordial accretion.
We are intimately
connected as part of the Earth.
A shell model of the Earth makes simple sense of deep earthquake data. 22
The standard model of the Earth's interior requires ad hoc inner and outer cores with special properties in a complicated attempt to explain seismic anomalies.
Meanwhile, it has been found that the so called 'core-mantle boundary' is much rougher than the Earth's surface. This is to be expected since matter will fall upwards to the inner surface during the Earth's formation.
And there are no internal
Significantly, researchers recently found,
The neutron and the
Its decay must have a cause and seems to involve an interaction with a neutrino.
But we have no evidence
that neutrons exist in the nucleus. There seems no binding energy
within nuclei that might provide the known needed binding energy of
So neutrons cannot exist in the nuclei of atoms. Atomic nuclei are composed of protons held together by a sufficient number of electrons to occupy a geometric structure where the repulsive force between protons is offset by the proximity of the electrons between them such that the resultant force is attractive.
The nucleus is made up of protons and shared electrons. It is a 'structured atom model' that is being investigated and shows great promise in understanding details of elemental isotopes, their stability and their chemistry. 24
There is no such object as a neutron star.
Plasma cosmologists have explained the detailed signal from pulsing neutron stars in terms of electrical activity in a normal stellar magnetosphere. 25
Yet this simple equation
is telling us some profound truths that are fundamental for
cosmology. They are - energy, mass and the speed of light are all
attributes of matter.
Maxwell's ether must be reinstated.
The universe has a
material medium, essential for the transmission of light. The
'perfect vacuum' doesn't exist. And photons don't exist because
there can be no particle with zero mass.
'Energy' remains undefined in physics because of the confusion.
The Electric Universe defines 'energy' as,
Uncharged subatomic particles are included since they are composites of equal numbers of oppositely charged sub-particles.
Matter cannot be annihilated.
The term 'antimatter' is misleading and incorrect. The merging of a particle and its 'anti-particle' must result in the release of stored electromagnetic energy and the coalescence of the combined constituent sub-particles to form a collapsed, stable particle of vanishing internal energy, or mass.
Such particles are called neutrinos.
The process can be reversed if a neutrino receives sufficient resonant electromagnetic energy that it re-forms a particle and its mirror image particle.
On this topic Dr. Halton Arp writes:
Empty space is not empty. It is an æther of neutrinos.
They are the sources of matter in the universe, awaiting the burst of gamma rays to open them to form the stuff of atoms. Being composed of orbiting charged sub-particles, neutrinos form the neutral dielectric 'æther' required by Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.
It is the medium through which the electric force is transferred directly via chains of electric dipoles.
Einstein's special theory of relativity discarded the medium (ether) required by James Clerk Maxwell for the transmission of light. Einstein was confirmed in his view by the Michelson-Morley experiment.
However, that experiment showed a residual, which can be explained by the ether being 'dragged' along by the rotating Earth.
This was later confirmed by far more rigorous repeats of the experiment by Dayton Miller. The Dayton Miller story makes interesting reading. If it weren't for the extraordinary power of self-delusion, commonsense would tell us that a wave can't exist in nothing.
Maxwell was right, light
is a transverse electromagnetic wave moving through a dielectric
medium, the ether.
The speed of light in a vacuum may be seen as related to the moment of inertia of the neutrino in response to an alternating transverse electric force.
The residual found in the Michelson-Morley experiments shows that the Earth and all ponderable bodies 'drag' an ether 'atmosphere' along with them.
The bending of starlight near the Sun is the effect expected of an extensive neutrino atmosphere held to the Sun by gravity. Neutrinos do, after all, have some mass.
Light will be slowed in
the denser medium - causing normal refraction or bending of light.
Light speed may seem fast on our puny scale, but on a cosmic scale it is glacial. Imposing such a speed limit renders the universe totally incoherent. Weber's electrodynamics, which encompasses gravity, is instantaneous.
There would be no stable
atoms, planetary systems or galaxies if this were not so.
The Earth responds to the gravitational pull of the Sun where it is at the moment, not where the Sun was 8 minutes ago.
Otherwise, the Earth and all other planets in the solar system would experience a torque and be slung into deep space within a few thousand years.
With all matter in the universe connected in real time through the electric force of gravity, time is universal. There can be no time distortion or time travel - something that common sense always told us.
However, atomic clocks - our most accurate timepieces - are subject to shifts in resonant states based upon their energy.
And with a real definition of energy we can see that the atomic clocks orbiting above the Earth will 'tick' at a different rate to those on the ground. Forget Einstein...!
All the engineers do for the Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) is to set their clocks on the ground to count a different number of 'ticks' in orbit so they keep time with those on the ground.
Modern biology has no idea how living systems maintain coherent control throughout a body. Here we enter the field occupied by scientists like biologist Rupert Sheldrake, with his theory of morphic resonance; and the cellular biologist Bruce Lipton, with his 'intelligence' of the living cell residing in the receptors on the outer cell wall.
We have a real science model to pursue the mind-body connection, the 'subtle energy' of living systems, memory and consciousness.
The many taboo subjects for today's micro-specialists may be opened up for investigation at last. This model argues for a coherent, interconnected, conscious universe.
The arts, history and sciences are combined in a phenomenal and awe-inspiring panorama of the recent history of the Earth and humanity. Perhaps only the few humans who have witnessed Earth from space have felt the inspiration that such a perspective offers.
On Christmas Eve 1968 the Apollo 8 spacecraft with astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders entered lunar orbit.
At the beginning of the fourth orbit, their spacecraft was emerging from the far side of the moon when "Earthrise," one of the most influential images in history, was taken.
The image affected Anders who said later,
He gave up his religious beliefs because he could not imagine a judgemental deity up there,
This comment by Anders emphasizes that we must first understand ourselves before we can understand the universe.
And for our long-term survival we must understand the origin of our existential fear, which is at the heart of our irrational, destructive behavior toward each other and the planet.
A desperate need for order seems to drive modern big bang cosmology, which has returned to Pythagorean and Platonic mysticism and has nothing useful or even sensible to offer us.
It seems significant that real science, 28 the search for truth, was disrupted in the catharsis following the end of the insane First World War. The world was keen to escape the reality of the re-enacted apocalypse.
Lately, I have discovered that the great European scientists of the 19th century, who were experimenting with electricity and magnetism, were close to a real, coherent understanding of gravity, magnetism, light, the atom, and the Electric Universe.
Sadly, we have wasted a
century or more...
Why is there global accord about the planetary gods?
How can these dramatic stories about tiny moving specks of light in the night sky have come about?
Such foundational questions never occur to today's
specialists who have been disciplined to believe in Newton's
clockwork solar system where 'bad things' only happened in an
unfathomably remote past.
They provide no scientific answers but rather pose fundamental questions facing humanity. What is the origin of the Chicken Little fascination with the end of days; of doomsday?
In my lifetime I have seen fear of a nuclear winter; of comet impact; of an ice age; and now it is global warming and a pandemic. What was the origin of the divisive human obsession with heavenly gods; the old warring planetary gods and their apocalyptic weapon - the thunderbolt?
I was in high school when I found an answer.
In 1950 the textbook publisher, The Macmillan Company, released a best-selling book by Immanuel Velikovsky titled Worlds in Collision. It inspired me with a well-documented, multi-disciplinary forensic investigation of global references to planetary gods and their interactions.
The archetypes and exploits of each planet are the same the world over.
They must have been witnessed as the Earth rotated beneath some celestial spectacle. But it seems we never learn from past mistakes.
Worlds in Collision suffered the modern equivalent of a medieval book burning at the hands of astronomer priests who threatened a boycott of Macmillan's textbook business.
The company was forced to transfer the rights of their best-seller to Doubleday.
The noted astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle wrote:
Of Velikovsky, Hoyle wrote:
This belief in a primordial Newtonian clockwork solar system and dismissal of contrary evidence is unscientific but characteristic of mathematical theorists.
But the laws of physics are man-made and subject to revision, particularly in the case of the force of gravity, which in this 21st century still has no physical explanation...
Nonetheless, Hoyle was moved to ask:
Velikovsky "in a form that was scientifically unacceptable" had confirmed Hoyle's suspicion. 31
He was a polymath and psychoanalyst - a broadly educated classical scientist, unlike specialists of the last century. In his view, mankind demonstrates a clear desire not to know that the solar system has a recent catastrophic history.
All catastrophes are pushed into an unimaginably remote past, so the uniformitarian history of the Earth reads like a reassuring,
Meanwhile we have developed weapons capable of re-enacting the destruction from heaven wrought by the interplanetary thunderbolts and placed those weapons in the hands of amnesiacs, unaware of the post traumatic subconscious urge to repeat the past.
Velikovsky warned that,
Clearly, Velikovsky's over-dramatic book title Worlds in Collision was misleading because what he, and the mytho-historians who followed him, 32 described were close electrical encounters of the Earth with other planets.
Of course, we now read that the Moon was formed in far off times by collision of the early Earth with a Mars-sized body. Such stories are a result of the empty toolbox of astrophysicists. They only have explosions and collisions to work with.
There is no specialist on Earth who understands cosmology as the "Queen of the sciences" for the simple reason that it requires coherence across all disciplinary boundaries.
No university on Earth, with their focus on micro-specialization, provides that. Natural philosophy has been pronounced dead by Stephen Hawking.
And as Jacques Barzun wrote,
At university in the early 60s, I think I was the only science undergraduate haunting the Anthropology section of the university library.
Reading the creation myths of many diverse cultures convinced me that Velikovsky had made a case that must be answered. The Electric Universe cosmology is the result of a lifetime's independent research shared with similarly inspired scholars from the arts, engineering and sciences.
Because it includes human evidence of the sky stretching back into prehistory, it provides a surprisingly detailed big picture of the recent history of the solar system and our experiences of a series of dramatic interplanetary events.
As a result, the Electric Universe is,
And in 2019 a multi-million-dollar independent experiment to audit the electrical nature of stars was successfully completed. 35 It will revolutionize the sciences.
The Electric Universe is a scientific and cultural paradigm leap that must happen if we are to have a future on this blue jewel of a planet...