by Stephen Smith
May 20, 2020
from Thunderbolts Website

Italian version

CL1358+62, the farthest object

in the observable Universe: z = 4.92.

Credit: M. Franx (U. Groningen) & G. Illingworth (UCSC),



Astronomers measure the Universe using ideas that are based on its expansion out of a primordial explosion.

"They say it all started out with a Big Bang. But, what I wonder is, was it a Big Bang or did it just seem big because there wasn't anything else to drown it out at the time?"
Karl Pilkington

Modern theories propose that objects farther out in space are representative of the Universe as it was earlier in its life.


Galaxies located at 1.2 billion light years, for example, are thought to be as they were 1.2 billion years ago.


The presupposition is that objects at that distance should be young, with rich supplies of hydrogen fuel. In that case, the stars ought to be burning hot and blue, radiating high frequency X-rays and extreme ultraviolet light.

The ratio of blue stars to red stars in a galaxy is commonly thought to indicate its overall age, because of the assumptions that the Universe began in a Big Bang.


However, using data from the Chandra X-ray Telescope, many star clusters in remote galaxies are much too red for them to be so young.


As mentioned, current cosmological models rely on the Big Bang theory, so star clusters that are too red are thought to be unexpectedly metal-rich, or (surprisingly) that the models of stellar evolution are incorrect.


A third possibility is that the theories are merely incomplete and not incorrect...

Retired Professor of Electrical Engineering, Dr. Donald Scott, in his book The Electric Sky, showed how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stellar evolution can be improved by adding another scale to the horizontal axis:

Current Density at the Star's Surface...


An observational

Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with 22,000 stars

plotted from the Hipparcos Catalogue

and 1,000 from the Gliese Catalogue of nearby stars.

Stars tend to fall only into certain regions of the diagram.

The most prominent is the diagonal, going from the upper-left (hot and bright)

to the lower-right (cooler and less bright), called the main sequence.

 In the lower-left is where white dwarfs are found,

and above the main sequence are the subgiants, giants and supergiants.

The Sun is found on the main sequence

at luminosity 1 (absolute magnitude 4.8) and B−V color index 0.66

(temperature 5780 K, spectral type G2V).



That means that how stars appear when viewed through optical telescopes or X-ray detectors will not be dependent on age and distance, but on,

the amount of energy flowing into the star from the surrounding environment...

The greater the electric charge, the hotter and brighter the star will appear.

Stellar evolution is supposed to follow a path that depends on how various stages of thermonuclear fusion transform hydrogen into heavier elements.


The mass of a star and its spectrum are thought to indicate its age, because the ratios of different elements, according to theory, ought to provide an idea of how long it took to convert its original mass into those other elements.

Consensus astrophysicists argue that stars accumulate heavier elements in their cores as they age, because they are always converting light elements into heavier ones.


That is said to cause fluctuations in output when temperatures change due to changes in fusion reactions.

Stars turn red as one fusion phase ends, because their atmospheres expand and outflow is spread over a larger area.


They turn yellow or white again as other elements start to fuse into still heavier atoms.


Why the observed stars are too red is thought to be from an intervening cloud of material that is acting like a filter, absorbing blue light.


Since the star clusters are located at a great distance, and they are so faint to begin with, the bluer stars could be hidden behind clouds.

Dr. Scott wrote:

"In the Electric Star model, perhaps the most important factor in determining any given star's characteristics is the strength of the current density in Amperes per square meter (A/m2) measured at that star's surface.


If a star's incoming current density increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric tufts) will get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue), and get brighter.


The absolute brightness of a star, therefore, depends on two things: the strength of the current density impinging into its surface, and the star's size (the star's diameter)."

So, there is nothing particularly out of the ordinary.


Stars merely obey another aspect of the cosmic energies that permeate the Universe:


It is possible that they are not as far away as they appear.


They may not be nearly as old as astronomers think, because they do not behave according to gravity and redshift theories but according to theories of plasma cosmology...