WHEN PARADISE WAS LOST
The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, on the face
of it a deliberate and decisive breaking of the links between The
Adam and his creators, was not that final after all. Were it to be
final, the records of Divine Encounters would have ended right then
and there. Instead, the Expulsion was only the start of a new phase
in that relationship that can be characterized as hide-and-seek, in
which direct encounters become rare and visions or dreams become
The beginning of this post-Paradise relationship was far from
auspicious; it was, in fact, a most tragic one. Unintentionally it
brought about the emergence of new humans, Homo sapiens sapiens. And
as it turned out, both the tragedy and its unexpected consequence
planted the seeds of divine disillusionment with Humankind.
It was not the Expulsion from Paradise, such a cherished topic for
preachings on the "Fall of Man," that was at the root of the plan to
let the Deluge wipe Humankind off the face of the Earth. Rather, it
was the incredible act of fratricide: When all of humanity
consisted of four (Adam, Eve, Cain, and Abel), one brother killed
And what was it all about? It was about Divine Encounters ...
The story as told in the Bible begins almost as an idyll:
And the Adam knew Eve his wife
and she conceived and gave birth to
and she said:
"Alongside Yahweh a man I brought to be."
Again she gave birth, to his brother Abel.
And Abel became a
shepherd of flocks
and Cain a tiller of the land.
Thus, in just two verses, does the Bible introduce the reader to the
entirely new phase of human experience and sets the stage for the
next Divine Encounter. In spite of the seeming break between God and
Man, Yahweh is still watching over Humankind. Somehow - the Bible
does not elaborate how - grains and cattle have been domesticated,
with Cain becoming a farmer and Abel a shepherd.
The brothersí first
act is to offer the first fruits and yearlings to Yahweh in
gratitude. The act implies a recognition that it was thanks to the
deity that the two ways of obtaining food became feasible.
privilege of a Divine Encounter was expected; but,
Yahweh paid heed unto Abel and his offering; unto Cain and his
offering He paid no heed. So Cain was very resentful and his
countenance was sullen.
Perhaps alarmed by this development, the deity speaks, directly, to
Cain, trying to dissipate his anger and disappointment. But to no
avail; when the two brothers were alone in the field, "Cain came
upon his brother Abel and killed him."
Yahweh was soon demanding an accounting from Cain. "What hast thou
done?" the Lord cried out in anger and despair; "the voice of thy
brotherís blood cries unto me from the ground!" Cain is punished to
become a wanderer upon the Earth; but the Earth too is accursed, to
cease its fertility. Recognizing the magnitude of his crime, Cain
is afraid of being killed by unnamed avengers. "So Yahweh put a mark
on Cain, so that whoever shall find him should not smite him."
What was this "mark of Cain"? The Bible does not say, and countless
guesses are just that - guesses. Our own guess (in
The Lost Realms)
was that the mark might have been a genetic change, such as
depriving the line of Cain of facial hair - a mark that would be
immediately obvious to whoever shall find them.
Since this is a mark
of recognition of Amerindians, we have suggested that since Cain
"went away from
the presence of Yahweh and resided in the Land of Nod, east of
Eden," his wanderings took him and his offspring farther into Asia
and the Far East, in time crossing the Pacific to settle in
When his wanderings ended, Cain had a son whom he named
Enoch and built a city "called by the name of his son." We have
pointed out that Aztec legends called their capital Tenochtitland,
"City of Tenoch," in honor of ancestors who came from the Pacific.
Since they prefixed many names by the sound "T," the city could have
really been named after Enoch.
Whatever the destination of Cain or the nature of the mark were, it
is clear that this final act in the Cain-Abel drama required a
direct Divine Encounter, a close contact between the deity and Cain
so that the "mark" could be emplaced.
This, as the unfolding record of the relationship between Man and
God will show, was a rare occurrence after the Expulsion from
According to Genesis it was not until the seventh
pre-Diluvial Patriarch (in a line that began with Adam and ended
with Noah) that the Elohim engaged in a direct Divine Encounter; it
had to do with Enoch, who at age 365 (a number of years paralleling
the number of days in a year) "walked with the Elohim" and then was
gone "for the Elohim had taken him" to join them in their abode.
But if God so rarely revealed himself, yet Humankind - according to
the Bible - continued to "hear" him, what were the channels of
To find answers regarding those early times, we have to fish for
information in the extra-biblical books, of which the Book of
Jubilees is one. Called by scholars Pseudepigrapha of the Old
Testament, may include the
Book of Adam and Eve that survived in
several translated versions ranging from Armenian and Slavonic to Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic (but not the original Hebrew).
According to this source, the slaying of Abel by Cain was foretold
to Eve in a dream in which she saw "the blood of Abel being poured
into the mouth of Cain his brother." To prevent the dream from
coming true, it was decided to "make for each of them separate
dwellings, and they made Cain an husbandman and Abel they made a
But the separation was to no avail. Again Eve had such a dream (this
time the text calls it "a vision"). Awakened
by her, Adam suggested that they "go and see what has happened to
them." "And they both went, and found Abel murdered by the hand of
The events, as recorded in the Book of Adam and Eve, then describe
the birth of Sheth (meaning "Replacement" in Hebrew) "in place of
Abel." With Abel dead and Cain banished, Seth (as the name is
spelled in English translations of the Bible) was now the
patriarchal heir and successor to Adam.
And so it was that when Adam
fell sick and was close to death, he revealed to Seth "what I heard
and saw after your mother and I had been driven out of paradise:"
There came to me Michael the archangel,
an emissary of God.
And I saw a chariot like the wind,
and its wheels were as on fire.
And I was carried up unto
the Paradise of the Righteous Ones
and I saw the Lord sitting;
But his face was a flaming fire
that could not be endured.
Though he could not face the awesome sight, he could hear Godís
voice telling him that because he had transgressed in the Garden of
Eden, he was fated to die. Then the archangel Michael took Adam
away from the vision of Paradise and brought him back to whence he
had come. Concluding the account, Adam admonished Seth to avoid sin
and to be righteous and to follow Godís commandments and statutes
that will be delivered to Seth and his descendants when "the Lord
shall appear in a flame of fire."
Since the death of Adam was the first natural passing of a mortal.
Eve and Seth knew not what to do. They took the dying Adam and
carried him to the "region of Paradise," and there sat at the Gates
of Paradise until Adamís soul departed from his body. They sat
bewildered, mourning and crying. Then the Sun and Moon and the stars
darkened, "the heavens opened," and Eve saw celestial visions.
Raising her eyes she saw "coming from the heavens a chariot of
light, borne by four bright eagles. And she heard the Lord instruct
the angels Michael and Uriel to bring linen cloths and shroud Adam
as well as Abel" (who has not yet been buried); so were Adam and Abel
consecrated for burial. Then the two of them were carried by the
angels and buried, "according to the commandment of God, in the
place where the Lord obtained the soil-dust" for the creation of
There is a wealth of pertinent information in this tale. It
establishes prophetic dreams as a channel for divine revelations, a
Divine Encounter through telepathic or other subconscious means. It
introduces into the realm of Divine Encounters an intermediary: an
"angel," a term known from the Hebrew Bible whose literal meaning
was "emissary, messenger." And it also brings into play yet
another form of Divine Encounter, that of "visions" in which the
"Chariot of the Lord" is seen - an "awesome sight" of a "chariot like
the wind," whose "wheels were as on fire" when seen by Adam and as a
"chariot of light, borne by four bright eagles," when seen by Eve.
Since the Book of Adam and Eve, as the other Pseudographic books,
was written in the last centuries before the Christian era, one
could of course argue that its information regarding dreams and
visions could have been based on knowledge or beliefs from a much
closer time to the writers than the pre-Diluvial events. In the case
of prophetic dreams (of which more later) such a throwback in time
would only serve to reinforce the fact that such dreams have indeed
been deemed an undisputed channel between the deities and humans
throughout recorded history.
In regard to visions of divine chariots, one could also argue that
what the author of the Book of Adam and Eve had attributed to
prehistoric, pre-Diluvial times also reflected much later events,
Ezekielís vision of the Divine Chariot (at the end of the
seventh century B.C), as well as familiarity with extensive
references to such aerial vehicles in Mesopotamian and Egyptian
texts. But in this matter, visions or sightings of what we nowadays
call UFOs, there exists actual, physical evidence of such sightings
from the days before the Deluge - pictorial evidence whose
authenticity is undeniable.
Let us be clear: We are not referring to Sumerian depictions (starting with the pictograph for GIR) and other depictions
from the ancient Near East in the post-Diluvial era. We are talking
about actual depictions - drawing, paintings - from an era preceding the
Deluge (that had occurred, by our calculations, some 13,000 years
ago), and preceding it not by a short time but by thousands and tens
of thousands of years!
The existence of pictorial depictions from that far back in
prehistory is no secret. What is virtually a secret is the fact that
besides animals, and some human figures, those drawings and
paintings also depicted what we nowadays call UFOs.
We refer to what is known as Cave Art, the many drawings found in
caves in Europe where Cro-Magnon Man made his home. Such "decorated
caves" as scholars call them have been found especially in the
southwest of France and the north of Spain. More than seventy such
decorated caves have been found (one, whose entrance is now under
the waters of the Mediterranean sea, as recently as 1993) there.
Stone Age artists used the cave walls as giant canvases, sometimes talentedly using the natural contours and protrusions of the walls
to attain tridimensional effects. Sometimes using sharp stones to
engrave the images, sometimes clay to mold and shape, but mostly a
limited assortment of pigments - black, red, yellow, and a dull
brown - they created astoundingly beautiful works of art.
depicting humans as hunters, and sometimes their hunting weapons
(arrows, lances), the depictions by and large are those of Ice Age
animals: bison, reindeer, ibexes, horses, oxen, cows, felines, and
here and there also fish and birds (Fig. 9). The drawings,
engravings, and paintings are sometimes life-size, always
naturalistic. There is no doubt that the anonymous artists painted
what they had actually seen. Time-wise they span millennia, from
about 30,000 to 13,000 years ago.
In many instances the more complex, more vividly colored, more
lifelike depictions are in the deeper parts of the caves, which
were, of course, also the darkest parts. What means the artists used
to light the inner recesses of the caves so that they could paint,
no one knows, for no remains of charcoal or torches or the like have
been found. Nor, to judge by the absence of remains, were these
Many scholars, therefore, tend to view these
decorated caves as shrines,
where the art expressed a primitive religion - an appeal to the Gods,
by painting the animals and hunting scenes, to make forthcoming
hunting expeditions successful.
The inclination to view the Cave Art as religious art also stems
from the plastic finds. These consist mainly of "Venus"
figurines - statuettes of females known as the Willendorf Venus (Fig.
10a) whose date is approximately 23000 B.C. Since the artists could
also render the female shape perfectly naturally, as this find in France from circa 22000 B.C. shows
(Fig. 10b), it is believed that the ones with exaggerated
reproductive parts were intended to symbolize or seek - "pray
for" - fertility; so that while the natural ones represented "Eves,"
the exaggerated ones ("Venuses") expressed veneration of a Goddess.
Figures 10a and 10b
The discovery of another "Venus" at
Laussel in France, dating to the same period, reinforces the deity rather than the human
identification, because the female is holding in her right hand the
symbol of a crescent (Fig. 11). Although some suggest that she is
merely holding a bisonís horn, the symbolism of a celestial
connection (here with the Moon) is inescapable, no matter of what
material the crescent was made.
Many researchers (e.g. Johannes Maringer in
The Gods of Prehistoric
Man) believe that "it appears highly probable that the female
figurines were idols of a Ďgreat motherí cult, practiced by
non-nomadic Upper Stone Age mammoth hunters." Others, like Marlin
Stone (When God Was A Woman) considered the phenomenon "dawn of a
Stone Age Garden of Eden" and linked this worship of a Mother Goddess to the later Goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon.
One of the
nicknames of Ninmah, who had assisted Enki in the creation of Man,
was Mammi; there is no doubt that it was the origin of the word for
"mother" in almost all the languages. That she was revered already
some 30,000 years ago is no wonder - for the Anunnaki had been on
Earth for far longer, with Ninmah/Mammi among them.
The question is, though, how did Stone Age Man, more
specifically Cro-Magnon Man, know of the existence of these "Gods"?
Here, we believe, come into play another type of drawings found in
the Stone Age caves. If they are mentioned at all (which is rarely),
they are referred to as "markings." But these were not scratches or
incoherent lines. These "markings" depict well-defined
shapes - shapes of objects that, nowadays, are referred to as UFOs...
The best way to make the point is to reproduce these "markings."
Fig. 12 reproduces depictions by Stone Age artists - the illustrating
reporters of their time - in the Altamira, La Pasiega, and El
Castillo caves in Spain, and the Font-de-Gaume and Pair-non-Pair
caves in France.
These are by no means all of the illustrations of
this kind, but the ones that, in our view, are the most obvious
Stone Age depictions of celestial chariots. Since all the other
depictions in the decorated caves are of animals, etc., actually
seen and most accurately rendered by the cave artists, there is no
reason to assume that in the case of the "markings" they depicted
objects that were abstract imaginings. If the depictions are of
flying objects, then the artists must have actually seen them.
Thanks to those artists and their handiwork, we can rest assured
that when Adam and Eve - in pre-Diluvial times - claimed to have seen "celestial chariots," they were recording
fact, not fiction.
Reading the biblical and extra-biblical records in the light of
Sumerian sources will add greatly to our understanding of those
prehistoric events. We have already examined such sources in respect
to the tale of the creation of The Adam and of Eve and the Garden of
Eden. Let us now examine the Cain-Abel tragedy. Why did the two feel
obliged to offer the first fruits or yearlings to Yahweh, why did he
pay heed only to the offering of Abel, the shepherd, and why did the
Lord then rush to appease Cain by promising him that he, Cain, would
rule over Abel?
The answers lie in a realization that, as in the tale of creation,
the biblical version compresses more than one Sumerian deity into a
single, monotheistic one.
Sumerian texts include two that deal with disputes and conflicts
between farming and shepherding. They both hold the key to an
understanding of what had happened by going back to a time before
the domestication of either grains or cattle, a "time when grains
had not yet been brought forth, had not yet vegetated... when a
lamb had not yet been dropped, there was no she-goat."
"black-headed people" had already been fashioned and placed in the Edin; so
the Anunnaki decided to give to NAM.LU.GAL.LU - "civilized
Mankind" - the knowledge of and tools for "the tilling of the land"
and the "keeping of sheep"; not, however, for the sake of Mankind
but "for the sake of the Gods," to assure their satiation.
The task of bringing forth the two forms of domestication fell to
Enki and Enlil. They went to the DU.KU, the "purification place,"
the "creation chamber of the Gods," and brought forth Lahar ("woolly
cattle") and Anshan ("grains").
"For Lahar they set up a sheepfold
... to Anshan a plough and yoke they presented."
seals depicted the presentation of the first-ever plough to Mankind
(Fig. 13a) - presumably by Enlil who had created Anshan, the farmer
(although a presentation by Enlilís son Ninurta, who was nicknamed
"the ploughman," should not be ruled
out); and a ploughing scene in which the plough is pulled by a bull
Figures 13a and 13b
After an initial idyllic period, Lahar and
Anshan began to quarrel.
A text named by scholars
The Myth of
Cattle and Grain reveals that
in spite of the effort to separate the two by "establishing a
house," a settled way of life, for Anshan (the farmer) and putting
up sheepfolds in the grazing lands for Lahar (the shepherd), and in
spite of the abundant crops and bountiful sheepfolds, the two began
The quarrel began as the two offered those abundances
to the "storehouse of the Gods." At first each just extolled his
own achievements and belittled those of the other. But the argument
became so volatile, that both Enlil and Enki had to intervene.
According to the Sumerian text, they declared Anshan - the farmer - the
More explicit in its choice between the two food producers and two
ways of life is a text known as The Dispute Between Emesh an Enten,
in which the two come to Enlil for a decision as to who of them is
the more important. Emesh is the one who "made wide stalls and
sheepfolds"; Enten, who dug canals to water the lands, asserts that
he is the "farmer of the Gods." Bringing their offerings to Enlil,
each seeks to be granted primacy.
Enten boasts how he made "farm
touch farm," his irrigation canals "brought water in abundance,"
how he "made grain increase in the furrows" and be "heaped high in
the granaries." Emesh points out that he "made the ewe give birth to
the lamb, the goat to give birth to the kid, cow and calf to
multiply, fat and milk to increase," and also how he obtained eggs
from nests made for the birds and caught fish from the sea.
But Enlil rejects the pleas of Emesh, even reprimands him: "How
could you compare yourself to your brother Enten!" he tells him, for
it is Enten Ďwho is in charge of the life-producing waters of all
the lands." And water spells life, growth, abundance. Emesh accepts
The exalted word of Enlil,
whose meaning is profound;
A verdict that
no one dares transgress it!
And so, "in the dispute between Emesh and Enten, Enten, the faithful
farmer of the Gods, having proved himself the winner, Emesh his knee
bent before Enten, offered him a prayer," and gave him many
It is noteworthy that in the above-quoted lines Enlil calls Emesh a
brother of Enten - the same relationship as that between Cain and
Abel. This and other similarities between the Sumerian and biblical
tales indicate that the former were the inspiration for the latter.
The preference of the farmer over the shepherd by
Enlil can be
traced to the fact that he was the one to introduce farming while
Enki accounted for the domestication of livestock. Scholars tend to
translate the Sumerian names as "winter" for Enten and "summer" for
Emesh. Strictly speaking EN.TEN meant "Lord of Resting," the time
after the harvests and thus the winter season, without a clear
affinity to a specific deity. E.MESH ("House of Mesh"), on the other
hand, is clearly associated with Enki, one of whose epithets was
MESH ("Proliferation"); he was thus the God of shepherding.
All in all, there can be little doubt that the Cain-Abel rivalry
reflected a rivalry between the two divine brothers. It flared up
from time to time, as when Enlil arrived on Earth to take over
command from Enki (who was relegated to the
Abzu), and on subsequent occasions. Its roots, however, went back to
Nibiru, their home planet. Both were the sons of Anu, Nibiruís
ruler. Enki was the firstborn, and thus the natural heir to the
throne. But Enlil, though born later, was born by the official
spouse of Anu (and presumably a half sister of his) - a fact that made
Enlil the legal heir to the throne. Birthright clashed with
succession rules; and though Enki accepted the outcome, the rivalry
and anger often burst into the open.
A question rarely asked is, where did Cain obtain the very notion of
killing? In the Garden of Eden Adam and Eve were vegetarians, eating
only fruits of the trees. No animal was slaughtered by them. Away
from the Garden there were only four humans, none of whom has yet
died (and certainly not as a result of foul play). In such
circumstances, what made Cain "come upon his brother Abel and kill
The answer, it seems, lies not among men but among the Gods.
the rivalry between the human brothers reflected a rivalry between
the divine brothers, so did the killing of one human by another
emulate the killing of one "God" by another. Not of Enki by Enlil or
vice versa - their rivalry never reached such vehemence - but still the
killing of one leader of the Anunnaki by another.
The tale is well documented in Sumerian literature. Scholars called
it The Myth of 7M. It relates events that took place after the
rearrangement of the command on Earth, with an ample production of
gold ores in the Abzu under Enkiís direction and their processing,
smelting, and refining in the Edin under Enlilís supervision. Six
hundred Anunnaki are engaged in all of these operations on Earth;
another three hundred (the IGI.GI, "Those Who Observe and See") stay
aloft, manning the shuttlecraft and spacecraft that transport the
purified gold to Nibiru.
Mission Control Center is in Enlilís
headquarters in Nippur; it is called DUR.AN.KI, "The Bond
Heaven-Earth." There, atop a raised platform, the vital instruments,
celestial charts and orbital-data panels ("Tablets of Destinies")
are kept in the DIR.GA, a restricted innermost holy-of-holies.
The lgigi, complaining that they get no respite from their orbital
duties, send an emissary to Enlil. He is an AN.ZU,
"One Who Knows the Heavens," and is called ZU for short. Admitted
into the Dirga, he finds out that the Tablets of Destinies are the
key to the whole mission. Soon he begins to think evil thoughts, "to
plot aggression:" to steal the Tablets of Destinies and "govern the
decrees of the Gods."
At first opportunity he carried out his scheme, and "in his Bird"
took off to hide in the "Mountain of Skychambers." In the Duranki,
everything came to a standstill; the contact with Nibiru was
disrupted, all operations were thrown into havoc. As one effort
after another to recapture the tablets fails, Ninurta, Enlilís
Foremost Son and warrior, undertakes the dangerous mission. Aerial
battles with weapons that emit brilliant rays ensue. Finally,
Ninurta managed to penetrate Zuís protective force-field shields and
shot Zuís "Bird" down. Zu was captured and put on trial before the
"seven Anunnaki who judge." He was found guilty and was sentenced
to death. His vanquisher, Ninurta, carried out the sentence.
The execution of Zu has been depicted on an archaic sculpted relief
found in central Mesopotamia (Fig. 14). It all happened long before
Mankind was created; but as these texts show, the tale was recorded
and known in ensuing millennia. If that is where Cain obtained the
notion of killing, Yahwehís anger was understandable, for Zu was
killed after a trial; Abel was just murdered.
Sumerian texts, the origin of and inspiration for the tales of
Genesis, not only fill the bare-bones biblical versions with
details; they also provide the background for understanding
the events. One more aspect of the human experience thus far can be
explained by the divine records. The sins of Adam/ Eve and of Cain
are punished by nothing more severe than Expulsion. That too appears
to be an application of an Anunnaki form of punishment to the
created humans. It was once meted out to Enlil himself, who
"date-raped" a young Anunnaki nurse (who in the end became his
By combining the biblical and Sumerian data, we are now in a
position to put the record of Mankindís beginnings in a time frame
supported by modern science.
the Sumerian King Lists, 120 Sars ("Divine Years" or
orbits of Nibiru), equaling 432,000 Earth-years, passed from the
arrival of the Anunnaki on Earth until the Deluge. In chapter 6 of
Genesis, in the preamble to the tale of Noah and the Deluge, the
number "one hundred and twenty years" is also given.
It has been
generally held that it refers to the limit God had put on the extent
of a manís life; but as we have pointed out in
The 12th Planet, the
Patriarchs lived after the Deluge much longer - Shem, the son of Noah,
600 years; his son Arpakhshad 438, his son Shelach 433, and so on
through Terah, Abrahamís father, who lived to be 205. A careful
reading of the biblical Hebrew verse, we have suggested, actually
spoke of the deityís years completing 120 by then - a count of Divine
Years, not those of Earthlings.
Out of those 432,000 Earth-years, the Anunnaki were alone on Earth
for forty Sars, when the mutiny occurred. Then, some 288,000
Earth-years before the Deluge, i.e. about 300,000 years ago, they
created the Primitive Worker. After an interval whose length is not
stated in those sources, they gave the new being the ability to
procreate, and returned the First Couple to southeast Africa.
A point that is usually ignored, but which we find highly
significant, is that all through the narratives concerning Manís
creation, the Garden of Eden episode, and - most intriguing - in the
story of the birth of Cain and Abel, the Bible refers to the human
as THE Adam, a generic term defining a certain species. Only in
chapter 5 of Genesis, that begins with the words "This is the book
of the genealogies of Adam," does
the Bible drop the "the."
It is only then that it starts to deal
with a specific forefather of the human generations; but
significantly, this listing omits Cain and Abel and proceeds from
the person called Adam straight on to his son Seth, the father of Enosh. And it is only for Sethís son Enosh that the Hebrew term
meaning "human being" is employed; for that is what Enosh meant: "He
who is human." To this day the Hebrew word for "Humankind" is
Enoshut, "that which is like, that which stems from, Enosh."
The link between the biblical narrative and its Sumerian origins
emerges most interestingly in this name of the son of Adam, Enosh,
whom the Bible considers the real progenitor of Humankind as it came
to be in the ancient Near East. A list of months and the Gods
associated with them (known as IV R 33), which begins with Nisan as
the month associated with Anu and Enlil (the first month of the
Assyrian-Babylonian year), lists next the month Ayar with the
notation "sha Ea bel tinishti" - "That of Ea, lord of Mankind."
The Akkadian term tinishti has the same meaning as the
Hebrew (which derived from the Akkadian). The Akkadian term, in
turn, was paralleled in the Sumerian by the term AZA.LU.LU which can
best be translated as "the people who serve"; and once again, this
conveys - and explains - the biblical statement that expounds on Enosh,
the meaning of his name, and his time.
It is in respect to Enosh that the Bible states (Genesis 4:26) that
it was in his time that Humankind "began to call upon the name of
Yahweh." It must have been an important development, a new phase in
Humankindís history, for the Book of Jubilees states in almost
identical words that it was Enosh "who began to call on the name of
the Lord on Earth." Man has discovered God!
Who was this new human, "Enosh-man," from a scientific point of
Was he the progenitor of what we call Neanderthal Man, the
first true Homo sapiens?
Or was he already the ancestor of
Cro-Magnon Man, the first true Homo sapiens sapiens that still walks
the Earth as the current human beings?
Cro-Magnon Man (so named
after the site in France where his skeletal remains were found)
appeared in Europe some 35,000 years ago, replacing there the
Neanderthal Man (so
named after the discovery site in Germany) who can be traced there
to 100,000 years ago.
But, as skeletal remains discovered in recent
years in caves in Israel reveal, Neanderthals were migrating through
the Near East at least some 115,000 years ago, and Cro-Magnons had
dwelt in the area already 92,000 years ago.
Where do The Adam and
Eve, the first created humans, and Adam and Eve, the progenitors of
Seth and Enosh, fit into all that?
What light do the Sumerian King
Lists and the Bible shed on the issue, and how does it all correlate
to modern scientific discoveries?
While fossil remains discovered in Africa, Asia, and Europe suggest
that hominids first appeared in southeastern Africa and then
branched out to the other continents possibly half a million years
ago, the true predecessors of todayís humanity made their appearance
in southeastern Africa somewhat later.
The genetic markers for Homo
sapiens, first studied through the Mitochondrial DNA that is passed
by the female alone, and then through studies of Nuclear DNA that is
inherited from both parents (reports at the April 1994 annual
meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists)
indicate that we all stem from a single "Eve" that had lived in
southeast Africa between 200,000 and 250,000 years ago. Studies
released in May 1995 of the Y chromosome indicate a single "Adam"
ancestor some 270,000 years ago.
The Sumerian data, we have concluded, places the creation of The
Adam at about 290,000 years ago - well within the time scales for the
two progenitors that modern science now suggests. How long the stay
at the Garden of Eden, the attainment of the ability to procreate,
the expulsion back to southeast Africa, and the Cain-Abel birth had
taken place, the ancient texts do not state. Fifty thousand years?
One hundred thousand years? Whatever the exact time lapse, it seems
evident that the "Eve" who was back in southeast Africa, bearing
offspring to The Adam, fits well chronologically with the current
With those early humans gone from the stage, the time came for the
specific Adam and his line to appear. According to the Bible the
pre-Diluvial patriarchs, who enjoyed life spans ranging in most
cases almost 1,000 years, account for
1,656 years from Adam (the specific individual) to the Deluge:
Age of Adam when he begot Seth 130 years
Age of Seth when he begot Enosh 105 years
Age of Enosh when he begot Kenan 90 years
Age of Kenan when he begot Mahalalel 70 years
Age of Mahalalel when he begot Jared 65 years
Age of Jared when he begot Enoch 162 years
Age of Enoch when he begot Metushelah 65 years
Age of Metushelah when he begot Lamech 187 years
Age of Lamech when he begot Noah 182 years
Age of Noah when the Deluge occurred 600 years
Total time from birth of Adam to Deluge 1,656 years
There has been no shortage of attempts to reconcile these 1,656
years with the Sumerian 432,000, especially so since the Bible lists
ten pre-Diluvial patriarchs from Adam to Noah, and the Sumerian King
Lists also name ten pre-Diluvial rulers the last of whom, Ziusudra,
was also the hero of the Deluge.
More than a century ago, for
example, Julius Oppert (in a study titled the Daten der Genesis)
showed that the two numbers share a factor of 72 (432,000 : 72 =
6,000 and 1656 : 72 = 23) and then engaged in mathematical
acrobatics to arrive at a common source for the two. About a century
later the "mythologist" Joseph Campbell (The Masks of God) noted
with fascination that 72 represented the number of years Earth, in
its orbit around the Sun, retards by 1į (the phenomenon called
Precession) and thus saw a connection to the zodiacal houses of
2,160 years each (72 x 30į = 2,160).
These and other ingenious
solutions fail to recognize the error in comparing 432,000 with
1,656 because of treatment of all the ancient texts as just "myth."
If the ancient records would be treated as reliable data, it should
be noted that the Primitive Worker (still only THE Adam) was
brought forth not 120 Sars before the Deluge but only 80 Sars before
the watery ordeal, i.e. only 288,000 Earth-years before the Deluge.
Moreover, as we have shown earlier in this chapter, THE Adam and the
person Adam were not one and the same.
First there was the interlude
in the Garden of Eden, then the
Expulsion. How long that interlude lasted, the Bible does not say.
Since, as we have shown, the biblical narrative is based on Sumerian
sources, the simplest solution to the problem is also the most
plausible. In the Sumerian sexagesimal ("base 60") mathematical
system, the cuneiform sign for "1" could mean one or could mean
sixty, depending on the position of the sign, just as "I" could mean
one or ten or one hundred depending on the digitís position in the
decimal system (except that we make distinction easy by the use of
"0" to indicate position, writing 1, 10, 100 etc.).
Could it not
then be that the redactors of the Hebrew Bible, seeing in the
Sumerian sources the sign "1", took it to mean One rather than
Based on such an assumption, the numbers 1,656 (the birth of Adam),
1,526 (the birth of Seth) and 1,421 (the birth of Enosh) are
converted to 99,360, 91,560 and 85,260 respectively. To determine
how long ago that was, we have to add the 13,000 years since the
Deluge; the numbers then become,
Adam born 112,360 years ago
Seth born 104,560 years ago
98,260 years ago
The solution offered here by us leads to astounding results. It
places the Adam-Seth-Enosh line right in the time slot when
Neanderthals and then Cro-Magnons passed through the Lands of the
Bible as they spread toward Asia and Europe.
It means that the
individual (not the generic) Adam was the biblical Man whom we term
Neanderthal, and that Enosh, whose name meant "Human," was the
biblical term for what we call Cro-Magnon - the first Homo sapiens
sapiens, indeed the forefather of Enoshut, todayís humanity.
It was then, the Bible asserts, that humanity "began to call upon
the name of
Yahweh." Man was ready for renewed Divine Encounters;
and some that then occurred were truly astounding.
The First Americans
The long-held notion that America was settled by hunters who had
crossed over a frozen Bering Strait during the last Ice Age had
seemed implausible to us all along, for it required familiarity
with an ice-free, warmer hunting continent thousands of miles away
by people who, by definition, had not known of "America." If they
did know of such a land, others must have preceded them!
This notion, according to which the First Americans came down the
Pacific coast and established their first settlement at a North
American site called Clovis is now completely discredited, primarily
owing to the discovery of much earlier settlements in the eastern
parts of North America, and even more so of settlements dating back
20,000, 25,000 and even 30,000 years in South America, both near the
Pacific and the Atlantic coasts.
This is way before such candidates as Africans or Phoenicians (who
had certainly been to Mesoamerica) or Vikings (who had probably
reached North America); indeed, it is way before the Deluge, and
thus in the time frame of the pre-Diluvial descendants of Adam.
According to local lore, the arrivals were by sea. The latest
estimate, of some 30,000 years ago from Asia via the Pacific Ocean,
requires seafaring knowledge at such an early date. This is no
longer deemed outlandish by scientists, since it has been
established by now that the first settlers in Australia arrived
there - by boat - some 37,000 years ago. Australia and the Pacific
Islands are now considered logical stepping-stones en route from
Asia to the Americas.
Rock art by Australian Aborigines includes depictions of boats. So
do the rock paintings of Cro-Magnon Man in Europe - as we show in the