Gods of the...

Younger generation


Red = SUMERIAN name
Blue = ACADIAN name
Green = BABYLONIAN name




These Gods are the children of the Primary Gods and can be grouped as follows :


A. The Seven who decreed Fate

B. The Sebitti

C. The other Gods

D. Demi-Gods, Monsters and Demons


Back to Contents








A. The Seven Who Decreed Fate

A group of seven "decreed the fates" - these probably included:

  • Ningirsu (Ninurta)

  • Ishkur (Adad)

  • Bel (Marduk)

  • Gibil (Gerra)

  • as well as Nanna (Sin)

  • his son Utu (Shamash)

  • the sun god and a god of justice

  • and Nanna's daughter Inanna (Ishtar)

Next in importance to the creating deities were the three sky deities, Nanna, the god of the moon; Utu, the sun god; and Inanna (who later became Ishtar), the queen of heaven and the goddess of love, procreation, and war.

A god of great importance was Ninurta, the deity in charge of the violent and destructive south wind.

Nana (Sin), Utu and Hadad (Ishkur, Adad), all Gods of the younger generation, makes up the second triad of Mesopotamian gods.

They all lived in "Euriminianki", or "House of the Seven Spheres of Heaven and Earth".




Ningirsu - Ninurta - Ninurta
The God Yahweh, YHWH of the Jews

The foremost son of Enlil, He was born in E-kur, Enlil's temple in Nippur. His wife is Baba/Gula.

Ninurta is chamberlain of the Great Anunnaki.

Nissaba performs a purification ceremony on him and he receives the following new names and shrines:

Duku - 'holy mound' in Sumerian, Hurabtil - an Elamite god, Shushinak - patron god of the Elamite city Susa, Lord of the Secret, Pabilsag - god of the antediluvian city Larak, Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna, Ishtaran - god of Der, Zababa -warrior god of Kish, Lugalbanda - Gilgamesh's father, Lugal-Marada - patron god of Marad, Warrior Tishpak - similar to Nin-Azu, Warrior of Uruk, Lord of the Boundary-Arrow, Panigara - a warrior god, and Papsukkal - vizier of the great gods.

The city of Nippur was the centre of his cult. He was the patron deity of the ancient Sumerian city of Girsu (Lagash) where king Gudea (c.2141-2122 BCE) built a temple for him called the E-ninnu (see chapter 11 about the Sumerian King list).

He is the Sumerian-Babylonian god of rain, fertility, war, thunderstorms, wells, canals, floods, the plough and the South Wind.

Ninurta the God of Thunder and Lightning and the South Wind. (1)

(1) Thunder and Lightning and Wind?, isn't it the same story as in the Bible during the stay of the Jews in the Sinai dessert.

We can read in the Bible :

Exodus 14:21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.


Exodus 20:18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.

According to one poem, Ninurta's exploits, he once dammed up the bitter waters of the underworld and conquered various monsters. (2)

(2) Bitter waters? isn't it the same story as in the Bible during the stay of the Jews in the Sinai dessert.

We can read in the Bible :

Exodus 15:22-27 So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water.


And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah. And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?


And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them.


And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee.

His name means "lord of the earth" (Girsu) and mankind owed to him the fertile fields and the healthy live-stock, his symbol is the lion-headed eagle. (3)

(3) A lion headed eagle?, isn't it the same story as in the Bible during the stay of the Jews in the Sinai dessert.

We can read in the Bible :

Exodus 25:18-20 And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.


And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.


And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.

When the Tablets of Destiny were stolen by the storm-bird Zu he managed to retrieve them.


Ki, at Enki's advice, instructed him to kill Anzu. Initially his assault was futile, but Sharur relayed advise from Enki to him, which, when it was carried out allowed him to slay Anzu in a great onslaught. He recovered the Tablets of Destinies for Enlil.

Tablets of Destinies?, isn't it the same story as in the Bible during the stay of the Jews in the Sinai dessert.

We can read in the Bible :

Exodus 31:18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.

As a reward Nissaba performs a purification ceremony on him and he receives the following new names and shrines:

Duku - 'holy mound' in Sumerian (4), Hurabtil - an Elamite god, Shushinak - patron god of the Elamite city Susa, Lord of the Secret, Pabilsag - god of the antediluvian city Larak, Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna, Ishtaran - god of Der, Zababa -warrior god of Kish, Lugal-Marada - patron god of Marad, Warrior Tishpak - similar to Nin-Azu, Warrior of Uruk, Lord of the Boundary-Arrow, Panigara - a warrior god, and Papsukkal - vizier of the great gods.

(4) Holy mound?, isn't it the same story as in the Bible during the stay of the Jews in the Sinai dessert.

We can read in the Bible :

Exodus 19:1-4 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai.


For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount.


And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.




That Yahweh was originally a son of El (Enlil) is attested by a document (KTU 1.1 IV 14) from Ugarit, a Palestinian site occupied by neighbors of Israel.

It reads sm . bny . yw . ilt, which translates as "The name of the son of god, Yahweh." This status as the foremost of the sons of El is remembered in the Song of Moses.

Ninurta was indeed the foremost Son of Enlil.

in the Bible we can read :

Dt:32:7: Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations: ask thy father, and he will shew thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee.

Dt:32:8: When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.

Dt:32:9: For the Lord's portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.

"When the Ely-on (another name of El) apportioned the nations, when he divided humankind, he fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the gods (i.e., each god controlled one nation of people); Yahweh's own portion was his people, Jacob his allotted share."

Yahweh ruled as the king of the other children of El. In this role, he presided whenever the Assembly of the Gods whenever they met in council. The pre-eminence of Yahweh over the other gods is repeatedly asserted in Psalms.

in the Bible we can read :

Ps:86:8: Among the gods there is none like unto thee, O Lord; neither are there any works like unto thy works.

"There is none like you among the gods, O Yahweh"


Psalm 89 is even more specific in explaining that the "gods" in question are the sons of El who met at the Assembly of the Gods:
Ps:89:5: And the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O Lord: thy faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.

Ps:89:6: For who in the heaven can be compared unto the Lord? who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord?

Ps:89:7: God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that are about him.

"The heavens praise your wonders, O Yahweh, your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones. For who in the skies can be compared to Yahweh? Who among the sons of gods is like Yahweh? a God feared in the council of the holy ones, great and awesome above all that are around him"

The conclusion should be that the God of the Bible is not the leader God's but only "one of the Gods" Even in the Bible (from Jewish translation) we can find prove that Ninurta and Yahweh are the same God because later on is written in the Bible :

And God said to Moses "I am that I am" Exodus 3:14

Ex:3:14: And God said unto Moses," I AM THAT I AM": and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

God first announced his identity to Moses not in Exodus 3. He made sure that Moses tell the Israelites that he is called I AM. In Hebrew if I am not wrong that is spoken as ezeer (sic). If Yahweh wanted to be anonymous, why not shout at Moses and say just tell them I am God! Or tell Moses that God is omnipotent, he hasn't got a name. Instead he told Moses twice that his name is I AM.

There must be a better translation. Can the word in Hebrew according to one author be Ningirsu.

In Exodus 6:3, Yahweh said he did not reveal his holy name to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. They called him God Almighty, to Moses; Yahweh called himself the Lord.
Ex:6:2: And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the Lord:

Ex:6:3: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH (Yahweh) was I not known to them.

So God has been going by three names from Adam to Moses.

There can only be one explanation why Ninurta refused to tell his "real" name to Moses. .

He was a short tempered God, even as his father El, as we can clearly read in Exodus and he new that he was not the same God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. So he told Moses with other words not to interfere with His business.

The reason that he refused to give his name was that he new that he would be punished by his father El (Enlil).

A clear example is given in the Bible :

Exodus 34:14 For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God:
In Joshua 2: we can read that Ninurta is angry to Israel because of the bow for Ba-al (Adad, Ishkur) :
Jgs:2:13: And they forsook the Lord, and served Baal and Ashtaroth.

Jgs:2:14: And the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies.

Ninurta (the God of Thunder and Lightning), the foremost son of Enlil, is the same God as mentioned in the Bible "YAHWEH", YHWH (Jehovah, I am that I am) during the lifetime of Moses until the time of King Solomon in the Bible, the God who instructed Moses to leave Egypt, the God who appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai and the God of the "Ten Commandments".


He was, even as his father Enlil, a short tempered God with a variably mood.




Nanna - Suen - Sin

The son of Enlil and Ninlil


He is the "product" of Enlil's rape of Ninlil.


Nanna was married to Ningal and they produced Inanna and Utu (Shamash).

The Sumerian moon-god, called 'Lord of Destiny'. He has a beard of Lapis Lazuli and rides a winged bull. Nanna was the tutelary deity of Ur, appointed as king of that city by Anu and Enlil.

He is lord of the calendar, fixing the seasons, and also a vegetation-deity and patron of fertility. With Utu and Hadad (Ishkur, Adad) he makes up the second triad of Mesopotamian gods. (from about 1,580 BCE, see chapter 12)

He established Ur-Nammu as his mortal representative, establishing the third Ur dynasty (see
The Sumerian King List). (1)

(1) The High priest of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, was Therah, the father of Abraham, so the God of Therah was Sin (the Moon God). Later Abraham was forced to leave his family in Haran by El (Enlil) to go to Canaan in the west.---

He rests in the Underworld every month, and there decrees the fate of the dead. He averts a flood of his city by visiting Enlil in Nippur on a boat loaded with gifts and pleading with him. He refuses to send aid to Inanna when she is trapped in the underworld. He does not answer Gilgamesh's plea to restore Enkidu to life.

Nanna's cult center was in Ur, as was the residence of his high priestesses.



Utu - Shamash - Shamash
The son of Nanna and Ningal

The god of the Sun and of Justice, Utu goes to the underworld at the end of every day and while there decrees the fate of the dead.


When Inanna's huluppu tree is infested with unwelcome guests, he ignores her appeal for aid. He aided Dumuzi in his flight from the Galla demons by helping him to transform into different creatures.


He opened the "ablal" of the Underworld for Enkidu, to allow him to escape, at the behest of Enki. Through Enki's orders, he also brings water up from the earth in order to irrigate Dilmun, (1) the garden paradise, the place where the sun rises.


He is in charge of the "Land of the Living" and, in sympathy for Gilgamesh, calls off the seven weather heroes who defend that land.

(1) He brings UP water from the Earth to Dilmun ?, Dilmun was thus situated on a mountain top but more probably Dilmun was situated in the our solar system, another planet, Mars ?.

He rises from the mountains with rays out of his shoulders. He enters and exits the underworld through a set of gates in the mountain, guarded by scorpion-people. He travels both on foot and in a chariot, pulled by fiery mules. He upholds truth, and justice. He is a lawgiver and informs oracles.


Nergal is a corrupt aspect of his nature. He loves Gilgamesh, hates evil and instigates Gilgamesh's quest against Humbaba, guiding him and receiving prayers from him along the way. He tries to intercede to Enlil on Enkidu's behalf, but is unsuccessful.


He rebukes Enkidu for cursing the Stalker and the temple prostitute for bringing him out of the wild. In Kish, the eagle and the serpent swore an oath to him that they would not overstep his limits.


The eagle broke the oath and ate the eggs of the serpent. Utu's, 'whose net is as wide as earth', told the serpent how to serve the eagle justice. The serpent lured the eagle with a bull carcass and captured him. The eagle requested to be spared and the serpent refused, saying that Utu's punishment would fall on him if he did not carry it out.


He cut the eagle's wings and left him to die in a pit. The eagle prayed to Utu for mercy, and he refused to help personally, but sent Etana to help the eagle.


He agreed to help Etana's infertility problem if Etana would help the eagle.



Ishkur - Adad - Hadad

A storm god, Anu's son


He holds a lightning bolt in his right hand and an axe in his left. He is partially responsible for the flood. He despairs and will not attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from Enlil.


Also worshipped as Hadad (in Canaan), Eshmun (by the Sidonians), Ishkur (in Accad and by the Hittites), the number X (by the Hittites), Baal Hadad, Adad, Teshub, or Teshub (by the Hurrians), Sutekh (by the Hyksos), the Canaanite/Egyptian Resheph, Rimmon, Hadad-Rimmon (and either one or the other in Aram and Damascus), and Ramman (in Accad). Also spelled Ba`al, Beel, Be`el, Ball (Mercatante).

He is known as ADAD in Acadian. Later the people of Canaan came to call ADAD lord which in their language was Ba`al.

Ishkur / Hadad it the the same God as, Baal, Ba-al, Ba`al in the Bible.




Inanna - Ishtar - Ishtar
It is notable that Inanna and Ishtar could be different Goddesses

The daughter of Nanna and Ningal

She is Anu's second consort but she was also the lover of Enki, Dumuzid and many other Gods and Demi Gods.

Inanna is one of the most important goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon in ancient Mesopotamia. She is a goddess of love, fertility, and war.

A woman planted the huluppu tree in Inanna's garden, but the Imdugud-bird (Anzu bird?) made a nest for its young there, Lilith (or her predecessor, a lilitu-demon) made a house in its trunk, and a serpent made a home in its roots. Inanna appeals to Utu about her unwelcome guests, but he is unsympathetic.


She appeals to Gilgamesh and he is receptive. He tears down the tree and makes it into a throne and bed for her. In return for the favor, Inanna manufactures a pukku and mikku for him. Later, Inanna seeks out Gilgamesh as her lover. When he spurns her she sends the Bull of Heaven (Gugulana) to terrorize his city of Unug (Uruk, Erech).

Inanna figures prominently in various myths, such as 'Inanna's descent to the underworld', Inanna and Bilulu, Inanna and Ebih, Inanna and Shu-kale-tuda and many others.

Inanna also visits Kur (Africa). She sets out to witness the funeral rites of her sister-in-law Ereshkigal's husband Gugulanna, the Bull of Heaven.


She takes precaution before setting out, by telling her servant Nin-Shubur to seek assistance from Enlil, Nanna, or Enki at their shrines, should she not return. Inanna knocks on the outer gates of Kur and the gatekeeper, Neti, questions her. He consults with queen Ereshkigal and then allows Inanna to pass through the seven gates of the underworld.


After each gate, she is required to remove adornments and articles of clothing, until after the seventh gate, she is naked. The Anunna pass judgment against her and Ereshkigal killed her and hung her on the wall. Inanna is rescued by the intervention of Enki. He creates two sexless creatures that empathize with Ereshkigal's suffering, and thereby gain a gift - Inanna's corpse.


They restore her to life with the Bread of Life and the Water of Life, but the Sumerian underworld has a conservation of death law. No one can leave without providing someone to stay in their stead. Inanna is escorted by galla/demons past Nin-Shubur and members of her family.


She doesn't allow them to claim anyone until she sees Dumuzi on his throne in Uruk. They then seize Dumuzi, but he escapes them twice by transforming himself, with the aid of Utu. Eventually he is caught and slain. Inanna spies Geshtinanna, in mourning and they go to Dumuzi.


She allows Dumuzi, the shepherd, to stay in the underworld only six months of the year, while Geshtinanna will stay the other six. As with the Greek story of the kidnapping of Persephone, this linked the changing seasons, the emergence of the plants from the ground, with the return of a harvest deity from the nether world.

Inanna was the same as the Biblical Goddess Astharoth or Astarte.



Bel - Marduk

Son of Enki and Ninhursag, brother of Nanche and Geshtinanna, half-brother of Dumuzi (mortal)


His consort was Sarpanitum.




In accordance to the Sumerian / Babylonian view Marduk was the son of Enki / Ea but some scientists an historians believe that Enki / Ea and Marduk are the same God.

It is uncertain but it is also my opinion that Enki and Marduk are the same God with different names because there is a significant parallel between parts of their stories.---

Marduk is possibly a different name for Enki, his father.

He is a "King of the Igigi".

He often works with and asks questions of his father.

The Sumerian name is probably Merodoch and Acadian Bel. Eventually, he was called simply Bel, meaning "Lord."

According to Enuma Elish, an ancient epic poem of creation, Marduk defeated Tiamat and Qingu, the dragons of chaos, and thereby gained supreme power.

- Cleverest of the clever and sage of the gods. He was a fertility god, but originally a god of thunderstorms.

He is depicted as having four eyes, four ears, and emits fire from his mouth when he speaks. He is also gifted in magic. He was of proud form and piercing stare, born mature, powerful, and perfect and superior.

Acknowledged as the creator of the universe and of humankind, the god of light and life, and the ruler of destinies, he rose to such eminence that he claimed 50 titles. He supplants the other Babylonian deities to become the central figure of their pantheon.(1)

(1) Even as his father Enki he was the most important God of the Babylonians and he often works and questions his father.

He has fifty names many of which are those of other deities whose attributes he usurped. (2)

(2) Even in the Enuma Elish is written that Marduk took over the names of other Gods, or they were eventually given by his grandfather An.

Anu, his uncle, gave him the four winds to play with.

When Anu's peace mission to Tiamat fails, Enki urges him into action. He goes before An and the divine assembly and declares that he will defeat Tiamat and lay her head at his feet, but that the assembly must promise that he should be the one to fix fates and more or less assume the role of the leader of the pantheon.

He takes a bow and arrow and mace. He puts lightning in front of him, marshals his winds, makes a net to encircle Tiamat, fills his body with flame. He rides his storm-chariot driven by Slayer, Pitiless, Racer, and Flyer, poison-toothed, tireless steeds. He had a spell on his lips and an anti-toxin in his hand.

He led the gods to battle. Qingu's strategy confused him. Tiamat tried to enspell him and wheedled at him. Marduk reproaches her and calls her out for single combat. She looses her temper and they fight.


He unleashes his weapons at her, distended her body with winds, shot her in the belly with an arrow, split her in two and slit her heart.(3) He defeats the rest of her forces and retrieves the Tablet of Destinies.


He smashed Tiamat's skull to herald her death. He made half of her skin the roof of the sky.

(3) As mentioned earlier by the story of Tiamat, it is notable that there it talks of the collapse between two or more planets in ancient times. There are known stories and theories that the Earth lost half of its mass during the collapsing of several planets. (see also the chapter of Nibiru later).

He leveled the Apsu, measured it and established numerous shrines for many of the gods.

He set up stands for the gods, constructed the heavens and regulated the year, giving Utu some dominion over the months and the year. (4) He made the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Tiamat's eyes and made mountains from her udders. He smashed the weapons of Tiamat's army and put images of them at the gates to the underworld.

(4) Dr. Emanuel Velikovsky wrote in his book "Ages in chaos" and "Worlds in collision" about collapsing planets, it is interesting to reed these books and others from the same writer, for more information about Velikovsky go to : http://www.varchive.org/  and http://www.varchive.org/bonds/bonds.htm  for some movies of Velikovsky's theories.

As mentioned previously the Sumerians believed in the Gods as the planets of our solar system (see later chapter about Nibiru).

He set up his temple at E-sharra. and his seat in Babylon. The gods honored him as king.

He put blood and bones together as and made early man to bear the work of the gods, as in Atrahasis (Earth). For Qingu's part in the war he was made to provide the blood for the creation of humankind. (5)

(5) Even as his father is here written that he created humankind.

An, Lahamu, and Anu find him a shrine and Anu instills upon him the Anu-power in which, his word decrees fate. He is proclaimed King and invested with the scepter, throne, and staff-of-office. He is given an un-faceable weapon, the flood-weapon.

An gave him many new names, see the whole story in the Babylonian creation Epic The Enuma Elish :

1. Asarluhi, 2. Marduk, 3. The Son, The Majesty of the Gods, 4. Marukka, 5. Mershakushu, 6. Lugal-dimmer-ankia (King of heaven and earth), 7. Bel, 8. Nari-lugal-dimmer-ankia, 9. Asarluhi, 10. Namtila, 11. Namru, 12. 'Asare, 13. Asar-alim, 14. Asar-alim-nuna, 15. Tutu, 16. Zi-ukkina, 17. Ziku, 18. Agaku, 19. Shazu, 20. Zisi, 21. Suhrim, 22. Suhgurim, 23. Zahrim, 24. Zahgurim, 25. Enbilulu, 26. Epadun, 27. Gugal, 28. Hegal, 29. Sirsir, 30. Malah, 31. Gil, 32. Gilima, 33. Agilima, 34. Zulum, 35. Mummu, 36. Zulum-ummu, 37. Gizh- numun-ab, 38. Lugal-ab-dubur, 39. Pagal-guena, 40. Lugal-Durmah, 41. Aranuna, 42. Dumu-duku, 43. Lugal-duku, 44. Lugal-shuanna, 45. Iruga, 46. Irqingu, 47. Kinma, 48. Kinma, 49. E-sizkur, 50. Addu, 51. Asharu, 52. Nebiru, 53. Enkukur.

He becomes a firm lawgiver and judge who, when angered is not stoppable.

He divided the Anunnaki and placed 300 to guard the sky, and six hundred to dwell in heaven and earth.(6)

(6) Se also the story in Enoch about the "Watchers" who were also divided in groups of 300 and 600 "Angels", even in the Bible we can find more of these Anunnaki, now called Nephilim, Anakim or "Sons of God", thus appearing to make there offspring and of most of the other Sons of Gods the Nephilim or Anakim of the Old Testament.

we can read in Genesis 6 :

Gn:6:2: That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. Gn:6:4: There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.

He had them create Babylon building the E-SAGILA temple and a high ziggurat. (The tower of Babel ?) (7)

(7) Some historians believe that Marduk started the Tower of Babel incident. I disagree with them because we can read in The Writings of Abraham that Nimrod builds the Tower of Babel.

Later he becomes somewhat negligent and Erra (Nergal) challenges him by preparing to attack his people in Babylon. He responds to the challenge by saying that he already killed most of the people in the flood and would not do so again.

He also states that no-one would be in control of things if he got off of his throne to work up a flood, to which Erra volunteers to run things from Marduk's throne.

According to Sumerian sources, Marduk was born before the Flood on the 12th planet Nibiru (see chapter 12). Marduk came back to Earth after the Flood (together with other Gods) and took over Egypt.

He was known to the Egyptians as Ra, the son of Ptah, (known as Ea by the Babylonian). These deities were known by different names in different countries but there is reason to suspect they were the same gods. His father Enki / Ptah gave him Egypt to rule. Marduk/Ra was unhappy because he wanted to rule the whole earth.

It shouldn't be strange that Enki and Marduk were one and the same God because Christianity believes in the Father and the Son as one God. But still its not proven yet. Sometimes it is also said that Adad (Ba-al) is the same as Marduk. I don't believe that because Adad is a son of Anu and a brother of Enlil.



Gibil - Girra - Gerra Ishum

The god of fire, Antu's (Anunitu's) son


The Sumerian god of light and fire. He was also invoked to protect against wizardry.

He despairs and will not attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from Enlil.

He is the god of fire, and is adept at using weapons. He lights the way in front of Erra (Nergal) and the Sebitti. He advises Erra against attacking Marduk or his people in Babylon.


When Erra takes Marduk's seat, Gibil (Ishum) persuades him against destroying Babylon, finally appeasing him by promising that the other gods would acknowledge themselves as his servants (see also the original Babylonian tablet called Erra and Ishum.