Sumerian, Acadian and
From verses scattered throughout hymns and myths, one can compile a
picture of the universe's (Anki) creation according to the
The primeval sea (Abzu) existed before anything else and within
that, the heaven (An) and the earth (Ki) were formed.
The Mesopotamian formula for prayers and incantations normally
contains the expression "by the bond of heaven and earth" (or
Duranki), as well as "from the Great Above to the Great Below".
I believe this is the Mesopotamian way of saying "as above, so
below" Ki being the wondrous lapis, the Earth Queen, Beloved of An
and Mother of all Creation.
These are only a few examples of the importance of Mesopotamian
mythology, which shaped up the psyche, religion, culture and values
of the peoples who had some contact with them.
The boundary between heaven and earth was a solid (perhaps tin)
vault, and the earth was a flat disk. Within the vault lay the
gas-like 'lil', or atmosphere, the brighter portions therein formed
the stars, planets, sun, and moon.
Each of the four major Sumerian deities (An, Ki, Enlil and
associated with one of these regions.
Their gods were known by other names than those that the Semitic
peoples to the north eventually gave them, but they were the same
basic pantheon: the great father of the gods.