Another important concept in Sumerian theology, was that of me. The
me were universal decrees of divine authority. They are the
invocations that spread arts, crafts, and civilization.
Enki became the keeper of the me. Inanna comes to Enki and complains
at having been given too little power from his decrees. In a
different text, she gets Enki drunk and he grants her more powers,
arts, crafts, and attributes - a total of ninety-four me. Inanna
parts company with Enki to deliver the me to her cult center at
Erech. Enki recovers his wits and tries to recover the me from her,
but she arrives safely in Erech with them.
The Me are in some stories a kind of weapon and a chariot as well.
Kur literally means "mountain", "foreign land", or "land" and came
to be identified both with the underworld and, more specifically,
the area which either was contained by or contained the Abzu also
called the underworld or netherworld
Kur is the name of the area which either was contained by or
contained the Abzu.
Enki also struggled with Kur as mentioned in the prelude to
"Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld" and presumably was
victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" (the
realm). Kur was a dragon-like creature, calling to mind Nammu and
Leviathan. The texts suggests that Enki's struggle may have been
with instruments of the land of kur - its stones or its creatures
Nergal is perhaps the co-ruler of Kur with Ereshkigal, he is more
prominent in Babylonian literature. He holds Enkidu fast in the
underworld after Enkidu broke several taboos while trying to recover
Gilgamesh's pukku and mikku.
In the story of Ereshkigal Kur was a demon with his huge scaly body
and wings, Primeval Snake and Dragon, Ereshkigal felt he was like
the raw power of Mother Ki. A Beast, but she knew there was beauty
Kur is a Demon and a place as well.
Kur is also called the Underworld, The Netherworld and the broad
Earth. Kur, a dragon like creature ? the form of the Nile in Egypt,
Ethiopia and Sudan ?
In my opinion is Kur another name for Africa and specially the
Gold-and Copper mines.
See the whole story in the Sumerian poem Enki and Ninhursag
The gods lived in a "paradise" called Dilmun, most scholars believes
that it was probably an island in the Persian Gulf, now named
Bahrain, or somewhere in Kurdistan.
In Dilmun was no death or illness. Animals lived in harmony, and
plants were watered by a mist that arose from the earth.
Ninhursag, the Great Mother goddess, became angry with Enki, because
he had eaten seven magical plants which she had created. In
punishment, she cursed seven parts of Enki's body, each for one of
the plants he had eaten. The first curse was on his rib, another on
his foot, and so on. As Enki lay dying, the other gods begged
Ninhursag to save him. Eventually, she relented and affected his
cure by means of seven goddesses whom she magically created, each
with the special power to pronounce a blessing on one of his cursed
parts. The last of these special goddesses was Nin-ti, whose name
means Lady of the Rib or Lady of Life, the suffix -ti meaning both
'rib' and 'life' in the Sumerian language. It was she who pronounced
the blessing on his rib, the last blessing that restored him fully
We can read in the Bible :
Gn:2:6: But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the
whole face of the ground.
Echoes of this early story of an earthly paradise, with its motifs
of punishment for eating sacred plants, ribs, and life remained in
the biblical story of Genesis written millennia later. In it the
"Lady of the Rib" who is said to be "the mother of all living"
(Genesis 3:20b), Eve (Hebrew Chavvah, meaning 'to cause to breath',
the causative form of Chavah, 'to tell, to declare, to show, or to
Gn:3:20: And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the
mother of all living.
The Semitic empires of Mesopotamia that followed the civilization of
Sumer carried on this same basic story, substituting, of course, the
names of their own Semitic Gods for the original Sumerian.
In my opinion there is a difference between Dilmun and The Garden of
Edin (Eden) as mentioned by The story of the God Utu/Shamash who was
ordered by Enki to bring water UP from the Earth to Dilmun. Dilmun
thus can also be situated somewhere in our solar system, maybe Mars
or another planet.
Some of the Mesopotamian Gods are in my opinion a personification of
the Planets of our solar system, but not all of them.
The 4 primary Deities were indeed "living" beings, they stayed on
Earth for a long time and "ruled" as leaders over the other Gods.
Most of the "Creating" Gods produced several creations and the first
of these Creatures were abnormal beings called Demons, Monsters,
Humankind, and Mankind.
We found a lot of Gods as mentioned in the Bible :
1. AN is the same as the God "EL", Elohim or Ely-on in the Bible,
the God as mentioned in Genesis 1 as God who created heaven and
2. Anu is the same as "The Lord, the most high God", The God as
mentioned in Genesis during the lifetime of Abraham (Melchizedek the
King of Salem was a priest of the most high God).
is the same as "The Lord God" or "EL" mentioned in Genesis,
the God who expelled Adam and Eve from the garden of Edin (Eden),
the patron God of Cain when he slew his "brother" Abel, the God who
caused the Flood to destroy Mankind, and the God who was furious to
the Sons of God in Genesis 6 because they mingled with Mankind. EL
became ALLAH by the Moslems.
4. Enki/Ea is the same as the God who created Adam and Eve (with the
help of his wife Ninhursag) as slaves for the Gods, the God who
instructed Noah to build an Ark, the God who preserved and protected
Mankind against other Gods and the God who was responsible for the
final creation of Homo Sapiens (modern men). Finally Ea and Marduk
(his son) are one and the same God.
5. Ninurta (the God of Thunder and Lightning), the foremost son of
Enlil, is the same God as mentioned in the Bible "YAHWEH", YHWH
(Jehovah, I am that I am) during the lifetime of Moses until the
time of King Solomon in the Bible, the God who instructed Moses to
leave Egypt, the God who appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai and the
God of the "Ten Commandments". He was, even as his father Enlil, a
short tempered God with a variably mood.
6. Utu/Shamash, The God of Terah, the father of Abraham.
7. Ishkur/Hadad, Ba'al the God of Israel from King Jeroboam until
the time the Jews were deported to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar.
Believe it or not the Jews took most of the stories from the
Sumerians, Acadians and Babylonians and made it their own.
The Bible is the rewritten history of Mesopotamia, based on the clay
tablets found there.