FDR makes his "Four Freedoms" speech before Congress on January 6th. They are freedom of speech, of religion, from want, from fear.

In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt creates the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William "Wild Bill" Donovan heads the new intelligence service.

Pearl Harbor is attacked by Japan. Congress declares war on Japan.

US Army General, Leslie Groves takes charge of building the Pentagon.

Wilhelm Reich met with Albert Einstein and they talked for five hours. However, this was after Einstein’s 1938 paper in which he proposed to take the fifth mathematical dimension as real. Einstein declined to become involved in Reich’s research which dashed Reich’s hopes. This was actually very strange considering the other efforts Einstein was making "in public" regarding his "search for UFT."

The Sarnoff Corporation is the successor organization to the David Sarnoff Research Center and the RCA Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey. General Order S-56 of the Radio Corporation of America, issued March 5, 1941, mandated that "All research, original development and patent and licensing activities of the Corporation and its Associated Companies will be consolidated in RCA Laboratories which will be responsible for all such work in the future." Six days later the corporation completed purchase of the 260 acres of farmland on Route 1 in Princeton that would serve as the site for the new center. RCA chose Princeton for two primary reasons. It was equidistant from the RCA Victor and RCA Radiotron divisions in Camden and Harrison, New Jersey, where most of the corporations manufacturing took place. It was also a relatively short drive on Route 1 from NBC and corporate headquarters at Rockefeller Center in New York City. Construction began August 8, and on September 27, 1942, the laboratories opened with a staff of 125 scientists and engineers.

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United States, Los Angeles: February 25, At least a million residents awoke to air raid sirens at 2:25am., and U.S. Army personnel fired 1,430 rounds of antiaircraft shells at an unidentified, slow-moving object in the sky over Los Angeles that looked like a blimp, or a balloon. All radio stations had been ordered off the air at 3:08. The firing continued intermittently until 4:14. Unexploded shells destroyed pavement, homes and public buildings, three persons were killed and three died of heart attacks directly attributable to the one hour barrage. Several persons were injured by shrapnel. A dairy herd was hit but only a few cows were casualties. The blackout was lifted and sirens screamed all clear at 7:21. The photograph below show the object dimly as bursts of anti aircraft shells explode against its surface. The beams of light are earth based search lights focusing on the object which can just be made out.

George Marshall wrote a memorandum to President Roosevelt about the incident, which remained classified until 1974. Marshall concluded that conventional aircraft were involved, probably "commercial sources, operated by enemy agents for purposes of spreading alarm, disclosing location of antiaircraft positions, and slowing production through blackout." Despite the barrage of American antiaircraft fire, none of these "commercial" planes were brought down.


Photographs showed shells bursting all around it. A Los Angeles Herald Express staffer said he was sure many shells hit it directly. He was amazed it had not been shot down. When the object finally moved, it proceeded at a leisurely pace over the coastal cities between Santa Monica and Long Beach, taking about 30 minutes of actual flight time to move 20 miles; then it disappeared from view. Soon thereafter US Navy Secretary Frank Knox announced that no planes had been sighted. The coastal firing had been triggered, he said, by a false alarm and jittery nerves. The Los Angeles Times demanded a full explanation from Washington. The Long Beach Independent noted that:

"There is a mysterious reticence about the whole affair and it appears some form of censorship is trying to halt discussion of the matter. Although it was red-hot news not one national radio commentator gave it more than passing mention. This is the kind of reticence that is making the American people gravely suspect the motives and the competence of those whom they have charged with the conduct of the war."

Richard Dolan notes:

"It is noteworthy that for thirty years until the release of the Marshall memorandum, the Department of Defense claimed to have no record of the event. Five years before Roswell, them military was already learning to clamp down on UFOs."

US Army General, Leslie Groves [Corps of Engineers] finishes building the Pentagon and moves on to be military director of the US Manhattan Project, i.e. the US atomic bomb development project.

In July, Roosevelt restructures COI into something more suitable for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Donovan recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that eventually people joke that "OSS" stands for "Oh, so social!" or "Oh, such snobs!" UK’s MI5 played a major part in the creation of the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OSS was modelled on MI6/SOE; American personnel received training and instruction from British agents. OSS later came to concentrate predominantly on armed subversion and guerrilla warfare and was the forerunner of the CIA.

The Signal Security Agency, forerunner of the National Security Agency (NSA), worked closely with ITT Communications, RCA Communications, and Western Union Telegraph Company to gain unlimited access to the cable traffic of private citizens, companies, and governments. The operation came to be known as Shamrock.

Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.

Secretary of War Henry Stimson created the War Research Service (WRS) to oversee the establishment of an American biological warfare program. Headed by George Merck, president of Merck Pharmaceutical Company, the function of the WRS was kept secret through the war. By 1943, at the request of the WRS, the Army Chemical Warfare Service began building specially designed laboratories and pilot plants at Detrick field.

Timor Sea. The cruiser Tromp was approached by a large aluminum disc that flew at tremendous speed. It then circled the Dutch vessel for about three to four hours. Finally, it flew off at an estimated speed of 3,000-3,500 mph.

Solomon Islands. While in the Solomon Islands US Marine Corp Sgt. Stephen J. Brickner sighted a staggering number of UFOs, laid out in virtually an enormous rectangle. The formation was 15 craft long and 10 deep. Formation sightings have been reported before but the rectangle shape is unique.

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The U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD, in response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program.

Donovan recruits the Catholic Church in Rome to be the center of Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would prove to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in the Cold War.

Russia, Pushkino. Soldiers saw a disc-shaped object hovering high in the air above aircraft.

China, Qing Xian, Hebet Province. A domed UFO that emitted a white light was seen flying less than 20 feet above the ground.

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United States, Washington, DC. On February 22, Franklin D. Roosevelt writes a Top Secret memo on White House stationary for "The special committee on non-terrestrial science and technology." Both the title and the content clearly allude to extraterrestrial life, the former using the word "non-terrestrial" and the latter talks about "coming to grips with the reality that our planet is not the only one harboring intelligent life the universe."

In July, The "Breton Woods" economic conference is held in England.

The International Monetary Fund ("IMF") and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development [i.e., today’s World Bank] are proposed.

Friedrich Von Hayek publishes the "The Road to Serfdom."

U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.

The first Rockefeller Foundation grant of an eventual $2 million total is made to develop Princeton’s Office of Population Research, which demonstrates connections between population and development in the Third World.

Austria, Klagenfurt. Major Leet, a bomber pilot, saw a luminous disc follow his plane and its maneuvers.

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In February, the "big Three" [Churchill, UK; Stalin, USSR; & F. Roosevelt, US] meet at Yalta.

The "Cold War" begins.

FDR is elected for a historic 4th term. Harry Truman is a reluctant compromise candidate for vice president. Truman becomes President when FDR dies in office on April 12th.

On April 12th FDR dies in office. VP Harry S. Truman becomes President of the US.

On April 29th, Hitler commits suicide.

In May, Germany Surrenders.

Aleutian Islands. Fourteen men on the USAT Delarof saw a dark spherical object rise out of the water, circle their ship and fly off to the south.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill [Conservative] loses his position to Clement Atley [Labour] after a landslide victory for the British Labour Party.

July 17th - August 2nd, US President, Truman, British PM, Clement Atley, and USSR Premier, Stalin meet at the Potsdam Conference. While at the Potsdam Conference, US President, Truman learns that the A-Bomb will work.

Japan fails to surrender; Truman drops "the Bomb." Japan surrenders. World War II ends.

Japan and Germany are occupied. Committees are set up to amend Japan’s Constitution of 1886. The allies physically divide Germany into occupied zones.

Britain begins to nationalize its economy and move toward a so-called "welfare state."

The Allies discovered the Japanese had been been developing a "death ray" utilizing very short radio waves focused into a high power beam. Tests were done on animals. The Japanese denied ever testing it on humans.

(From the Strategic Bombing Survey, Imperial War Museum, London. Cited with photocopies in "Japanese Death Ray", by Peter Lewis, Resonance#11, pp 5-9)

OSS is abolished - The remaining American information agencies cease covert actions and return to harmless information gathering and analysis.

Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States. In other words, while other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing, he creates the "Gehlen Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon"), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) . The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving as a bridge between the abolishment of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. However, much of the "intelligence" the former Nazis provide is bogus.

Eisenhower becomes Army chief of staff.

"Program F" is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.

Human plutonium injection experiments. The Manhattan Project was asked to inject a hospital patient at either Rochester or Chicago with 1 to 10 micrograms of plutonium and send the excreta to Los Alamos for analysis. The first human plutonium injection took place on April 10, 1945, without the informed consent of the patient.

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Sweden. The Scandanavian countries reported over 2,000 unidentified flying objects over their airspace. These objects usually looked like rockets with fiery exhausts, and they sometimes performed unusual maneuvers as they passed overhead. At first they were thought to be captured German V-2 missiles that were being tested by the Russians, but British radar experts said they did not come from the U.S.S.R. Even today, fifty years later, official files on the ghost rockets are still classified documents.

The Nuremburg and Tokyo war crimes trials are held.

In March, Winston Churchill gives his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri. The "Cold War" goes public.

Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.

Rockefeller Foundation makes further grants to support completion of the 200-inch telescope at Mount Palomar, which received its first RF funds in 1928. RF’s single largest appropriation of the year, $7.5 million, goes to the General Education Board to boost its declining resources. The board’s work is now focused almost exclusively on education.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology receives RF support to study the design and construction of Vannevar Bush’s mechanical differential analyzer, the forerunner of the computer; then, to study the potential of electronic computers.

Renowned physicist Dr. Paul Santorini, on UFOs over Greece in 1946 -

"We soon established that they were not missiles. But, before we could do any more, the Army, after conferring with foreign officials, ordered the investigation stopped. Foreign scientists flew to Greece for secret talks with me... A world blanket of secrecy surrounded the UFO question because the authorities were unwilling to admit the existence of a force against which we had no possibility of defense."

Dr. Santorini was a Greek physicist and engineer credited with developing the proximity fuse for the Hiroshima atomic bomb, two patents for the guidance system used in the U.S. Nike missiles, and a centimetric radar system. He has also stated that he believes UFOs are under intelligent control. In 1947, he investigated a series of UFO reports over Greece that were initially thought to be Soviet missiles.

United States, Florida. Pilot and crew of a C-47 aircraft 30 miles north-east of Tampa, saw a cigar-shaped object with luminous portholes hurtle towards them in horizontal flight at the same altitude of 4,000ft. At 1,000 yards distant it swerved to avoid them. Estimated size of object was twice that of a B-29 bomber.

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Colonel Maurice Sheahan, the Far Eastern Director of Trans World Airline, flies over Shaanxi Province and sees a large pyramid. It is about 40 miles southewest of Xi’an. His account was published in the New York Times on March 28 under the headline "U.S. Flier Reports Huge Chinese Pyramid in Isolated Mountains Southwest of Sian" [Si’an]. The report says:

From the air, Colonel Sheahan said, the pyramid seems to dwarf those of Egypt. He estimated its height at 1,000 ft and its width at the base at 1,500 feet. The pyramid, he said, is at the foot of the Tsinling Mountains about 40 miles southwest of Sian, capital of the province. A second pyramid, he continued, appears much smaller. The pyramid, Colonel Sheahan went on, is at the far end of a long valley, in an inaccessible part. At the near end, he said, are hundreds of burial mounds. These can be seen, he said, from the Lung-Hai railroad.

The implication is, of course, that the hundreds of smaller burial mounds are the same ones seen by Sowerby and Clark and possibly Franck and Creel. Which then suggests that there was something discovered that they did not talk about - or were not permitted to talk about. And that this something was discovered in 1908. Sheanah’s description of the position of the inaccessible valley containing the huge pyramid, when examined on a large scale map is actually very precise. A pyramid could be there appearing as a small mountain on satellite photos.

No photograph accompanied the New York Times report, nor was there a photograph in the report in the Los Angeles Times article: "Gigantic Pyramid in Western China Reported by Southland Air Executive." (Marc 28, 1947, p. 5) The Chicago Daily News also covered the story the same day. The English language North-China Daily News carried a report on March 31 which added the info that the size of the pyramid had been calculated by comparison with the size of a nearby village. The New York Sunday News of March 30, however, printed a photograph which is cropped so that the sticker of the newspaper photo agency "NEA Telephoto" - which is left on other news photos of the time that were printed later - is removed. The early reports do NOT say that Colonel Sheahan took photos. Colonel Sheahan himself, interviewed by the New York Times, said:

When I first flew over it I was impressed by its perfect pyramidal form and its great size. I did not give it a thought during the war years partly because it seemed incredible that anything so large could be unknown from the world. From the air we could see only small footpaths leading to a village at the site of the pyramid.

This suggests that Sheahan had seen the pyramid earlier - during the war. On April 1, 1947, the Los Angeles Times published:

China Giant Pyramid Report Called False.

Nanking, March 31 (AP)

- A Central News Agency dispatch from Sikang said today the provincial government had announced following an investigation that the reported discovery of a giant pyramid in Shensi Province proved to be groundless."

Three weeks later, the North China Daily News carried a lengthy report on a lecture on the history of Xi’an given at the Royal Asiatic Society on April 24. The topic of Sheahan’s pyramid was raised during the talk and dismissed.

According to Steve Marshall, writing for Fortean Times, (164, Dec. 2002) one of the sinologists consulted by the new York Times (March 28, 1947) - Arthur Upam Pope of the Asia Institute - wrote a follow-up letter to the editor dated March 30 (before the denials) in which he speculated that the giant pyramid could be a Xia dynasty royal tomb, and suggested that the knowledge of building pyramids might have spread from western Asia to Egypt. (No archeological evidence has yet been found to confirm the existence of the Xia dynasty, which is still presumed to be mythical.)

Pope’s letter - in the April 8 issue of the Times (p.26), appears to be the origin of the modern mythicization spread by Hartwig Hausdorf and David Hatcher Childress. In this letter, Pope quoted a description of another pyramids and the Han dynasty idea of five colors being related:

"green on the east, red on the south, white on the west, black on the north, and all covered with yellow earth."

This became attached to Sheahan’s description attributed to a most likely non-existent flier named Gaussman by Childress, then quoted by Hausdorf.

The question of the photograph is important. The Rocky Mountain News report of March 31, 1947 credited the photo to "army photographers." This news story said "American scientists have been in the area."

Julie Byron, writing an article about "Mystery Pyramids," tracked down the son of the late Col. Sheahan - Donald Sheahan - and asked him about his father’s sighting. Donald Sheahan wrote that his father had indeed seen the pyramid once before, and added that some senior TWA executives were also on the 1947 flight, the purpose of which was to establish landing rights for the airline around the world. Don Sheahan believed that his father had taken the photograph, or that it had been taken by someone on the same flight. He went through his father’s papers, and was unable to find any photographs of the pyramid. He did find three unlabelled news clippings that specifically mention that Col. Sheahan flew low over the area to take photographs, and two of these clippings say that he has these photographs at home, which is also stated in the North China Daily News story of March 31. Some of these clippings collected by his father include the NEA photograph, but he was unable to confirm that his father did, indeed, take this photograph or whether it is actually a photo of the structure in question.

One clarification was discovered: Don Sheahan found a letter written by his father, Col. Sheahan, on January 31, 1961, to a Mr. E. Leslie Carlson, who had a theory connecting the Chinese pyramid to the ancient Sumerians. He had also asked for a photograph. Sheahan wrote:

The large pyramid is probably between 500 feet and 600 feet high and the reported 1,000 feet was exaggerated in several translations from the Chinese li to metric to feet.

In his thank-you letter of Feb 7, Carlson acknowledges receipt of letter, answers and news clippings, but makes no mention of having received a photograph. And here is where we come to something very "Fortean." NEA Telephoto - Newspaper Enterprise Association - is only credited with handling one other photo - the famous "Roswell weather balloon" photograph.

President Truman announces the so-called Truman Doctrine.

President Truman requests military aid to Greece to support right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek leaders with deplorable human rights records.

CIA created - President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC -there is no democratic or congressional oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to "perform such other functions and duties. As the National Security Council may from time to time direct."

Control of US atomic energy passes from the US Military to the civilian Atomic Energy Commission.

Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

United States. A letter dated 23 September 1947 from Lt. Gen. Nathan F. Twining, Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army to the Commanding General of the Army Air Force establishes of a study of flying saucers to be called Project Sign, and assigned a high priority in a letter dated 30 December 1947 from Maj. Gen. L. C. Craigie.

Brig. General George Shulgen

"It is the considered opinion of some elements that the object may in fact represent an interplanetary craft of some kind."

From a Draft Intelligence Collections Memorandum by Brig. Geneneral George Shulgen, Oct. 28, 1947

General Nathan Twining

"The reported operating characteristics such as extreme rates of climb, maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted ... lend belief to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled."

Twining as Head of Air Material Command (AMC), 1947


"The phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious. There are objects approximating the shape of a disc, some of which appear flat on bottom and domed on top. These objects are as large as man-made aircraft and have a metallic or light-reflecting surface. Further they exhibit extreme rates of climb and maneuverability with no associated sound and take action which must be considered evasive when contacted by aircraft and radar."

Twining, in a declassified letter to the Pentagon.

General Twining was the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1957-1960.


Italy. An Italian artist by the name of Rapuzzi Johannis was taking a leisurely walk in the mountains between Italy and Yugoslavia. He saw just in front of him a red glowing saucer. This saucer was about thirty feet wide and it was accompanied by two small dwarf-like creatures. These creatures had very large heads with green faces, sort of resembling that of a fish. They also had a circle around each eye. Apparently one of the creatures had hit Johannis with an electrical ray which left him very weak and almost paralyzed. After this incident the creatures ignored the Johannis and left.

United States, Nevada, Lake Mead. While cruising at 6,000 feet, US Air force pilot Lieutenant Armstrong witnessed six discs flying in formation.

United States, Washington, Mount Rainier. Kenneth Arnold was on an aerial search for a crashed C-46 marine transport plane when he saw 9 objects flying in formation. He estimated their speed at 1,300 to 1,700 miles per hour, distance at 23 miles and length of formation to be 5 miles. Also in the air at the time was a DC-4, which Arnold used as a point of reference to estimate the size of individual discs. He estimated the size as two-thirds the size of the DC-4. This sighting was not corroborated by radar or witnesses but did attract media attention and public interest.

United States, New Mexico, White Sands. C. J. Zohn stationed at White Sands proving grounds in New Mexico watched a huge, silver, circular disc at a height of 10,000 feet above the installation. This sighting was just days after Kenneth Arnold’s sighting which publicized the UFO phenomenon.

United States, Spokane, Washington. Eight disk-shaped objects the size of a house, were seen flying at 1000 km/h. A civilian woman stated that the objects fell with a dead leaf motion and landed before ten witnesses on the shore of the Saint Joe River, in Idaho.

United States, California, Muroc Dry Lake, now Edwards Air Force Base. Four witnesses: 1st Lt. Joseph McHenry, T/Sgt Ruvolo, S/Sgt Nauman, and Miss Janette Scotte watched for an unstated length of time while two disc-shaped or spherical objects, silver and apparently metallic, flew a wide circular pattern, and then one of them later flew a tighter circle, moving about 300 mph at approximately 8,000 feet." More officers gathered as a third object came into sight. A test pilot had reported seeing a round object at about 12,000 feet the day before.

Paper clip scientist Kurt Rahr. Rahr was a convicted criminal with an extensive Nazi past. In September 1947, he conducted mind control experiments at Edgewood Arsenal, where such experiments flourished until at least 1966.

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United States, Louisville, Kentucky. Capt. Thomas Mantell lost his life on 7 January while attempting to chase a UFO, This is the first fatality on record directly connected with an UFO chase. Reports from private citizens were made to the Kentucky State Highway Patrol describing a strange, saucer-shaped flying object, 200 - 300 ft. diameter. It was also seen by several other witnesses, including the base commander, at the control tower of Godman AFB, outside Louisville. Official explanations concluded that he was chasing the planet Venus in the bright afternoon sky or a secret Navy balloon.

United States, Fargo, North Dakota. Lt. George F. Gorman of the North Dakota National Guard was approaching Fargo, flying an F-51. The tower called his attention to a Piper Cub which he saw below him. As he prepared to land, suddenly what he took to be the tail-light of another plane passed him on his right, but the control tower assured him no other planes were in the area. Chasing the light, he got within 1,000 yd. of it. It had been blinking but suddenly became steady and started to move rapidly with the F-51 pursuit. There followed a complicated chase in which Gorman had to dive on one occasion to avoid collision. Suddenly the light began to climb and disappeared.

United States, Houston, Texas. Eastern Airlines DC-3, pilot Clarence S. Chiles and co-pilot John B. Whitted, were on a regular run from Houston to Atlanta, At 2:45 a.m. they saw a bright light dead ahead coming rapidly toward them. They pulled to the left to avoid a collision. Looking back they saw the UFO go into a steep climb. The pilots described it as a wingless B-29 fuselage and said that the underside had a deep blue glow.

The CIA recreates a covert action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer Frank Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities include "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."

Media pundits say that the Republicans will win in a landslide. Truman refuses to believe the opinion polls and takes to the road, traveling more than 30,000 miles and making about 300 speeches. He criticizes the "do-nothing Republican 80th Congress." Ronald Reagan supports Harry Truman for re-election. Truman is elected to a full term as president in one of the most dramatic political upsets in the nation’s history. Truman defeats former prosecutor and New York Governor, Thomas Dewey. Modern political polling is in its infancy, and the Chicago Tribune gets it wrong. The Tribune publishes, perhaps, their most famous banner headline, "Dewey Beats Truman."

President Truman desegregates the US Armed Forces.

The British and Americans airlift food and fuel into West Berlin.

George Orwell publishes "1984."

Gerald Ford is elected to Congress. Representative Lyndon Johnson is elected to the Senate--he will quickly establish himself as one of the most effective and persuasive party leaders in memory.

The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy, where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes, broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. It works - the communists are defeated.

General Robert B. Landry

"I was called one afternoon [in 1948] to come to the Oval Office - the President wanted to see me.... I was directed to report quarterly to the President after consulting with Central Intelligence people, as to whether or not any UFO incidents received by them could be considered as having any strategic threatening implications .."

Landry was an aide to President Harry S. Truman.

General Putt changed the name of Project Sign to Project Grudge. Although it retained its 2A security classification, Grudge departed from the old pro-ET attitude during the early days of Project Sign.

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Chinese Communist Party leader Mao and his supporters gain power in China.

George Adamski, grill cook in a roadside hamburger stand, wrote, in his spare time, a document which he called An Imaginary Trip to the Moon, Venus and Mars. He voluntarily listed it with the Library of Congress for copyright purposes as a work of fiction. His effort attracted the attention of a lady writer who made a deal with George to rewrite his epic; she was to furnish the skilled writing and he was to furnish the photographs of the space ships. This lady took the finished manuscript to Frank Edwards for appraisal along with a stack of crude UFO photographs. Edwards recognized it as a fraud, declined to have anything to do with it, and the woman reportedly left his office in a huff.

"In its revised form it told a yarn of how George had ventured into the desert of southern California, where he met a "scout ship" from which stepped a gorgeous doll in golden coveralls. She spoke to him with a bell-like voice in a language which he did not understand, so they had to resort to telepathy, or something similar, to carry on their conversation. [...] But this congenial con man sold a jillion books to those who were eager to believe that somebody from space was crossing millions of miles of the trackless void for the dubious privilege of conversing telepathically with former hamburger cooks."

Rockefeller Foundation launches a 12-year program designed to promote research leading to "increased understanding of one culture by members of another." Universities in U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France, Turkey, Germany, India, and Japan receive grants.

The CIA creates its first major propaganda outlet, Radio Free Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts are so blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to publish transcripts of them in the U.S.

Operation MOCKINGBIRD - The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham head the effort. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.

FBI Memo:

"The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been requested to assist in the investigation of reported sightings of flying disks..."


"[UFOs are] considered top secret by intelligence officers of both the Army and the Air Forces."

A declassified 1949 FBI document from the San Antonio FBI office, to J. Edgar Hoover.

The Army began widespread spraying of 239 U.S. cities with bacteria and pathogens as part of the secret testing of biological weapons.

The CIA bill passed Congress with scarcely a whisper. The bill allowed the CIA’s budget to be secret and enabled any branch of government to transfer money covertly to the CIA "without regard to any provisions of law."

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President Truman survives an assassination attempt on November 1st. Calmly he keeps to his scheduled appointments afterward.

The Korean War begins.

Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates.

The French conducted research on infrasonic weapons. (From "The Road From Armageddon", by Peter Lewis, Resonance#13, pp 9-14)

The CIA initiated studies in mind control programs,

"in 1950, with Project BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To establish a ’ cover story’ for this research, the CIA funded a propaganda effort designed to convince the world that the Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping the human will; the CIA’s own efforts could therefore, if exposed, be explained as an attempt to ’ catch up’ with Soviet and Chinese work. The primary promoter of this ’ line’ was one Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating under-cover as a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch society."

"Hunter offered ’brainwashing’ as the explanation for the numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during the Korean War and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners’ repatriation. These confessions alleged that the United States used germ warfare in the Korean conflict, a claim which the American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that Japan’s germ warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable terror on the conquered Chinese during WWII) had been mustered into the American national security apparatus -- and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan’s horrifying germ warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the ’brainwashed’ soldiers had indicated.

Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing scare of the 1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when, in 1963, he told the Warren Commission that "Soviet mind control research consistently lagged years behind American efforts."

Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation Virus Laboratory wins the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for developing the yellow fever vaccine.

Rockefeller Foundation initiates broad scale support for research in genetics with grants to establish centers and build entire university departments at California Institute of Technology, Indiana, Texas, Columbia, Wisconsin, Chicago, Johns Hopkins, MIT, Stanford, and others, as well as at many locations abroad. John Foster Dulles becomes chair of the board of trustees and serves until 1952.

The Army used aircraft and homing pigeons to drop turkey feathers dusted with cereal rust spores to contaminate oat crops, to prove that a "cereal rust epidemic" could be spread as a biological warfare weapon.

Six experimental biological warfare attacks by the US Army from a ship, using Bacillus globigii and Serratia marcescens along with fluorescent particles (zinc cadmium sulfide), at one point forming a cloud about two miles long as the ship traveled slowly along the shoreline of San Francisco bay. One of the stated objectives of the exercise was to study "the offensive possibilities of attacking a seaport city with a BW [biological warfare] aerosol" from offshore. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection.

September 29, patients at Stanford University’s hospital in San Francisco were found to be infected by Serratia marcescens. This type of infection had never before been reported at the hospital. Eleven patients became infected, and one died.

According to a report submitted to a Senate committee [2002] by a professor of microbiology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook:

"an increase in the number of Serratia marcescens can cause disease in a healthy person and... serious disease in sick people."

Wilbert Smith:

"The matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States Government, rating higher even than the H-bomb. Flying saucers exist. Their modus operandi is unknown but a concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Doctor Vannevar Bush. The entire matter is considered by the United States authorities to be of tremendous significance."

From a declassified Canadian government memorandum dated Nov. 21, 1950. Wilbert Smith.

Harry S. Truman

"I can assure you the flying saucers, given that they exist, are not constructed by any power on earth."

White House Press Conference, Washington DC, April 4, 1950.

Colonel Robert Willingham

"Headquarters wouldn’t let us go after it and we played around a little bit. We got to watching how it made 90 degree turns at this high speed and everything. We knew it wasn’t a missile of any type. So then, we confirmed it with the radar control station, and they kept following it, and they claimed that it crashed somewhere off between Texas and the Mexico border."

Willingham, USAF, from an affidavit filed in the 1970s.

Willingham and his navigator were test flying an F-94 on Sept.6, 1950 out of San Angelo, Texas when they were alerted by radar control operators of a UFO in their area.

FBI memo:

"An investigator for the Air Force stated that three so-called flying saucers had been recovered in New Mexico. They were described as being circular in shape with raised centers. Approximately 50 feet in diameter. Each one was occupied by three bodies of human shape but only 3 feet tall. Dressed in metallic cloth of a very fine texture. Each body was bandaged in a manner similar to the blackout suits used by speed flyers and test pilots."

From a March 22, 1950 memo to J. Edgar Hoover from the Washington FBI Office, released in 1976 under the freedom of information act.

Hoover was Director of the FBI

Edgar Hoover

"I would do it [aid the Army Air Force in its investigations] but before agreeing to it we must insist upon full access to the discs recovered. For instance in the LA case the Army grabbed it and would not let us have it for cursory examination."

From a handwritten notation at the bottom of a now declassified memo. "LA" in this case may refer to Los Alamos, where the first atomic bombs were developed.

United States, Pasadena, California. A producer for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, was driving home with his wife when they said they witnessed three revolving disks traveling at great speed. The next day, a group at Caltech reported seeing the same objects.

United States, Stuggart, Arkansas. Chicago & Southern Airlines Capt. Jack Adams and First Officer G. W. Anderson, Jr. reported witnessing one 100’ circular disc with 9-12 portholes along the lower side emitting a soft purple light, and a light at the top which flashed 3 times in 9 seconds, flew at not less than 1,000 m.p.h. It was seen for 25-35 seconds.

Frank Scully’s book Behind the Flying Saucers is published. Scully wrote of the absorption by the U.S. military of the scientific community, the alarming spread of secrecy, the "loyalty hysteria," and offered his opinions that "more offences are committed under the word ’defense’ than this world dreams of." He also stated that "as far as we can make out the CIA reports to nobody and is answerable to nobody."

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US Army General Douglas McArthur asks American President Truman for permission to use atomic weapons in the Korean War. President Truman fires General Douglas McArthur.

Richard Nixon enters the U.S. Senate as its youngest member. His Senate career is uneventful and he is able to concentrate all his efforts on the upcoming presidential election.

Johnny Appleseed of LSD Alfred Hubbard first tries LSD. An OSS officer in WW II Hubbard first took LSD in 1951, and proceeded to turn on several individuals prominent in LSD research, including Dr. Humphrey Osmond, Myron Stolaroff , and Aldous Huxley, earning him the title of "the Johnny Appleseed of LSD". (Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove Press, 1985, pg 44)

circa 1951 Hubbard later did undercover work for several agencies, including the FDA and FBI. He reportedly tried (and failed) to turn on J. Edgar Hoover. He introduced LSD to many high-ranking intelligence officers. In the early 1950’s, he refused an offer to join the CIA. (Lee and Schlain, pg 52) In all, it is estimated that Hubbard introduced LSD to over 6,000 individuals. He worked until 1965 at the International Foundation for Advanced Study (mis-identified here, I think, as the International Federation for Advanced Studies) (Fahey, Todd Brendan, The Original Captain Trips", High Times, November 1991)

Fahey describes Hubbard’s work at SRI differently, placing him with the Alternative Futures Project, which sought to turn on the world’s political and business leaders. He left SRI in 1974, and died on August 31, 1982. (Fahey)

Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

Office of Special Operations (OSO) is merged with the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) by Walter Bedell Smith. The CIA no longer had to share covert operations with the Pentagon and State Department. During the year, CIA money set up the Center of International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Such linkage between the CIA and research institutions on campus and in the private sector soon became standard, as it did for the Pentagon.

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Former WWII Supreme Allied Commander, Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower wins election as President of the US. Truman refuses to run for president again. The Republicans choose Nixon as Eisenhower’s running mate, to balance the ticket with a West Coast conservative. The Republicans win by a landslide on November 4th. Meanwhile, John Kennedy is elected to the Senate, a particularly impressive feat because the rest of the nation is sweeping Republican candidates into offices with Eisenhower.

In November, the first successful American hydrogen bomb test.

National Security Agency (NSA). On October 24, 1952, President Truman signed National Security Council Directive 6, a seven-page document that eliminated the first attempt at uniting all military signal intelligence (SIGINT) operations, and created the NSA at Fort Meade, Maryland. Directive 6 remains classified to this day.

As a child in 1952, Jack Sarfatti claims to have received phone calls from the mechanical voice of a conscious computer aboard a spaceship, recruiting him along with 400 others for some special project. These calls have similarities to the mechanical voice which talked to Andrijah Puharich via his tape recorder. Sarfatti was later associated with Puharich.

Puharich first contacts The Nine a group of channeled being via a medium.

During the CIA’s MK-ULTRA mind control program, John Lilly briefed the intelligence community on his work to map out the brains of animals using implanted electrodes. He abandoned this line of work because he felt it was unethical.

John Lilly studied the effects of sensory deprivation tanks, and also briefed the intelligence community with his progress. Lilly refused to let any of his work be classified, and ended up leaving the National Institute of Health when he found that he could not work without the interference of the government

Project Moonstruck, CIA:

Electronic implants in brain and teeth
Targeting: Long range
Implanted during surgery or surreptitiously during abduction
Frequency range: HF - ELF transceiver implants
Purpose: Tracking, mind and behavior control, conditioning, programming, covert operations
Functional Basis: Electronic Stimulation of the Brain, E.S.B.

Wilbert Smith:

"If, as appears evident, the Flying Saucers are emissaries from some other civilization, and actually do operate on magnetic principles, we have before us the Fact that we have missed something in magnetic theory but have a good indication of the direction in which to look for the missing quantities. It is therefore strongly recommended that work on Project Magnet be continued and expanded to include experts in each of the various fields involved in these studies"

From an interim report dated 25th June 1952 Wilbert Smith was the electrical engineer who convinced the Canadian government to establish Project Magnet to study the UFO phenomenon and later served as engineer-in-charge of the project.

Dr. Walther Riedel:

"I am completely convinced that [UFOs] have an out-of-world basis."


"First, the skin temperatures of structures operating under the observed conditions would make it impossible for any terrestrial structure to survive. The skin friction of the missile at those speeds at those altitudes would melt any metals or nonmetals available. Second, consider the high acceleration at which they fly and maneuver... In some descriptions the beast spirals straight up. If you think of the fact that the centrifugal force in a few minutes of such a maneuver would press the crew against the outside, and do likewise to the blood, you see what I mean.


Third.... There are many occurrences where they have done things that only a pilot could perform but that no human pilot could stand. Fourth, in most of the reports there is a lack of visible jet. Most observers report units without visible flame . . . and no trail. If it would be any known type of jet, rocket, piston engine, or chain-reaction motor, there would be a very clear trail at high altitude. It is from no power unit we know of..."

"The least improbable explanation is that these things are artificial and controlled ... My opinion for some time has been that they have an extraterrestrial origin."

From LIFE Magazine, April 7, 1952.

Riedel was research director and chief designer at Germany’s rocket center in Peenemunde and also worked on classified projects for the U.S. after WW2.


Dr. Maurice Biot

"The least improbable explanation is that these things UFO’s are artificial and controlled. My opinion for some time has been that they have an extraterrestrial origin."

Biot was one of the world’s leading aerodynamicists and mathematical physicists.

Life, April 7, 1952.

United States, Washington, D.C. Perhaps the best documented UFO incident in history:

July 13. National Airlines plane en route to National Airport, about 60 mi. SW of the city observed a blue-white ball of light hovering to the west. Object then "came up to 11,000 ft. and then maintained a parallel course, on the same level, at the same speed, until the aircraft pilot turned on all lights. Object then departed from the vicinity at an estimated 1000 mph. Weather was excellent for observation." The crew said the object "took off up and away." No other air traffic was reported in the area at the time.

July 14. Newport News, Va. Southbound Pan American Airways plane at 8,000 ft. nearing the Norfolk, Va., area observed six glowing red, circular objects approaching below the airliner; objects flipped up on edge in unison and then sped from behind and under the airliner and joined the in-line formation, which "climbed in a graceful arc above the altitude of the airliner." "Then the lights blinked out one by one, though not in sequence." Next day the crew was thoroughly interrogated and advised that they already had seven other reports of red discs moving at high speed and making sharp turns.

July 16. Hampton Roads, Va. A Government aeronautical research engineer observed two amber-colored lights approaching from the south at about 500 m.p.h. These slowed and made a U-turn, revolved around each other at a high rate of speed, then joined by two other objects from different directions, the four sped off to the south at about 500 m.p.h. "They moved jerkily when moving slowly. Their ability to make tight circling turns was amazing."

July 18. Washington, D. C. Radio station chief engineer observed 6-7 bright orange discs moving in single file. Each in turn veered sharply upward and disappeared.

July 19. National Airport began picking up unidentified targets on radar.

July 20. Herndon, Va. Capital Airlines flight from National Airport called by control tower to check on unidentified radar targets saw three objects, and three more between there and Martinsburg, W. Va. "like falling stars without tails [which] moved rapidly up, down, and horizontally. Also hovered." Chief CAA air traffic controller Harry Barnes later said in a newspaper interview: "His [the pilot’s] subsequent description of the movement of the objects coincided with the position of our pips [radar targets] at all times while in our range."

July 20. Andrews AFB, Md., (Nr. Washington, D.C.). Five witnesses visually observed three reddish-orange objects moving erratically.

July 20. Capital Airlines flight incoming to National Airport reported that an unidentified light followed his airliner from the vicinity of Herndon, Va., to within about 4 miles west of the airport, confirmed on radar.

July 20. Additional unidentified targets appear on radar at National Airport.

July 20. Air Force radar operators at Andrews AFB weather tower tracked 10 UFOs for 15-20 minutes. Objects approached runway, scattered, made sharp turns and reversals of direction.

July 26. Sharp UFO targets on radar at National Airport. Civilian pilots saw glowing white objects on four occasions, including a United Airlines pilot near Herndon, Va., and two CAA pilots over Maryland. National Airlines pilot near Andrews AFB at 1700 ft. saw a UFO "flying directly over the airliner."

July 26. Radar at National airport tracked a UFO on radar ("big target"), confirmed by Andrews AFB radar.

July 26. Radar at National Airport tracked "solid returns" of "four targets in rough line abreast," and eight others scattered over the radarscope. July 26. Andrews AFB, Md., surveillance radar tracked 10-12 UFOs in Washington, D.C. area.

July 26. National Airport, 10-12 objects on radar.

July 26. "Good sharp targets" of 4-8 UFOs on ARTC radar at National Airport.

July 26. Air Force Command Post notified of unidentified radar targets. Two F-94 jet interceptors scrambled from New Castle AFB, Delaware, to investigate.

July 27. Major Fournet, (Project Blue Book Officer in Pentagon), and Lt. Holcomb, (Navy electronics expert), arrived at National Airport Center. Observed "7 good, solid targets." Holcomb checked on temperature inversions, but they were minor and could not explain what was going on. He so advised AF Command Post, requesting interception mission. By the time the F-94 jets arrived from Delaware, no strong unidentified targets remained and no visual contacts were made.

July 27. F-94 jet interceptors scrambled from New Castle AFB, Del., to investigate Washington, D.C., radar- UFOs. One F-94 pilot made visual contact and appeared to be gaining on target; both F-94 and UFO were observed on radar and "appeared to be traveling at the same approximate speed." When the F-94 pilot tried to overtake the UFO, it disappeared visually and on radar. The pilot remarked about the "incredible speed of the object."

July 27. Air Force Lieutenant at Andrews AFB saw a dark disc moving slowly northeast with "oscillating rolling motion." Clouds were moving southeast. UFO entered base of clouds.

July 27. Air Force personnel and others at National Airport saw a large round object reflecting sunlight, apparently hovering over the Capital Building. After about a minute, the object "wavered then shot straight up disappearing from sight."

July 28. Daily papers headlined a United Press story from Washington, D.C., that the Air Defense Command had ordered its jet pilots to pursue, and if necessary "shoot down, " UFOs sighted anywhere in the country.

July 29. Many unidentified targets tracked by CAA radar, 8-12 on the radarscope at a time, moving southeast in a belt 15 miles wide near Washington, D.C. July 29. Eastern Airlines pilot asked to check on radar targets, reported seeing nothing. CAA official said the targets disappeared from the radar screen when the plane was in their area, "then came back in behind him."

July 29. Air Force pilot sighted three round white UFOs 10 miles southeast of Andrews AFB. Other UFOs tracked by radar during the afternoon.

July 29. Air Force press conference at which the sightings were attributed to temperature inversions causing "radar mirages," typically ground lights reflected in the sky under freak atmospheric conditions. Also announced new scientific program to evaluate sightings.

Harry G. Barnes "For six hours ... there were at least ten unidentifiable objects moving above Washington. They were not ordinary aircraft." Barnes was Senior Air Traffic Controller for the C.A.A. in 1952.

Dr. H. Marshall Chadwell

"Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitude and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major US defense installations are of such nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial vehicles."

Chadwell, former assistant director of the CIA’s Office of Scientific Intelligence, in a December, 1952 memo to then-director of the CIA, General Walter B. Smith.

Walter Bedell Smith

"The Central Intelligence Agency has reviewed the current situation concerning unidentified flying objects which have created extensive speculation in the press and have been the subject of concern to Government organizations... Since 1947, approximately 2,000 official reports of sightings have been received and of these, about 20% are as yet unexplained."

"It is my view that this situation has possible implications for our national security which transcend the interests of a single service. A broader, coordinated effort should be initiated to develop a firm scientific understanding of the several phenomena which apparently are involved in these reports..."

From a 1952 memorandum to the National Security Council.

Smith was Director of the CIA from 1950 to 1953

Argentina, Veronica. Hundreds of residents witnessed six discs circling above the town, the disappearing into the night sky. This sighting was written within hours of a similar report from Captain Paul Carpenter near Denver. Carpenter reported the craft were traveling at 3,000 miles per hour, making it possible for the saucer to have appeared in both locations.

United States, Enid, Oklahoma.  Sidney Eubank went to the Enid police station and told Sergeant Vern Bennell that an enormous disk had buzzed his car as he drove between Bison and Waukonis on Highway 81. The rush of air made the car leave the road while the object flew west very fast.

United States, George AFB, California. Three men on the arms range, plus one Lt. Colonel 4 miles away witnessed five flat-white discs about the diameter of a C-47’s wingspan (95’) flew fast, made a 90 degree turn in a formation of three in front and two behind, and darted around, for 15-30 seconds.

United States, Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahoma State Patrolman Hamilton in a State Patrol airplane witnessed three dark discs hovered and then flew away, silhouetted against a dark cloud. 15 seconds.

United States, Wichita Falls, Texas.: Mr. and Mrs. Adrian Ellis. witnessed two disc-shaped objects, illuminated by a phosphorus light, flew at an estimated 1,000 m.p.h. for 15 seconds.

Coral Lorenzen published first issue of the APRO Bulletin. Within a few years the organization became one of America’s most influential and respected civilian directed UFO organizations.

ATIC received 536 UFO reports in the month of July alone, with unknowns running at 40 percent.

Project Chatter. A navy mind control research project took place primarily in Germany. It involved the University of Rochester’s Psychology Department Chairman, Dr. G. Richard Wendt, who had received a good deal of Navy money to study amphetamines, alcohol, and heroin. The navy flew Wendt to Germany in order to test a "truth serum" he had developed on some prisoners. The experiment was a failure, and Wendt lost his funding.

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