by Fred H. Thaheld
Over a period of several decades a
concerted effort has been made to determine whether intelligent life
exists outside of our solar system, known as the Search for
Extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI.
This has been based primarily
upon attempting to intercept possible radio transmissions at
different frequencies with arrays of radio telescopes. In addition, astro physical observations have also been undertaken to see if
other worlds or solar systems exist with similar conditions such as
ours which might be conducive to life.
And, numerous papers have been written
exploring different possibilities for the existence of life or why
we have not observed it as of yet, since none of these approaches
have been successful. It may now be possible to explore this issue
from another standpoint.
Recent theoretical and experimental results
in the field of biophysics appear to indicate the possibility of
quantum entanglement and non-locality at the biological level,
between spatially separated pairs of human subjects and also between
basins containing neurons derived from human neural stem cells. If
this research continues to be upheld in a more replicable fashion,
this could have very important implications in the area of
controllable superluminal communication.
Experiments are proposed in an attempt
to address the issue of whether controllable superluminal
communication is possible and, if it is, to utilize it in an attempt
to determine if extraterrestrial intelligence really exists, within
the framework of astrobiological non-locality.
The only way of discovering the
limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into
Arthur C. Clarke
A research program has been going on for over 4 decades known as
SETI, which consists mainly of monitoring selected sections of the
sky with radio telescopes to see if one can pick up some type of
narrow-bandwidth radio signal from space from another intelligent
life source (Drake, Sobel, 1991; Zuckerman, Hart, 1995; Crawford,
So far, despite massive worldwide
distributed computer analysis, not a single signal has turned out to
mean anything. The problem is that these signals can only move at
the speed of light, which drastically reduces the range within which
one can conduct a search, to just a few light years, as compared to
a universe with an age of ~ 14 Gyr.
And, due to the vast distances
involved, any such electromagnetic signal would probably have become
too weak long ago to detect on earth or, has become lost in the
The other major problem is that we would
only be searching during a very limited period of time, known as the
electromagnetic era for any advanced civilization, which probably
encompasses a very short time period before they move on to more
The “communication window” (Cirkovic,
2003) or “window of opportunity” then, for this type of search, is
extremely limited as compared to the age of the universe and, when
compared to other earth-like planets in the Galactic habitable zone
alone, which are from 1.8 - 3 Gyr older than earth, with their
implications for super-civilizations.
If we were to pick up such a signal, it would have had to come from
many light years away, meaning that the intelligent life which sent
it has either disappeared or, more likely, has advanced
technologically in the interim beyond the electromagnetic stage, to
much more exotic communication techniques. If we attempt to respond,
our signal would not reach them for a similar amount of time (if
ever), making for a very cumbersome communication process where most
of the participants would have long since expired.
Another problem is that if an advanced civilization were to encode
and compress its electromagnetic communications, whether of a TV or
radio signal nature, this would make these signals indistinguishable
from the thermal radiation of the stars, and thus impossible to
detect because it would seem like part of the universe’s background
noise (Lachmann et al, 2004). And, most likely the bulk of these
advanced civilizations would have long ago progressed beyond the
electromagnetic stage anyway.
A new scanning technique known as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA)
will shortly be brought on line, able to probe further towards other
possible earth-type civilizations (Penny, 2004). There is also the
possibility of trying to detect macro-engineering projects over
interstellar distances, which may prove to be more promising than
searches for directed, intentional radio or microwave emissions (Cirkovic,
Finally, with all the research that has been done to date regarding
SETI, one has to raise the same question that Fermi did, “Where are
they”? (Gato-Rivera, 2005). The scarcity of intelligent life in our
Galaxy may have been due to gamma ray bursts which were lethal to
land based life during the same period of evolution - 10 years ago (Annis,
1999). However, this same reasoning would be difficult to apply to
all the other billions of Galaxies in the universe.
Additional considerations I first
started getting gradually interested in the SETI issue while doing
some research for several different papers in the area of
biophysics, and coming across early experiments which appeared to
indicate brain wave correlations between pairs of human subjects
(Duane, Behrendt, 1965; Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al, 1994), in
addition to a provocative paper exploring the possibility of an
interface between biology and quantum non-locality (Josephson, Pallikari-Viras, 1991).
Recent limited experiments of an
increasingly sophisticated nature, continue to show the existence of
these unusual brain wave correlations or autocorrelations between
pairs of separated human subjects (Standish et al, 2004; Wackermann
et al, 2003). Most of these were instances where one of the pair was
subjected to some type of stimulus, such as patterned
photo-stimulation, which results in the repeated appearance of a
distinctive visual evoked potential (VEP) in the stimulated
subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) at >8 uV.
Correlated brain waves or anomalous
events not possessing any wave-form similarity, appeared
simultaneously in the non-stimulated subject’s EEG at <2 uV, which
event (even at the reduced u.V levels) to say the least, is very
What lends further credibility to this research is
that many of these subjects were in Faraday chambers, which screen
out most of the possible electromagnetic influences or interferences
of interest, in addition to any neural, acoustical, electrolytic or
Some of these experiments have also been
conducted while the non-stimulated subject was undergoing functional
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), with similar results (Standish et
al, 2003). The other unusual thing was that these experiments have
been performed on several different continents, with implications
for my proposal to be explored later. This appears to imply quantum
entanglement and non-locality at the biological level.
In addition, this same correlation effect has also been observed in
a much more replicable fashion at the mV level between two separated
and completely shielded 2 cm dia basins, containing neurons derived
from human neural stem cells (Pizzi et al, 2004a; 2004b; Thaheld,
2000). I.e., these neurons represent two parts of a common human DNA
culture, monitored by EEG. Laser stimulation of one neuronal basin
containing neurons grown on a multi-electrode array (ME A), not only
caused an electrical response or action potentials from these
neurons but, resulted in the appearance of simultaneous correlated
electrical events at a high Hz rate in the second non-stimulated
neuronal basin, while both basins were inside Faraday cages.
Their initial experiments with a 670 nm
laser and just one ME A, showed very high values of
cross-correlation or autocorrelation and frequency coherence during
the series of laser impulses, between the laser and this single
stimulated basin (Pizzi et al, 2006).
The important thing here is that this
repeated laser stimulation and the resulting simultaneous electrical
responses from both the stimulated and non-stimulated basins,
implies that quantum entanglement can be maintained in biological
systems, and resists or uses de-coherence in a constructive rather
than the usual destructive fashion, thereby maintaining biological
entanglement laser stimulus cycle after cycle (Matsuno, 1999; 2006;
Thaheld, 2003; 2005a).
analysis and basic assumptions
I became further interested in the SETI
problem while exploring a new approach to the measurement problem (Thaheld,
After coming to the conclusion that wave function
collapse might take place in a natural fashion in the rhodopsin
molecule in the retina, in an objective biophysical manner (a
position previously taken by Shimony, 1998), it then occurred to me
that if this were true, then Everett’s ‘many worlds’ or ‘many minds’
theory (Everett, 1954), which he had proposed as an alternate
explanation in lieu of wave function collapse, had to be incorrect.
The next logical step was to apply the
‘many minds’ concept to ongoing SETI research but, within a possible
controllable superluminal communication (CSC) framework (ThaneId,
In order to set the stage for the following proposal, it is
necessary to make some basic assumptions and, to briefly recap some
of the prior biophysical theory and research upon which this
approach is based.
First, I assume that extraterrestrial intelligence does exist, just
like the present practitioners who have been attempting to detect
radio waves for several decades. And, that it consists of the same
basic components necessary for life and replication as we do, as
regards DNA and RNA, having arisen from the same universally
available primordial constituents that were responsible for the
appearance of life on our planet.
Second, that most of this extraterrestrial intelligence is superior
to us (probably by vast levels) or otherwise it will not be capable
of sending, receiving and interpreting the type of non-local
information transmission being proposed in this theory.
A whole host
of other life forms inferior to us in varying degrees and in
different stages of the evolutionary cycle, must also exist
throughout the universe, capable of unknowingly and unconsciously
sending out random non-local signals but, probably not in a
signal-recognizable fashion and, in more of a chaotic nature.
Third, that there must be some type of action potential involved in
this process and, that without its presence, there is probably not
going to be a possibility to achieve the CSC being proposed. By way
of explanation, an action potential is a result of a neuron firing,
going from ‘off to ‘on’ in a rapid fashion as usually measured in ms
and, with a large swing in voltage amplitude from a resting level of
~ -70 mV to ~ +10 mV during the firing process.
I have previously touched upon the
importance of the action potential and the role it must play with
regards to biological entanglement and non-locality (Thaheld,
2005a), and also more recently with regards to CSC (Thaheld, 2006c).
That in effect, when a neuron fires, one gets both a classical and
non-local output or signal and, that it is this non-local signal or
information, that can be received by another neuron or neurons at
any distance in the universe, and converted back into a classical
signal, capable of being deciphered or read.
This type of non-local information does
not conflict with special relativity. This could also be considered
to fall into the category of the ‘reverse direction’ problem, which
I attempted to deal with in a prior paper (Thaheld, 2003). I.e., we
know that neural events can initiate or cause mental events so, it
must also be possible for the ‘reverse’ to happen, that mental
events can initiate or cause neural events, which is important in
Fourth, that if biological quantum entanglement and non-locality
exist at both the local and cosmological levels, this would then
make it possible to achieve CSC. Without CSC instantaneously over
any distance in the universe, the present proposal becomes
impossible to achieve.
Also, it is important that this biological
entanglement has to be capable of being maintained or regenerated,
no matter what distance is involved, either in opposition to
de-coherence or, feeding off of de-coherence in some constructive
manner, measurement after measurement (Matsuno, 2006; Thaheld,
This ability appears to have been
achieved in most of the experiments previously cited, not only in
the case of the human subjects but, especially in the case of the
basins containing the human neurons, due to the continuous Hz
stimulation by the laser over varying periods of time. This would
not have been possible if entanglement had been broken.
Fifth, that we are constantly being bombarded by this presently
undetected type of superluminal communication, and have been for a
very long and unknown time. That the universe is awash in it, just
as it is with neutrinos, cosmic rays, the cosmic microwave
background, gravitational radiation and the entire electromagnetic
Superluminal signals are constantly
arriving from advanced and not so advanced civilizations, with
varying degrees of complexity, probably looking like a lot of noise
(one only has to look at an EEG record to see what just human brain
wave EEG noise looks like) and, that what we looking for is probably
within this ‘noise’. It will just require a special but, very simple
means of detection (which is already readily available), just like
the special equipment and techniques which is required in the search
for neutrinos, cosmic rays and the ongoing search for gravitational
The EEG data gathered will also have to
be run through a specially designed series of algorithms.
The most critical
element: The universality of the ingredients for life
The origin of life as a planetary phenomenon will probably resist
successful explanation as long as we lack an early record of its
evolution and additional examples (Gaidos, Selsis, 2006).
scenarios for the origin of important prebiotic molecules and their
polymers on the earth, involving atmospheric chemistry, meteorites,
deep-sea hot springs (Matsuno, 2006) and tidal flat sediments have
been developed. Terrestrial life may not have originated on the
earth or even on any planet. The smaller primitive bodies of
meteorites, in which carbon molecules and catalytic transition
metals were abundant, and in which hydrothermal circulation
persisted for millions of years, offer alternative environments for
the origin of life in our solar system (Gaidos, Selsis, 2006).
The building blocks of proteins, amino acids, are the essential
molecular components of living organisms on earth, and researchers
are confident that they exist in planetary systems throughout the
universe (Bernstein et al, 2002; Caro et al, 2002). This means that
all of the hospitable planets throughout the universe would have
probably been seeded with specific forms of amino acids, which are
molecules that normally come in mirror-image right- and left-handed
forms, and form the proteins used by life on earth (Bernstein et al,
2002; Caro et al, 2002).
All naturally occurring proteins in
organisms on earth use the left-handed forms, which raises the
question as to how and when this chirality came into play.
Meierhenrich (2005) feels that the right-handed molecular building
blocks of life, the amino acids, were preferentially destroyed by
circularly polarized light. That these amino acids were created in
interstellar space and came to the earth in the form of comets or
micro meteorites. He does not rule out that other solar systems may
harbor right-handed amino acids, if they have been subjected to the
other type of circularly polarized light.
Natural proteins are strings of 20 different amino acids which can
be made by simple chemical synthesis in water, while meteorites
containing more than 70 types of amino acids, have been bombarding
earth from its very beginning (Bernstein et al, 2002). This means
that biomolecules are universal, which raises the potential for the
emergence and evolution of life throughout the universe, which may
then be expected to possess many critical similar characteristics as
are found here on earth, with special emphasis on intelligence.
The success of this proposal hinges upon
certain critical similarities. Extraterrestrial beings would have
probably resembled us at the same stage in evolution, which would
not be the case now due to the passage of vast amounts of time,
which of course implies the evolution of many unusual design changes
of a vastly improved nature, especially as regards an advanced level
of intelligence with commensurate communication capabilities.
These proteins and amino acids play an essential role in the
creation of DNA and RNA.
DNA contains all of the genetic information
necessary to construct cells, to integrate them into an organism and
to maintain them (Brill, 1995).
RNA translates this information into
specific instructions for the assembly of proteins, transmits the
information outside the cell nucleus and helps to assemble them.
is found mainly in the nucleus of the cell.
RNA is found in the
cytoplasm of the cell but, is synthesized in the nucleus.
DNA contains the genetic codes to make
RNA, RNA then contains codes to make proteins.
Proteins are the
chemicals of life. The proteins and nucleotide sequence are slightly
different for each individual. The types of proteins and the length
of DNA are different for each species. But, we share with all other
people and all other forms of life the same set of amino acids, the
same nucleotides and the same genetic code.
Applicable theory and
The question of non-locality was first raised by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen
(EPR), who claimed that if quantum mechanics were a complete model
of reality, then non-local interactions between particles had to
exist (Einstein et al, 1935).
Bell later directly addressed this
problem of non-locality, and proposed an experiment to test for its
validity (Bell, 1964). An experiment was later performed that showed
that non-local influences do exist once these particles interact
and, that one can test the explicit quantum nature of systems via
the use of EPR non-locality (Aspect et al, 1982).
And, as per Feynman, since this
non-locality cannot be duplicated by a classical system, this
enables it to be used to test the quantum nature of systems
(Feynman, 1982). Of course, Einstein, Bell, Aspect and Feynman,
among many other physicists, always considered this issue of
non-locality to be applicable only to inanimate objects such as
particles and, never considered that this same process could be
applied to animate entities in the biological realm. Their reasoning
appears to have been incorrect as has been demonstrated by later
research as illustrated by the following.
Over 40 years ago the first experiment was performed which appeared
to reveal rather highly unusual and unexpected correlations between
the brain waves or EEGs recorded from pairs of spatially separated
identical or monozygotic twins (Duane, Behrendt, 1965; Thaheld,
The researchers had noted that the
nonscientific literature was replete with instances in which illness
or trauma in one of a pair of identical twins affects the other,
even when they are far apart. They decided to alter the brain wave
pattern of one twin and see if this would produce a similar response
in the brainwaves of the other twin. In this instance,
rhythm was utilized, which are brainwaves of from 8-13 Hz and <50 uV.
This alpha rhythm can be elicited when
the subject closes his eyes, stares at a uniform un-patterned
background or, when he sits in the dark with his eyes opened.
one of the twins was asked to close his eyes, it was noticed that
the alpha rhythm not only appeared in his EEG, but also in the EEG
of the other twin who had kept his eyes open. This is highly unusual
to see an alpha rhythm in this twin, as one normally expects to see
a beta rhythm consisting of 14-25 Hz brainwaves at <20 uV.
This effect was observed in only 2 out
of 15 pairs tested and, while the sample for statistical purposes is
admittedly low, one does not expect to see anything of this unusual
nature! And, if one keeps repeating this experiment with the same
results, it becomes as statistically significant as any physics
experiments performed with low efficiency detectors concerning the
Bell inequalities (Aspect et al, 1982).
A more detailed analysis of numerous EEG studies performed over 6
decades, reveals that a majority of identical twins have very
similar EEGs and mental habits, whether within or outside the normal
range (Thaheld, 2000; 2001; 2005a). This similarity of EEGs by
itself, should not be construed as evidence for quantum
entanglement, as phase coherence also occurs normally in the
classical world without entanglement.
Later studies continued to show correlations between the EEGs of
stimulated and non-stimulated subjects, leading up to a pioneering
study with a larger number of subjects (Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al,
1994), in which one of a pair was subjected to visual stimuli (light
flashes from a Grass photostimulator), while the other subject was
not being stimulated.
It was noted that some of the
non-stimulated subject’s brain wave forms, as reflected in their EEG
record, were simultaneously correlated with the stimulated subjects
VEP-elicited brain wave forms, which normally result from the visual
stimuli. The non-stimulated subject’s brain waves were not exact
replicas of the stimulated subject’s waveforms nor were they of the
Once again it is highly unusual for one
to see any correlated brain wave events from the non-stimulated
subject, since both subjects were in Faraday chambers, which
effectively screens out most of the electromagnetic waves of
interest, and any neural, acoustic or visual effects.
The problem which researchers in this field face is that although
the elicited VEP in the stimulated subject’s EEG carries a distinct
amplitude and frequency, it is in a very low micro voltage range to
begin with and, the micro voltage in the non-stimulated subject’s
EEG is not only several orders of magnitude lower but, his
wave-form, as regards to both frequency and amplitude, comes nowhere
near to being a copy of the original initiating VEP. That the
frequency signature is not retained in the VEP of the non-stimulated
subject represents a serious defect analogous to low detector
Later, more sophisticated experiments were conducted in which
patterned or checkerboard photo-stimulation was used to investigate
possible EEG correlations between human brains (Wackermann et al,
2003: Standish et al, 2004).
While the experimenters at the Univ. of
Freiburg have achieved a more robust replication of the
Grinberg-Zylberbaum research, they have noticed a similar problem,
in that while the averaged stimulated subject’s VEP peak amplitude
is >8 uV, the averaged non-stimulated subject’s correlated VEP is <2
uV, with no wave-form similarity between the initiating VEP and the
resulting correlated VEP of the non-stimulated subject (Wackermann
et al, 2003-See Fig. 1).
Their results indicate a high
co-incidence of variations or correlations of the brain electrical
activity in the non-stimulated subjects with brain electrical
responses of the stimulated subjects. They did not see any VEP-like
wave-forms in the averaged EEG of the non-stimulated subjects.
Experiments have also been performed where one of the pair was
undergoing a flickering checkerboard pattern stimulation, while the
non-stimulated subject was undergoing an fMRI (Standish et al,
Changes in fMRI brain activation (relating to blood
oxygenation) and EEG signals during the stimulus condition, were
observed in the non-stimulated subjects. Even with a very small
subject sample base (especially in the case of fMRI), these
experiments have continued to corroborate, with increasing
experimental and statistical sophistication, these unusual EEG and
fMRI correlations, which appear to have no classical explanation.
As has been previously mentioned, research has been ongoing for over
3 years at the University of Milan (Pizzi et al, 2004a; 2004b; 2006;
Thaheld, 2000), utilizing pairs of 2 cm dia basins containing
neurons derived from human neural stem cells attached to ME As
inside Faraday cages, separated by over 20 cm. The voltages in these
neuronal basins, prior to laser stimulation, are ~5 mV peak to peak.
Laser stimulation of just one of the basins at 670 nm, results in an
electrical signal being generated by this basin, which can vary from
0-2,000 Hz and, with a peak to peak amplitude of 20 mV.
There is a normal delay between the time
of activation of the laser, its impingement upon the neurons and the
resulting electrical signal, of some 300 ms. What they have found
most interesting over a period of several years and thousands of
laser pulses, is that the separated non-stimulated basin displays
simultaneous or correlated electrical signals, of a similar
amplitude in mV and, that there is a simultaneity or correlation in
the 2 basin’s frequencies between 500-2,000 Hz, with a sharp common
peak around 900 Hz. Periodograms of the two signals are also about
They have resorted to every possible technique (as detailed in their
papers) to rule out the possibility that this effect might be due to
some error in their experimental protocol, in equipment malfunction
or some type of human intervention, since the 2 neuronal basins are
only separated by a few cm.
To show you the extent they have gone
to, to rule out any possible local or classical explanation, they
first start out with just one neuronal basin and 2 control basins
without any neurons in them but, containing either their culture
liquid or matrigel.
Both basins are inside Faraday cages.
They stimulate the main basin containing the human neurons on the ME
A with the laser, and get the usual electrical response from it but,
there are never any electrical signals or response from either of
the two control basins.
Their research reveals consistent electrical waveform correlations
between the stimulated and non-stimulated basins, on a much more
repeatable and replicable basis than any of the human subject
research performed to date, with a considerably better
signal-to-noise ratio, and with amplitudes as measured in the mV
range, as compared with the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the very
low uV coming from the brain.
It is very critical to note here that
repeated stimulation at varying Hz rates with either patterned photo
stimulation with the human subjects or with laser stimulation of the
neuronal basins, does not break this entanglement, as is especially
evident in the case of the neuronal basins. This indicates that
after every ‘measurement’, quantum entanglement is either
regenerated or maintained in some fashion, contrary to expectations
(Tegmark, 2000; Hagan et al, 2002; Thaheld, 2005a).
There are also additional indications
that biological quantum non-locality has been observed in the
coherence of induced magnetic dipoles involved in muscle contraction
in single acting filaments at the mesoscopic level (Matsuno, 1999;
2001). All of this evidence, when taken together, indicates that we
could be looking at a generic phenomenon.
One of the main drawbacks in this field of endeavor, especially with
human subjects, is the lack of a large sampling base upon which to
base more solid statistics. However, it should be pointed out that
even with this small human test sample base, one is constantly
stimulating at varying Hz, so that over a short period of time one
can get thousands of discrete events revealing themselves on the EEG
or in an fMRI, which can then be subjected to averaging techniques.
I have also attempted to address the
other main drawback in this field of trying to find more reliable
and replicable types of stimuli, including the use of transcranial
magnetic stimulation (TMS), where several areas of the brain are
simultaneously activated or deactivated as a result of this
stimulation (Thaheld, 2001; 2003; 2006b).
In addition, this can also be correlated
with a measured external response such as an evoked motor potential
in a particular muscle group such as the hand or leg, or by the
appearance of phosphenes in the occipital cortex. It may also be
possible in the near future to examine whether other animals such as
chimpanzees or dolphins, possess this quality of biological quantum
entanglement, since they preceded us and we all share the same
genetic code (Thaheld, 2004).
one achieve entanglement at the biological level
...not only in our
world but throughout the universe?
In one of my papers (Thaheld, 2003), I had noted that biological
entanglement must already exist throughout the world, since
experiments conducted to date over several decades and on several
different continents, repeatedly show electrical correlations or
autocorrelations between the brain waves of not only related but
unrelated human subjects of different nationalities, indicating that
this is a generic phenomenon.
While the sampling for statistical
purposes is extremely sparse, it is still significant that certain
anomalous effects continue to not only appear at various Hz
stimulation levels but, to be maintained in the face of what should
be destructive de-coherence (Tegmark, 2000; Hagan et al, 2002).
question that I next addressed had to do with just how this generic
phenomenon might arise within a biological setting (Thaheld, 2003).
The simplest answer seems to be in the
fact that all humans on the face of the earth have similar features
in their DNA, as has been revealed from blood samples taken from
different nationalities around the world. This suggests that we all
have a common human origin going back to a single ancestor ~ 170,000
This would appear to meet the requirement laid down by Schrodinger,
that in order to achieve entanglement, objects must have been in
contact with each other (Schrodinger, 1935). This is certainly the
case for DNA, which was not only in contact originally but, repeated
and maintained this critical process of contact through the endless
cycles of replication.
It also occurred to me that this same
process might be going on at all levels of the animal world, so that
we really have to go back beyond the common human ancestor approach,
since we are descendents from them and, here once again, share a lot
of similar DNA (Thaheld, 2003).
While this is not necessarily pertinent
to the present paper, the author has devised several experiments to
test this theory, involving either pairs of chimpanzees or dolphins
initially, and proceeding down the evolutionary ladder, essentially
adopting the same experimental techniques which have been used for
human subjects (Thaheld, 2004).
I have also explored the critical issue of the difference of
entanglement and non-locality between inanimate objects such as
particles and animate or biological objects, and why this
entanglement could be both maintained and transferred in the case of
biological systems, even in the face of de-coherence (Thaheld,
2005). This entanglement persists even in the face of repeated
measurements at varying Hz rates, which is important for the present
What this could imply is that we may then be related to the first
elemental life which sprang forth on this planet over 3 Gyr ago, and
that all living entities are entangled in quantum mechanical
fashion. This can also be subjected to fairly simple experiments as
The thought has now undoubtedly occurred to you as to how one could
even possibly go about achieving entanglement at the cosmological
level, and still adhere to Schrodinger’s dictum regarding the
necessity for prior contact, especially between objects spatially
separated by vast light-year distances?
There appear to be several approaches
which one might take to this problem, in addition to what might be
dreamt up by worm-hole, string, brane, multi-dimensional and
multi-universe theorists. To properly set the stage it will be
helpful to quote Schrodinger on this subject of entanglement (Schrodinger,
“When two systems, of which we know
the states by their respective representatives, enter into
temporary physical interaction due to known forces between them,
and when after a time of mutual influence the systems separate
again, then they can no longer be described in the same way as
before, viz. by endowing each of them with a representative of
I would not call that one but rather the characteristic
trait of quantum mechanics, the one that forces its entire
departure from classical lines of thought. By the interaction
the two representatives (or wave-functions) have become
We are now in a better position to
realistically discuss the approaches which one might take to this
First, if one is an adherent of the
Big Bang theory, then our entire universe was, at the very
instant of creation, encompassed within a singularity, which
would represent the ultimate concept of contact, exceeding by
far the most massive black holes and appearing to more than meet
Schrodinger’s dictum. This would imply some type of universal
entanglement at the most fundamental level for all particles,
and the later possibility of either maintenance of the same
original levels of entanglement as the universe expanded and
developed or, the creation of different sub-levels of
entanglement when life commenced.
Second, it is not beyond the realm
of possibility that any sufficiently advanced or
super-civilization could have developed techniques of generating
and maintaining entanglement between any living entities in the
universe in a non-local, instantaneous fashion. Or, gone beyond
the concept of CSC.
Third, to paraphrase Dirac, this
problem is not ripe for solution at the present time and should
be left for later (Dirac, 1963). I.e., not to worry, that it
will be solved at a later date!
The issue of controllable superluminal
communication: Is it attainable within the framework of biological
With a universe now some 14 Gyr old, just how is it possible for
there to be any type of CSC between any vastly separated worlds on
which there might be superior intelligent life? After all, this
matter of controllable vs. uncontrollable superluminal communication
has generated a lot of controversy in the scientific community.
While it has been shown through
experiments that superluminal effects do indeed exist between
entangled particles (Aspect et al, 1982; Zbinden et al, 2001), it is
generally thought that this effect cannot be used to achieve CSC (Shimony,
Relativity theory postulates the non-existence of faster-than-light
‘signals’ but, does not necessarily impose an analogous requirement
upon all other conceivable kinds of ‘influences’ (Stapp, 1988). He
proposes the existence of superluminal ‘influences’ between the
entangled photons which are not considered to be ‘signals’, with the
result that no conflict with the theory of relativity is entailed.
Based upon what is known as the Eberhard
theorem, it is felt that no information can be transferred via
quantum non-locality (Eberhard, 1978). Shimony has also come to the
same conclusion that the non-locality of quantum mechanics is
uncontrollable, and cannot be used for the purposes of sending a
signal faster than light (Shimony, 1984).
Why is it that the entangled photons in the Aspect experiment cannot
be used to transfer information faster than light, keeping in mind
that these are inanimate entities when commencing such an analysis?
After all, it has been shown that non-local correlations exist
between these photons and one would logically think that you should
be able to perform this feat.
The polarization correlations cannot be
used to transmit information faster than light because they can only
be detected when the statistics from the measurements on each side
are compared in a classical fashion, which is dependent upon the
efficiency of the detectors.
The act of polarization measurement on
photon v1 forces it to move from the quantum indeterminate level to
a specific determinate level, and it is this information that is
transmitted non-locally to entangled photon v2. When Alice, let us
say, measures the polarization of photon vl1 along a direction she
chooses, she cannot choose the result nor she predict what it will
Once she makes her measurement, Bob’s
photon v2 simultaneously receives non-local information regarding a
similar state of polarization, where he cannot choose the result
either. Since Alice has no control over the results she gets, she
cannot send any meaningful information of her own to Bob. Similarly,
Bob can choose one of several polarization measurements to make but,
he will not know the result ahead of time.
Alice and Bob can only
see the coincidence of their results after comparing them using a
conventional method of communication, which does not send
information faster than light.
I feel that while this reasoning is correct for inanimate or
nonliving entities such as photons where, once a measurement has
been made, the wave function collapses and they become disentangled,
the situation is much different for entangled living entities such
as the human subjects and the human neurons on the ME As.
Here, instead of being limited to just a
pair of entangled photons at the microscopic level, which only
briefly spring into existence and then are gone, we are looking at a
massive number of living entangled particles at the macroscopic
level, either resisting the usual de-coherence or utilizing it as
has been postulated (Matsuno, 2006; Thaheld, 2005) to either
maintain or regenerate entanglement after each measurement, thereby
enabling us to achieve CSC (Thaheld, 2000; 2001; 2003).
The proposed experiments can take several different directions, all
of them fairly simple and inexpensive, as compared to present SETI
experiments, utilizing existing electroencephalographic techniques
and relying upon a much simpler computer-assisted analysis which
runs the data through a series of algorithms designed to detect
signals that have some possibility of being both artificial and
either of a terrestrial or extraterrestrial nature.
We can directly test for the actual
existence of CSC here on earth either through the use of pairs of
human subjects or neurons derived from human neural stem cells
attached to pairs of ME As. The present researchers may have already
been observing non-locality, which implies superluminal
communication in their experiments but, they have been hesitant to
come right out and say this due to the obvious risks involved if one
makes such a startling statement based upon limited experimental
data, and it turns out to be incorrect.
The research group at the Univ. of Freiburg, dealing with the human
subjects, stresses that “while no biophysical mechanism is presently
known that could be responsible for the observed correlations
between EEGs of two separated subjects, nothing in our results
substantiates the hypothesis (Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al, 1994) of a
direct quantum physical origin of correlations between EEGs of
separated subjects” (Wackermann et al, 2003).
The researchers at the Univ. of Milan
state that, “despite at this level of understanding, it is
impossible to tell if the origin of this non-locality is a genuine
quantum effect, our experimental data seem to strongly suggest that
biological systems present non-local properties not explainable by
classical models" (Pizzi et al, 2003).
There are 4 major problems which must be addressed.
First, the number of human subjects
must be increased, along with the number of neuronal basins.
Second, it will be necessary to
adopt the use of different types of stimuli, in addition to
patterned photo stimulation, such as TMS, so that we get more
replicable and discernible results from several different areas
of the brain simultaneously (Thaheld, 2001; 2003, 2006). And, in
addition to the black and white patterned or checkerboard
photo-stimulation, we may have to resort to various mathematical
or other type of stimulus symbols as a better means of exploring
the mind-brain interaction (Thaheld, 2003).
Third, it will be necessary to
separate the pairs of human subjects beyond the present several
meters, to much greater distances to determine if the repetitive
anomalous effects are still observed without any diminution in
the non-stimulated EEGs or fMRIs. This also applies to the pairs
of neuronal basins, where the distance of separation is now
measured from several cm up to a meter or more.
Fourth, while the stimulation of
just one entity (whether human subjects or ME As), which
presently results in the generation of electrical signals and,
the simultaneous reception of a correlated signal (not
necessarily of similar Hz or amplitude characteristics by
non-stimulated entities), is very indicative of quantum
non-locality, this hypothesis can be significantly strengthened
if we reverse the situation. I.e., the non-stimulated entity now
becomes the stimulated one and vice versa.
If this effect is achieved, this would
be direct evidence of CSC at a very rudimentary level, since both
entities would be exchanging signals at the same variable Hz rate
and confirming same via a non-classical means, since they are all
inside Faraday chambers.
This would be directly related to prior research (Grinberg-Zylberbaum
et al, 1994) that since photo-stimulation was utilized to elicit a
VEP in the brain waves of the stimulated subject, that when a
flickering light signal is used, the normal VEP often carries a
One of the researchers (Goswami) has
proposed that to the extent that this frequency signature is also
retained in the transferred potential elicited in the non-stimulated
subject’s brain, it may be possible to send a message, at least in
principle, using a Morse code by varying the frequency of
photo-stimulation to resemble a code.
He has further suggested that the brain
obeys a nonlinear Schrodinger equation in order to include
self-reference (Mitchell, Goswami, 1992) and, that for such systems,
message transfer via EPR correlation is permissible (Polchinski,
1991). This directly ties into a recent proposal to resolve the
measurement problem (Thaheld, 2005b; 2006), with collapse of the
wave function taking place within the retina of the eye in a
nonlinear objective fashion, either as a result of conformational
change (s) in the mesoscopic retinal-rhodopsin molecules or, as a
result of the electrical amplification process immediately following
An alternate analysis of the physiology
of the eye and reduction of the state vector from a Continuous
Spontaneous Localization (CSL) standpoint, reveals that reduction of
the state vector may take place directly within the individual rods
of the retina during the amplification chain in a rod cell (Adler,
Whichever reduction process turns out to be correct, since they both
call for a collapse of the wave function, this means that the Schro
dinger equation has to be modified to reflect this nonlinear
process, lending further support to a CSC hypothesis.
1. Human neurons on MEAs
The simplest way to check out whether entanglement and CSC are
possible in a non-local fashion here on earth, is to use 2 basins
containing human neurons mounted on MEAs (Thaheld, 2005a; 2006c).
The 2 basins would be separated by several meters with both inside
Faraday cages. Just one basin is stimulated repeatedly at a random
Hz rate with a laser, resulting in an electrical response from the
stimulated neurons which is correlated with the stimulus rate. If
past research is any criteria, this same Hz rate should also be
observed in the 2n non-stimulated neuronal basin.
This would represent preliminary
evidence for both entanglement and non-locality. In order to achieve
CSC, it is only necessary to reverse this situation, with a laser
now stimulating the formerly non-stimulated basin, and repeating the
same random Hz rate, returning the same message back to the formerly
stimulated basin. The 2n basin has, in effect, informed the 1st
basin that it has received its initial message by sending the
message back to it without the use of any classical means of
The natural objection which one can make to this experiment is that
the distance of separation between the 2 basins, being only a meter
or less, does not rule out a local or classical explanation, that
the Faraday cages are not effectively screening out all
electromagnetic influences of interest or, that the experiment is
flawed in some unknown fashion.
Since these types of experiments
with the neuronal basins have been conducted through thousands of
cycles over a period of several years, with increasingly stricter
standards and the same positive results, these possibilities would
appear to be remote.
The way to determine if entanglement and non-locality really exist
is to modify a technique used by the Italian researchers (Thaheld,
2006c). In their experiments involving learning in human neural
networks on single ME As (Pizzi et al, 2006), they stop these
neuron’s electrical activity or action potentials, to insure that
the collected signals are actually due to the electrophysiological
functioning of these neurons.
They are able to accomplish this by
injecting the neuronal culture on the ME A with Tetrodotoxin (TTX),
which is a neurotoxin able to abolish action potentials. They once
again stimulate this TTX treated neuronal basin with the laser and
get no electrical response, showing the importance of the action
potentials, or rather the pores of the voltage-gated sodium channels
in nerve cell membranes, since TTX binds to these pores, thereby
blocking the action potentials in the nerves.
The TTX is then rinsed away, the action
potentials return, they stimulate with the laser once again and note
that the previously correlated electrical signals have returned.
In the modified experiment we once again use 2 separated ME As and,
after making sure that they are entangled by stimulating one with a
laser and getting an electrical response from both the stimulated
and non-stimulated basins, inject the non-stimulated basin with TTX,
thereby stopping all action potentials.
We then stimulate the untreated basin
with the laser, and should observe the usual electrical signals
being generated by this basin but, with no corresponding correlated
electrical signals coming from the non-stimulated TTX treated basin.
To double check, we next stimulate the TTX treated basin with the
laser and we should not only get no electrical signals from it, but
also no electrical signals from the untreated basin! If this is what
happens, we have immediately proven three things:
First, there are no exterior
influences or experimental design flaws which could account for
these unusual correlations.
Second, that the action potential
plays a very important role in this process and, that if it is
in any way impaired or stopped, the entanglement and
non-locality between the two ME As comes to a halt.
Third, that CSC is possible!
The second experiment would be conducted
with the SETI program in mind.
This would involve subjecting just
one neuronal basin of a pair to a random series of stimulation from
the laser. We would then leave this whole system in isolation for a
period of hours, during which time we are recording any resulting
electrical activity from this basin and its companion non-stimulated
Later, we run the data through a series
of algorithms for a computer-assisted search for certain signals
which might have been received or generated by these neurons, which
can either be of a similar repetitive nature to the original random
Hz rate or, are of a more interesting random or repetitive nature,
either as regards Hz rate or amplitude. I.e., it is something which
you would not normally expect to see.
Now the question becomes whether these
signals could have originated from some source here on earth or that
they truly represent some extraterrestrial origin. It is highly
unlikely that someone somewhere on earth could somehow be using this
same random stimulus sequence in a similar experiment.
The only thing we would all have to
agree upon in advance is what type of random stimulus signals we are
going to use, and the Hz and amplitude range that we want the
computers to search within, of either a random or unusual nature.
2. Human subjects
The next step is to determine if entanglement, non-locality and CSC
might exist between human subjects and, if it does, how this can be
utilized with regards to the SETI matter (Thaheld, 2005).
subjects, let us call them Alice and Bob, are placed in individual
Faraday cages separated by several meters, with both of them hooked
up to individual EEGs and with separate means of stimulation.
Alice is subjected to either patterned
photo-stimulation or to TMS, and a VEP is recorded on her EEG of a
distinctive Hz and amplitude level. We then want to determine if the
non-stimulated Bob elicits or receives a simultaneous event on his
EEG which, while it will not necessarily resemble either the Hz or
amplitude of Alice’s EEG, will still represent a repeatable
simultaneous anomalous event of a type which one would never observe
under normal conditions but, which is correlated with the
stimulation of Alice.
We then reverse this situation and now stimulate Bob and see if we
still observe this same sequence of events in the case of Alice. If
we do, we now administer a general anesthetic to Alice and, after
the loss of consciousness, we subject Bob to the same stimulus as
before and a VEP is recorded on his EEG.
We now want to see if a simultaneous
anomalous event is still recorded on Alice’s EEG as it was before.
If it isn’t, this will show that entanglement and non-locality was
broken by the administration of the anesthetic, just as it happened
between the ME A neuronal basins.
To make sure we stimulate the
anesthetized Alice with a flash stimulus and, even though we get a VEP on her EEG, we should get no anomalous response on Bob’s EEG (Nuwer,
1986; Moller, 1988).
We now allow Alice to recover from the anesthetic, stimulate her
once again, and see when Alice elicits a VEP this time, if
simultaneous anomalous events again appear on Bob’s EEG. If they do,
this would mean that entanglement was not lost as a result of the
anesthesia. Once again, we reverse this situation and stimulate Bob
and see if simultaneous events appear on Alice’s EEG.
Another technique which could be used is to have both Alice and Bob
in Faraday cages with Bob asleep. Normally when a person is
sleeping, you will observe very slow delta waves of less than 4 Hz
with an amplitude ranging up to 100 uV. We can now stimulate Alice,
who is awake displaying alpha or beta waves, and see if Bob’s delta
waves simultaneously change to either alpha or beta or display
anomalous events tied in to the specific type of stimulation used on
If we observe such an event, this would once again indicate
entanglement between them. We are now ready to proceed to the SETI
phase of this experiment.
It should be first noted that humans possess an assortment of
different types of brain wave frequencies and accompanying
amplitudes within a normal range as shown below:
alpha 9-14 Hz <50 uV
beta 15-40 Hz <30 uV
delta 0.1-4 Hz -100 uV
gamma 26-70 Hz -40 uV
theta 5-8 Hz -10 uV
There are also brain waves associated
with epileptic seizures referred to as petit mal ranging from 2-4 Hz
and with amplitudes up to 1 mV, and grand mal at >20 Hz and >500 uV.
There are also electrical phenomena known as ‘spikes’ and
‘saw-tooth’ or ‘square waves’. In addition, there occurs a wide
spectrum of waves ranging from 100-1,500 Hz and upwards (Niedermeyer,
For a very detailed treatment of this
complex EEG brain wave issue please refer to (Niedermeyer, Lopes da
It is of interest to note here that the true frequency
range of the EEG is much broader than it has been assumed and taught
for decades (Niedermeyer, 2005). With the introduction of digital
EEG machines, the exploration and ultra fast recording of the 60 to
1000 Hz range has already begun in the past few years (Rodin, 2005).
Ultra fast EEG activity has also been recorded at 3000 Hz.
It should be emphasized here that digital technology, when properly
utilized, allows for a much better assessment of the informational
content of EEGs (Rodin et al, 2006). The use of appropriate filter
settings as regards Hz, and viewing windows as regards time, will be
two of the critical elements enabling us to pinpoint any wave
characteristics of interest, along with both compression and
expansion of data, which also have their individual advantages.
As an example, in present clinical EEG
practice, unless filters are adjusted for a specific clinical
question, one may miss critical information. The present software
installed on digital EEGs may not prove adequate for the SETI task
at hand and, even that which has been recently developed for
further, advanced evaluation of digital EEGs may have to be
supplemented by specifically tailored algorithms.
It has been noticed by EEG neurophysiologists and clinicians that an
EEG filtered for a certain Hz range, may appear normal in channel
tracings but, if the same data is looked at from a top view and
different filter settings, this may reveal (let us say) delta
activity which has been masked by alpha waves. Data is considerably
easier to interpret when top views can be examined rather than just
the conventional channel arrangement.
Even with increased
amplifications, widespread fast activity which was previously
missed, becomes apparent.
It is also important to mention the frequencies below the delta
range or subdelta, and the argument for what is referred to as
“Full-band EEG”, which ranges from DC to above 1000 Hz (Vanhatalo et
al, 2005). Subdelta activity (0.5-O.1 Hz) is currently being
recorded by digital EEG instruments, without clinicians being fully
aware of the fact. It is possible to view an ultra slow 0.01 Hz
event with a wave duration of 100 seconds, provided that one has a
long enough viewing window.
With filter settings of 0.01-0.1 Hz it
is no longer appropriate to speak of frequencies but, rather of
events with various wave lengths.
Different conclusions can be
reached depending upon what filter settings and which time windows
are used. In the future instrument manufacturers will have to
incorporate in their software programs the opportunity for not only
the typical clinical-type user but, for any SETI-type user to be
able to set the desired filters or frequency bands and viewing
windows, rather than only providing the present limits.
then allow any clinician, technician or neurophysiologist who so
chooses, to expand his usual diagnostic procedures, with very little
additional effort, into a SETI-type search with each consenting
I have only dealt very briefly with what is a very difficult area
for doctors, neurophysiologists and technicians, even when they are
attempting to diagnose subjects in their immediate vicinity, to show
you how hard it will be to broaden the use of EEG instruments into
any kind of even minimal and realistic SETI-type research.
Let us now proceed to the proposed human SETI experiment. We will
essentially use the same technique as was proposed for the ME As. We
first stimulate one or more subjects with a random patterned or TMS
stimulus, such that the likelihood of seeing anything like this
occur on these subjects’ EEGs is extremely remote. I.e., no one on
the face of this earth would ever be expected to accidentally
duplicate this pattern.
We now want to record these subject’s
EEGs over a period of days and under all conditions of sleeping and
waking via ambulatory means (Gilliam et al, 1999). Ambulatory
recording or AEEG can be performed for up to 3-5 days without the
need to change the batteries or the memory card, based on 19
channels of data recorded at 200 Hz. With an ‘on the fly’ battery
and memory change, one can record indefinitely, with minor
We can have event markers set to
determine if anything remotely approaching the initial stimuli
configurations appears on the recorded EEG data stream, and can also
use computer-assisted analysis to check for anything of an unusual
or repetitive Hz or amplitude nature which is never seen in the
normal subject’s EEG.
We would simply have to agree in advance as to
what would constitute an event or events on the EEG which might be
attributed to a SETI input, or within what ranges we want to
establish a series of algorithms to run the data through for
computer-assisted analysis, so that we rule out any possible
artifact arising from any other sources on earth.
This matter of agreeing in advance as to
the critical boundaries we want to establish for any series of
algorithms through which the data will be run, should prove to be
the most difficult part of this proposal, just as it is in the
electromagnetic searches now going on for SETI (Niedermeyer, Lopes
da Silva, 2005).
At first glance it would appear that this project should prove to be
simpler than some of the existing SETI experiments, since we would
only be looking at an EEG frequency range of 0.1-70 Hz initially,
with the possibility of expanding to 3,000 Hz if necessary.
This search range can be compared to
Project Phoenix with a microwave search between 1.2-3 GHZ, the SETI
project examining the frequency of the 21 cm (1,420 MHz) line of
neutral hydrogen, or SERENDIP examining 168 million narrow (0.6 Hz)
channels in a 100 MHz band centered at 1.42 GHz.
The problem is that
the EEG frequencies and amplitudes can vary widely from cycle to
cycle, whereas the SETI frequencies are very constant as regards
both Hz and amplitude.
However, on the other side of the coin, it is this variability of
these EEG frequencies and amplitudes that may assist us in our
search, in that any combinations of the two, that either repeat or
fall outside the usual range of EEG activities, either in a
repetitive or random fashion which has never been observed before,
could point us in a SETI-type direction.
The other advantage which a biological
non-local search would have, is that we could respond to any unusual
signals of this nature by stimulating either the MEAs or the human
subjects with the same type signals that were received, and know
that they will probably be transmitted anywhere in the universe
One of the first objections to this proposal probably has to do with
why, if we are supposedly being bombarded with all this non-local
communication from what could be an enormous number of
extraterrestrial sources, we do not notice it in some fashion. And,
you can apply this same reasoning to just the citizens of earth
where, if this effect really exists, one would think we should be
inundated with this type of superluminal communication, based on a
population of 6 x 10 !
The reason why we are not, can be
explained by looking at the research data previously discussed. This
also answers the question as to how one can differentiate between
non-local communication from subjects here on earth vs that from
extraterrestrials. You will recall that when the human subjects were
stimulated by either plain flashes of light or by checkerboard
patterns, the stimulated subject showed a VEP, especially as regards
amplitude of the waves, several orders of magnitude larger than the
amplitudes in the non-stimulated subject’s EEG.
In addition, in all these research
studies, no type of transference of conscious subjective experience
was ever observed, which would be the main criteria revealing that
actual communication had taken place between the two parties. It
evidently takes a very unusual stimulus to elicit such a response,
and is what prompted me to address this problem by advocating other
types of stimuli (Thaheld, 2003; 2006b).
This means then that most of the
non-local communication is probably lost within the normal brain
wave or EEG noise, otherwise we would be incapable of functioning
normally and would overload when confronted with such an influx of
This is not to say that we do not sporadically (and at times so
swift either ignore it or doubt that something really happened)
experience these non-local communication events. There are numerous
anecdotal instances where twins or relatives knew that something was
happening or had happened to a loved one but, this usually occurred
when an unusually strong but brief stimulus was sent and received,
like in an accident or disaster.
It may well be that we experience these
events especially during periods of sleeping or dreaming, when we
are unconscious, and the usually prevalent EEG waking noise levels
are reduced. Experiments have been proposed to test this theory.
Thus it may well be that consciousness serves to protect us while we
are awake, by putting most of this non-local communication into an
unreachable noise zone.
If you have ever been to a rock concert,
you know what it is like trying to carry on a conversation with the
person next to you. Having researched this several decades ago, one
only has to look at the resulting EEG to get an idea of these
elevated brain noise levels over and above the decibel levels!
One only has to look at our inability to perceive any of the total
electromagnetic spectrum beyond the narrow frequency range for
vision, without having to resort to different pieces of specialized
Even in the case of vision, it is interesting to note
that only about 10% of the total photons incident upon the cornea,
are ever transduced and amplified by the retina, and received as
information by the visual cortex.
Whether one believes in this experimental approach or not, it has
the advantage that it would be very simple and cheap to carry out.
The proposed SETI project can either go
forward simultaneously on several different fronts or in just one
specific area at a time and, while it would be nice to be able to
prove the existence of biological non-locality and CSC here on earth
before embarking on this SETI approach, we may be forced to look
outside the confines of the earth initially, as outlined.
Nevertheless this search can be conducted in the following fashion
but, not necessarily in the sequence shown.
1. MEAs containing human neurons can
be subjected to specifically chosen random laser pulses of
varying Hz either individually or in pairs, and then left to
themselves for a period of hours or days while any electrical
responses are being recorded. This collected data can then be
run through specially developed algorithms for computer-assisted
analysis. The alternative is to not initially stimulate these
basins with a laser and just see what signals of an unusual
nature are generated.
2. Human subjects are subjected to specifically chosen stimuli
of an unusual repetitive or random nature as regards both Hz and
amplitude, and AEEG recordings can be taken over a selected
period of hours or days, with particular emphasis during those
periods of sleeping when very slow delta waves are prevalent,
with once again the data being run through special algorithms
for computer-assisted analysis. This can also be performed
without any initial stimulus and just analyzing any signals
which are received.
3. Development of SETI-type algorithm software so that any
electro-encephalographers or neurophysiologists around the world
could also perform similar SETI computer-assisted analysis of
their regular patients in addition to their usual analysis of
4. It would appear that the critical elements in any EEG SETI-type
search will involve an empirical blend consisting of the proper
algorithms, filters, viewing windows, amplification and either
compression or expansion of the derived data.
Jack David Fralick, your great-grandfather welcomes your recent
arrival into this mysterious world.
And, once again, to Thesa von
Hohenastenberg-Wigandt, whose courageous battle against an insidious
foe provides the author with additional inspiration to continue his
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