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Curcumin comes from the Turmeric plant and has been in India as a spice for centuries. Traditionally, people used curcumin to add flavor to their dishes, with many cultures recognizing the spice for its many medicinal properties.

 

As the use of curcumin continues to grow in popularity, so does the acknowledgement of its many benefits. It is for this reason that many around the world have decided to begin integrating curcumin (mostly through the intake of turmeric) into their daily lives.

 

The methods of doing so include simply consuming turmeric as a food source, taking turmeric extract in pill form, or ingesting highly concentrated liquid turmeric extract.

One primary reason for the explosion of publicity and scientific research over curcumin has to do with its unique relationship with diseases like cancer, Alzheimerís disease, and much more.

 

The powers of curcumin on cancer in particular, however,

have sparked a great deal of interest.
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Turmeric is A Powerful Anti-Cancer Agent and Your Liver's Best Friend

Research
by Jonathan Benson
staff writer
September 10, 2013
from NaturalNews Website
 

 

 


A simple, yet highly effective way to thwart cancer and protect your liver against disease can be found in a common spice that has been used in Indian cooking for thousands of years.

 

Turmeric, and more specifically, curcumin, its primary active ingredient, continues to shine as an awe-inspiring, anti-cancer "superfood" spice with a vast array of tangible health benefits, including its ability to induce cancer cell death and prevent cirrhosis.

Research is constantly being published with regards to the nutritive power of turmeric, and some of the latest research highlights the many ways in which this herb battles cancer.

 

A recent study published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, for instance, found that a dose-dependent administration of curcumin effectively activated apoptosis of liver cancer cells, meaning it prompted these harmful cells to die. In their conclusion, the researchers involved with this study declared curcumin to be a "promising phytomedicine in cancer therapy."

Previous studies have arrived at similar conclusions, including a 2007 study published in the journal, Liver International. Researchers from the Department of Gastroenterology at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in Israel tested the effects of curcumin in mice with chemical-induced liver damage.

 

Compared to hepatic damaged mice not given curcumin, those given the spice effectively averted developing liver cirrhosis, an outcome that researchers attributed to turmeric's anti-inflammatory properties.

"As curcumin ingestion is safe in humans, it may be reasonable to assess in clinical studies the beneficial effect of curcumin in slowing the development of liver cirrhosis," wrote the authors in their conclusion.

One year later, in 2008, researchers out of Taiwan published a study verifying that curcumin can also benefit in the treatment of lung cancer.

 

Not only did the spice demonstrate a unique ability to prevent cancer cells from invading and spreading, but it also activated key proteins responsible for naturally blocking and suppressing tumors from forming. The team from the National Yang-Ming University in Taipei ultimately declared that their findings support the application of curcumin in anti-cancer metastasis therapy.

And again in 2010, a study published in the Journal of Ovarian Research found that curcumin has another unique use in cancer treatment.

 

Patients with ovarian cancer, which is difficult to treat conventionally due to chemotherapy and radiation resistance, can be effectively "pre-treated" with curcumin in order to improve the efficacy of conventional cancer treatment.

"Curcumin pre-treatment enhances chemo/radio-sensitization in ... ovarian cancer cells through multiple molecular mechanisms," wrote the authors, who are from the University of South Dakota, of this particular study.

 

"[C]urcumin pre-treatment may effectively improve ovarian cancer therapeutics."

 

 


Supplementing with curcumin, adding turmeric to food

 

...can help you and your family avoid cancer


The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) has conducted extensive research into the anti-cancer properties of turmeric and found that the spice targets an astounding 10 causative factors involved in cancer development, including,

  • DNA damage

  • chronic inflammation

  • disruption of cell signaling pathways

Countless hundreds of published studies, it turns out, have also shown that curcumin is a potent anti-cancer food that blocks cancer development in a number of unique ways.

Though a precise cancer prevention dosage of turmeric has not officially been established, studies involving human patients with diagnosed cancer found that curcumin doses of about 3,600 mg (3.6 grams) induced paraptosis; targeted destruction of cancer cell mitochondria; disruption of the cancer cell cycle; cancer cell down-regulation; and arrested stem cell development.

Be sure to check out this extensive and highly-informative LEF report on turmeric to learn more about how it can help you and your family avoid cancer.

 

 

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Curcumin Matches Exercise in Slowing Aging, Protecting the Heart
by Mike Barrett
April 03, 2013

from NaturalSociety Website
 

 

 

 

It is well established that exercise helps to preserve youth and protect the heart from aging, but it certainly isnít the one protector out there.

 

According to 3 different studies carried out by researchers from the University of Tsukuba in Japan, the spice turmeric may be just as effective as moderate exercise at preventing aging and boosting heart health.

 

For the first of the 3 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials, researchers divided 32 postmenopausal women into 3 separate groups to examine the effects of curcumin and exercise on the heart.

 

One group was given curcumin orally, the second group partook in moderate exercise training, and the third group did nothing at all. The study lasted 8 weeks.

 

After measuring participantsí vascular endothelial function - a key indicator of overall cardiovascular health - at the start and end of the study, they found that the control group saw no improvement while the curcumin group and exercise group saw equal, notable improvement.

 

The study abstract concludes with:

"Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function."

In the second of the 3 studies, researchers examined curcuminís effects on another key measure in cardiovascular health known as arterial compliance.

 

For the study, 32 women were split into 4 groups:

  • One group (control) received a placebo pill

  • Another received curcumin

  • The third group engaged in an exercise routine while also taking a placebo pill

  • And the fourth group exercised and supplemented with curcumin

The control group saw no significant improvement, while both the exercise group and curcumin group saw equally significantly improvement. Groups exercising while also taking the supplements saw the greatest improvement.

 

Finally, researchers in the third study set out to test their hypothesis that curcumin and exercise,

"might lower the age-related increase in [the heart's] left ventricular (LV) after load".

After assigning 45 individuals in the same four different groups used in the second study, the researchers found once again that exercise and curcumin supplementation produced significant increases in heart health.

"Regular ingestion of curcumin could be a preventive measure against cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, our results suggest that curcumin may be a potential alternativeÖ for patients who are unable to exercise," the University of Tsukuba team concluded.

Past research has also pointed out that turmeric is fantastic for strengthening the heart and staving off heart attacks in individuals who have had recent bypass surgery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Why turmeric is the fountain of youth and the key to vibrant health
by Ethan A. Huff
staff writer

April 29, 2013

from NaturalNews Website
 

 

 


To the many traditional cultures around the world that have long utilized the spice in cooking and medicine, turmeric's amazing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer benefits are no secret.

 

But modern, Western cultures are only just now beginning to learn of the incredible healing powers of turmeric, which in more recent days have earned it the appropriate title of "king of all spices." And as more scientific evidence continues to emerge, turmeric is quickly becoming recognized as a fountain of youth "superspice" with near-miraculous potential in modern medicine.

A cohort of scientific studies published in recent years have shown that taking turmeric on a regular basis can actually lengthen lifespan and improve overall quality of life.

 

A study conducted on roundworms, for instance, found that small amounts of curcumin, the primary active ingredient in turmeric, increased average lifespan by about 39 percent. A similar study involving fruit flies revealed a 25 percent lifespan increase as a result of curcumin intake.

In the first study, researchers found that turmeric helped reduce the number of reactive oxygen species in roundworms, as well as reduce the amount of cellular damage that normally occurs during aging.

 

Curcumin was also observed to improve roundworms' resistance to heat stress compared to those not taking the spice.

 

And in fruit flies, curcumin appeared to trigger increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant compound that protects cells against oxidative damage. (http://www.lef.org)

"Given the long and established history of turmeric as a spice and herbal medicine, its demonstrated chemo-preventive and therapeutic potential, and its pharmacological safety in model system, curcumin, the bioactive extract of turmeric, promises a great future in human clinical studies designed to prevent and/or delay age-related diseases," explained the authors of a review on these and other animal studies involving turmeric.

 


Improve the quality of your life with therapeutic doses of curcumin


Even with all the data showing that it can help boost energy levels, cleanse the blood, heal digestive disorders, dissolve gallstones, treat infections, and prevent cancer, some health experts have been reluctant to recommend taking turmeric in medicinal doses until human clinical trials have been conducted.

 

But unlike pharmaceutical drugs, taking turmeric is not dangerous, and civilizations have been consuming large amounts of it for centuries as part of their normal diets.

According to consumption data collected back in the 1980s and 1990s, the average Asian person consumes up to 1,000 milligrams of turmeric a day, or as much as 440 grams per year, which equates to roughly 90 milligrams of active curcuminoids per day at higher end of the concentration spectrum.

 

And these figures, of course, primarily cover just the amount of turmeric consumed as food in curries and other traditional dishes, which means supplements with similar concentrations are perfectly safe and effective.

But the truth of the matter is that you can safely take much higher doses of both turmeric and curcumin, and doing so will provide even more benefits.

 

The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (OSU) has compiled a thorough list of turmeric's benefits with detailed information about the doses used to achieve such benefits.

 

You can access this list here: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/curcumin/

 


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Seven ways to get more super-healing turmeric in your diet
by P.F. Louis

May 27, 2013

from NaturalNews Website
 

 

 


You probably know by now that turmeric has been acknowledged as a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer substance.

 

Turmeric is a rhizome with edible roots that grow underground horizontally. It's actually related to ginger and somewhat resembles it outwardly. Turmeric's active ingredient, curcumin, is often extracted and used in many clinical studies for cancer and chronic inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis.

But there are ways to enjoy turmeric as a spice to please your palate and add its active ingredient, curcumin, as a daily part of your body's biological chemistry.

Regardless of recipe differences, keep in mind that for optimum curcumin absorption from turmeric, three basic elements are required:

  • cooking heat

  • a touch of black pepper for nutrient absorbing piperine

  • a healthy fat of your choice to protect the turmeric's curcumin from stomach acids before entering the small intestines

You can choose one or two fats from the following cold-pressed or organic fat sources:

  • Ghee

  • almond oil

  • olive oil

  • coconut oil

  • coconut milk

  • almond milk

  • goat and cow milk

Soy milk and Canola oil are not the best choices.
 

 


Easy ways to add more turmeric into your diet

  1. Turmeric can spice up your rice dishes.

     

    It's especially appropriate for organic white basmati or Indian "parboiled" rice. Parboiled white rice is often from India, and it is nutritious and digestible enough to be recommended by Ayurvedic doctors.

    By the way, Asian rices generally contain less arsenic than domestic rices.

    Make sure the rice isn't overcooked or soggy, then lightly stir-fry the rice in a suitable pan with a cold-pressed organic oil of your choice sprinkled with black pepper. Add some chopped cilantro and/or whatever salivates your taste buds.


     

  2. Eggs can be fried or scrambled using butter or coconut oil with a liberal sprinkle of turmeric and sea salt. Don't forget the pepper.


     

  3. Spicy lentils.

     

    Use green or brown lentils that can be cooked in around a half-hour with a two-to-one liquid to lentil ratio. You might try organic vegetable stock instead of purified, fluoride-free water.

    When the lentils are almost done, lightly stir fry-turmeric powder in ghee or coconut oil. Mix the turmeric and oil and with the lentils and some black pepper.


     

  4. You can create a similar dish with chick peas or garbanzo beans.

     

    If you use canned garbanzo beans, make sure they are organic and the cans are labeled BPA-free. But it's healthier and cheaper if you simply soak dry bulk organic chick peas in pure water overnight and boil them for a half-hour or so.

    Either way, coat the chick peas with plenty of turmeric powder, black pepper, and some sea salt mixed with an organic cold-pressed oil of your choice. Then lightly roast the mixture on a medium level oven setting for 15 to 20 minutes.


     

  5. A cooling turmeric summer elixir can be prepared by first boiling some turmeric root, letting it cool down somewhat, discarding the root and adding honey, lemon or lime, and a dash of ground turmeric with a pinch of black pepper. Pour over ice and enjoy.


     

  6. How about a smoothie?

     

    You can blend a half or a whole banana with some grated or powdered ginger, raw honey, freshly squeezed lemon juice, a teaspoon of bee pollen with two teaspoons of turmeric paste made by stirring turmeric over heat in ghee or coconut oil and black pepper.

    Blend with activated almond milk. Dana will tell you how to make activated almond milk here.


     

  7. Here's a convenient way to ensure your daily turmeric: Prepare a turmeric paste that you can refrigerate for several days and use to quickly prepare a "Golden Milk".

     

    Here's a show and tell for that:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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How Curcumin Protects Against Cancer
by J. Everett Borger

Life Extension Magazine
March 2011

from LEF Website
 

 

 


According to the American Cancer Society,1 one out of every three women in the United States risks developing some form of cancer over the course of their lives.

 

For men, that number rises to one in two. Since cancer is an age-related disease, the risk of diagnosis increases the longer one lives, making it the second leading cause of death in this country.2,3

These data underscore a stark reality. When it comes to cancer prevention, the medical establishment and drug company profiteers remain grossly negligent in protecting the public. The result is countless avoidable cancer deaths each year. There is an urgent need to provide aging individuals with validated interventions to target cancerís multiple causative factors before they take hold.

Among the most compelling and under-recognized of these is curcumin. In contrast to mainstream oncologyís focus on single-agent toxic treatments, curcumin has emerged as a potent multimodal cancer-preventing agent, with 240 published studies appearing in the global scientific literature in the past year alone.

In this article, you will learn of the multiple factors involved in carcinogenesis (cancer development).

 

You will discover up-to-date research demonstrating curcuminís power to disrupt specific molecular mechanisms that lead to cancer - and to even treat the disease in many cases.

 

 


System-Wide, Safe, Multimodal Defense

Curcumin is derived from the Indian spice turmeric and possesses several active components, all of which contribute to its anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive power.4-6

 

In fact, curcumin targets ten causative factors involved in cancer development.

Disrupting any one of these factors gives you a good chance of preventing cancer; disrupting several provides even greater protection, including the prevention of DNA damage.7

By blocking the inflammatory master molecule nuclear factor-kappaB (or NF-kB), curcumin blunts cancer-causing inflammation, slashing levels of inflammatory cytokines throughout the body.8,9 Curcumin also interferes with production of dangerous advanced glycation end products that trigger inflammation which can lead to cancerous mutation.10

Curcumin alters cellular signaling to enhance healthy control over cellular replication, which tightly regulates the cellular reproductive cycle, helping to stop uncontrolled proliferation of new tissue in tumors.11

 

It promotes apoptosis in rapidly reproducing cancer cells without affecting healthy tissue11-13 and reins in tumor growth by making tumors more vulnerable to pharmacologic cell-killing treatments.11,14

In addition, curcumin regulates tumor suppressor pathways and triggers mitochondrial-mediated death in tumor tissue, thereby increasing the death of cancer cells.11,15

Finally, curcumin interferes with tumor invasiveness and blocks molecules that would otherwise open pathways to penetration of tissue.2 It also helps to starve tumors of their vital blood supply and it can oppose many of the processes that permit metastases to spread.8,16,17

 

These multi-targeted actions are central to curcuminís capacity to block multiple forms of cancer before they manifest.

 

 


Combating Deadly Cancers in Women

Breast cancers vary widely in their responsiveness to standard treatment. Cancers that depend on the hormone estrogen for survival are more effectively treated with conventional methods.

 

Those that lack receptors for female hormones are far more resistant to treatment. This is where curcuminís value truly lies, because it has the ability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in a variety of hormone-negative cancers.18-20

 

Remarkably, curcumin produces virtually no change in healthy breast cells, with very low toxicity even at doses as high as 8,000 mg daily.21

In human cancer patients, curcumin doses as high as 3,600 mg a day have been shown to induce the following favorable anti-cancer effects:

  • Paraptosis. A process similar to apoptosis (programmed cell death), curcumin initiates paraptosis only in breast cancer cells, resulting in their rapid destruction.22
     

  • Targeted destruction of cancer-cell mitochondria (leaving mitochondria in healthy cells unaffected).22
     

  • Disruption of the cancer cell cycle. Curcumin can "suspend" cancerous cells in a non-reproductive state within their life cycle, thereby halting their replication.20,23-25
     

  • Cancer cell downregulation. Curcumin blocks a group of molecules vital to the process of metastasis. In animal models, it has been shown to reduce metastatic spread to the lungs via this pathway.17,26,27
     

  • Arrested stem cell development. Curcumin inhibits growth and renewal of so-called cancer stem cells, aberrant cells now believed to be at the root of many cancers, including breast cancer.3,28

Curcumin has also been shown to effectively combat cervical cancer, a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing nations and a common cancer in this country.29

 

It is caused largely by infection with the human papilloma virus, or HPV. Curcuminís anti-inflammatory effects break the link that triggers HPV-induced cancer development.29,30

Curcumin further promotes apoptosis of cancer cells within the lining of the uterus and reduces the growth rate of painful but non-malignant uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids). 31-34

Collectively, these effects make curcumin attractive both as a primary chemopreventive agent in women at risk for breast cancer and an adjuvant treatment option in those who have already developed the disease.20,21

 

 


Prostate Cancer Defense

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men.35,44 Fortunately, its long latency period and slow growth rate make it a prime candidate for prevention.36

 

Curcumin strikes at multiple targets in prostate malignancies, interfering with the spread of cancer cells and regulating inflammatory responses through the master regulator NF-kB.36-38

Like certain breast cancers, prostate cancer is often dependent on sex hormones for its growth. Curcumin reduces expression of sex hormone receptors in the prostate, which speeds androgenic breakdown and impairs cancer cellsí ability to respond to the effects of testosterone.39-42

 

It also inhibits cancer initiation and promotion 43 by blocking metastases from forming in the prostate and regulating enzymes required for tissue invasiveness.44

 

 


Combating Gastrointestinal Cancers

Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in adults and the second leading cause of cancer deaths.45,46

 

Despite aggressive surgical care and chemotherapy, nearly 50% of people with colorectal cancers develop recurrent tumors.47 This may be due in part to the survival of dangerous colon cancer stem cells that resist conventional chemotherapy and act as "seeds" for subsequent cancers.3,48,49

On the other hand, these cancers are excellent candidates for prevention, since they follow a predictable sequence from non-malignant polyps to full-blown cancerous growths, usually requiring a decade to develop.46

Much as with malignancies of the breast, cervix, and prostate, curcumin slows the progression from colon polyp to cancer by damping down the inflammatory cascade triggered by NF-kB and pro-inflammatory cytokines.6

 

This halts the growth of cancer cells before they can become detectable tumors via a host of interrelated molecular mechanisms.50,51

Curcumin also creates a gastrointestinal environment more favorable to optimal colon health by reducing levels of so-called secondary bile acids, natural secretions that contribute to colon cancer risk.52 That has a direct effect, inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells and further reducing their production.53

Curcumin also suppresses colon cancer when combined with other polyphenols such as resveratrol.46,54 The combination of curcumin with green tea extracts has prevented experimentally induced colon cancer in rats.55

Curcumin also synergizes with standard chemotherapy drugs, helping to boost their efficacy and potentially reduce the dose of toxic chemotherapy products, minimizing needless harm and suffering for cancer patients.45,47-49 Curcumin increases colon cancer cell response to radiation.56

A novel feature of curcumin is its ability to bind to and activate vitamin D receptors in colon cells.57 Vitamin D is known to exert potent anti-cancer properties.

Curcumin is equally powerful at preventing cancers in the stomach. It inhibits growth and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells in the laboratory and is particularly effective in stopping cancers that have become resistant to multiple drug treatment.58-60 Curcumin can prevent gastric cancer cells from progressing through their growth cycle, blocking further tumor growth.60

Infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a known cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer.61 Curcumin blocks growth of H. pylori and reduces the rate at which stomach cells react by turning cancerous.61,62

 

This effect is again related to curcuminís fundamental ability to block activation of inflammatory NF-kB.62

 

 

 

 

What You Need to Know: Multimodal Anti-Cancer Power of Curcumin

  • Curcumin has emerged as a potent cancer-preventing agent, with 240 published studies appearing in the global scientific literature in the past year alone.

  • Its multimodal effects act to simultaneously counter ten discrete causative factors in cancer development.

  • It intervenes at each stage in the complex sequence of events that enable cancer cells to develop, proliferate, and metastasize.

  • Its multitargeted mechanisms of action have yielded compelling results in combating a remarkably broad array of cancers, including those of the breast, uterus, cervix, prostate, and GI tract.

  • A blossoming body of research reveals curcuminís promise in countering cancers of the blood, brain, lung, and bladder as well.


 


Further Preventive Potential

Curcuminís anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and gene-regulating powers have been explored in preventing or treating cancers of the blood-forming system (leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas) as well as those of the brain, lung, and bladder.12,13,63-81

 

Even aggressive tumors of the head and neck, often following years of smoking, are proving responsive to curcumin treatment.14,82-85

 

Curcumin is also emerging as a potentially effective intervention for pancreatic cancer - one of cancerís most lethal and aggressive forms.86-90

 

 


Summary

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US, and the risk of developing the disease increases significantly as we age.

Curcumin has emerged as a potent cancer-preventing agent, with 240 published studies appearing in the global scientific literature in the past year. Curcuminís multimodal effects act to simultaneously counter ten discrete causative factors in cancer development.

It intervenes at each stage in the complex sequence of events that must occur in order for a cancer to develop, progress, invade, and ultimately metastasize to healthy tissue.

The multi-targeted mechanisms of curcumin have yielded compelling results in combating a remarkably broad array of cancers, including those of the breast, uterus, cervix, prostate, and GI tract.

 

A burgeoning body of research demonstrates curcuminís potential to counter cancers of the blood, brain, lung, and bladder as well.
 


 

Ten Key Causative Factors in...

Cancer Development
 

 

More than many other age-related diseases, cancer results from the cumulative effect of years of discrete, small-scale assaults on the body.

 

Oxidation, inflammation, stress, infection, and other physiological insults take their toll, inflicting lethal damage over time that sets abnormal cell proliferation in motion.91,92

  1. DNA damage. Numerous biomolecular assaults strike at the "blueprint" that cells need in order to replicate themselves accurately. DNA damage is often referred to as the "initiator" in cancer development - the first step in the onset of most cancers.
     

  2. Excessive or chronic inflammation. Inflammatory processes trigger the release of a host of disruptive cytokines (cell-signaling molecules) that affect virtually all cellular functions. Inflammation is commonly referred to as a cancer "promoter" for this reason.
     

  3. Disruption of cell signaling pathways. Normal communication within and between cells assures proper regulation of their healthy function. These pathways are easily disrupted by adverse events such as inflammation.
     

  4. Alterations in the cellular reproductive cycle. Cells undergo a four-stage process as they prepare to replicate themselves. The cell cycle itself is controlled by signaling pathways that can be altered or disrupted at each of these stages.
     

  5. Abnormal regulation of apoptosis. Apoptosis is the process of naturally "pre-programmed" cell death that prevents overgrowth of tissue. When apoptosis fails, cells may undergo uncontrolled reproduction.
     

  6. Altered survival pathways. The flip side of unregulated apoptosis: survival of too many healthy cells, paradoxically, can endanger the host by permitting a cancer to take hold by increasing the odds of mutation and proliferation.
     

  7. Excessive cellular proliferation. Certain hormones and other stimuli can directly trigger cells to reproduce without safe limits, especially when the preceding regulatory mechanisms have failed.
     

  8. Aggressive invasion of healthy tissue. This is accomplished by excessive production of enzymes and adhesion molecules that "dissolve" tissue and allow the tumor to literally take root. The word "cancer" itself is derived from the crab-like appearance of fully-developed malignancies, which extend tendrils in all directions into healthy tissue.93
     

  9. Rapid angiogenesis. Tumors require growth of new blood vessels for nourishment. They are endowed with the capacity to spontaneously generate new blood vessels just like healthy tissue. Angiogenesis in cancer tissue is a primary means by which tumors grow.
     

  10. Metastasis. This is the migration of cancerous cells to regions of the body beyond the locus of the primary tumor. Metastases are the distinguishing features of most malignant cancers, and the typically herald the onset of end-stage disease because they disrupt otherwise healthy tissues.

 

References

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22. Yoon MJ, Kim EH, Lim JH, Kwon TK, Choi KS. Superoxide anion and proteasomal dysfunction contribute to curcumin-induced paraptosis of malignant breast cancer cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Mar 1;48(5):713-26.

23. Sun A, Lu YJ, Hu H, Shoji M, Liotta DC, Snyder JP. Curcumin analog cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells: exploitation of a redox-dependent mechanism. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Dec 1;19(23):6627-31.

24. Quiroga A, Quiroga PL, Martinez E, Soria EA, Valentich MA. Anti-breast cancer activity of curcumin on the human oxidation-resistant cells ZR-75-1 with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase inhibition. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2010;8(3):261-6.

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