Curcumin comes from
the Turmeric plant and has been in India as a
spice for centuries. Traditionally, people used curcumin to add flavor to their dishes, with
many cultures recognizing the spice for its many
As the use of
curcumin continues to grow in popularity, so
does the acknowledgement of its many benefits.
It is for this reason that many around the world
have decided to begin integrating curcumin
(mostly through the intake of turmeric) into
their daily lives.
The methods of doing
so include simply consuming turmeric as a food
source, taking turmeric extract in pill form, or
ingesting highly concentrated liquid turmeric
One primary reason for the explosion of
publicity and scientific research over curcumin
has to do with its unique relationship with
diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and
The powers of
curcumin on cancer in particular, however,
have sparked a great
deal of interest.
Turmeric is A Powerful Anti-Cancer
Agent and Your Liver's Best Friend
by Jonathan Benson
September 10, 2013
A simple, yet highly effective way to thwart cancer and protect your
liver against disease can be found in a common spice that has been
used in Indian cooking for thousands of years.
Turmeric, and more specifically,
curcumin, its primary active ingredient, continues to shine as an
awe-inspiring, anti-cancer "superfood" spice with a vast array of
tangible health benefits, including its ability to induce cancer
cell death and prevent cirrhosis.
Research is constantly being published with regards to the nutritive
power of turmeric, and some of the latest research highlights the
many ways in which this herb battles cancer.
A recent study published in the Asian
Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, for instance, found that a
dose-dependent administration of curcumin effectively activated
apoptosis of liver cancer cells, meaning it prompted these harmful
cells to die. In their conclusion, the researchers involved with
this study declared curcumin to be a "promising phytomedicine in
Previous studies have arrived at similar conclusions, including a
2007 study published in the journal, Liver International.
Researchers from the Department of Gastroenterology at the Tel-Aviv
Sourasky Medical Center in Israel tested the effects of curcumin in
mice with chemical-induced liver damage.
Compared to hepatic damaged mice not
given curcumin, those given the spice effectively averted developing
liver cirrhosis, an outcome that researchers attributed to
turmeric's anti-inflammatory properties.
"As curcumin ingestion is safe in
humans, it may be reasonable to assess in clinical studies the
beneficial effect of curcumin in slowing the development of
liver cirrhosis," wrote the authors in their conclusion.
One year later, in 2008, researchers out
of Taiwan published a study verifying that curcumin can also benefit
in the treatment of lung cancer.
Not only did the spice demonstrate a
unique ability to prevent cancer cells from invading and spreading,
but it also activated key proteins responsible for naturally
blocking and suppressing tumors from forming. The team from the
National Yang-Ming University in Taipei ultimately declared that
their findings support the application of curcumin in anti-cancer
And again in 2010, a study published in the Journal of Ovarian
Research found that curcumin has another unique use in cancer
Patients with ovarian cancer, which is
difficult to treat conventionally due to chemotherapy and radiation
resistance, can be effectively "pre-treated" with curcumin in order
to improve the efficacy of conventional cancer treatment.
"Curcumin pre-treatment enhances
chemo/radio-sensitization in ... ovarian cancer cells through
multiple molecular mechanisms," wrote the authors, who are from
the University of South Dakota, of this particular study.
"[C]urcumin pre-treatment may
effectively improve ovarian cancer therapeutics."
Supplementing with curcumin, adding
turmeric to food
...can help you and your family avoid cancer
The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) has conducted extensive research
into the anti-cancer properties of turmeric and found that the spice
targets an astounding 10 causative factors involved in cancer
Countless hundreds of published studies,
it turns out, have also shown that curcumin is a potent anti-cancer
food that blocks cancer development in a number of unique ways.
Though a precise cancer prevention dosage of turmeric has not
officially been established, studies involving human patients with
diagnosed cancer found that curcumin doses of about 3,600 mg (3.6
grams) induced paraptosis; targeted destruction of cancer cell
mitochondria; disruption of the cancer cell cycle; cancer cell
down-regulation; and arrested stem cell development.
Be sure to check out this extensive and
highly-informative LEF report on turmeric
to learn more about how it can help you and your family avoid
Curcumin Matches Exercise in Slowing Aging,
Protecting the Heart
by Mike Barrett
April 03, 2013
It is well established that exercise
helps to preserve youth and protect the heart from aging, but it
certainly isn’t the one protector out there.
3 different studies carried out by
researchers from the University of Tsukuba in Japan, the spice
turmeric may be just as effective as moderate
exercise at preventing aging and
boosting heart health.
For the first of the 3 randomized,
double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials, researchers divided 32
postmenopausal women into 3 separate groups to examine the effects
of curcumin and exercise on the heart.
One group was given curcumin orally, the
second group partook in moderate exercise training, and the third
group did nothing at all. The study lasted 8 weeks.
After measuring participants’ vascular
endothelial function - a key indicator of overall cardiovascular
health - at the start and end of the study, they found that the
control group saw no improvement while the curcumin group and
exercise group saw equal, notable improvement.
study abstract concludes with:
“Our results indicated that curcumin
ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase
flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that
both can potentially improve the age-related decline in
In the second of the 3 studies,
researchers examined curcumin’s effects on another key measure in
cardiovascular health known as
For the study, 32 women were split into
One group (control) received a
Another received curcumin
The third group engaged in an
exercise routine while also taking a placebo pill
And the fourth group exercised
and supplemented with curcumin
The control group saw no significant
improvement, while both the exercise group and curcumin group saw
equally significantly improvement. Groups exercising while also
taking the supplements saw the greatest improvement.
Finally, researchers in the third study
set out to test their hypothesis that curcumin and exercise,
“might lower the age-related
increase in [the heart's] left ventricular (LV) after load”.
After assigning 45 individuals in the
same four different groups used in the second study, the researchers
found once again that exercise and curcumin supplementation produced
significant increases in heart health.
“Regular ingestion of curcumin could
be a preventive measure against cardiovascular disease in
postmenopausal women. Furthermore, our results suggest that
curcumin may be a potential alternative… for patients who are
unable to exercise,” the University of Tsukuba team concluded.
Past research has
also pointed out that turmeric is fantastic for strengthening the
heart and staving off
heart attacks in individuals who have had recent bypass
Why turmeric is the fountain of youth and the
key to vibrant health
by Ethan A. Huff
April 29, 2013
To the many traditional cultures around the world that have long
utilized the spice in cooking and medicine, turmeric's amazing
anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer benefits are no
But modern, Western cultures are only
just now beginning to learn of the incredible healing powers of
turmeric, which in more recent days have earned it the appropriate
title of "king of all spices." And as more scientific evidence
continues to emerge, turmeric is quickly becoming recognized as a
fountain of youth "superspice" with near-miraculous potential in
A cohort of scientific studies published in recent years have shown
that taking turmeric on a regular basis can actually lengthen
lifespan and improve overall quality of life.
A study conducted on roundworms, for
instance, found that small amounts of curcumin, the primary active
ingredient in turmeric, increased average lifespan by about 39
percent. A similar study involving fruit flies revealed a 25 percent
lifespan increase as a result of curcumin intake.
In the first study, researchers found that turmeric helped reduce
the number of reactive oxygen species in roundworms, as well as
reduce the amount of cellular damage that normally occurs during
Curcumin was also observed to improve
roundworms' resistance to heat stress compared to those not taking
And in fruit flies, curcumin appeared to
trigger increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an
antioxidant compound that protects cells against oxidative damage. (http://www.lef.org)
"Given the long and established
history of turmeric as a spice and herbal medicine, its
demonstrated chemo-preventive and therapeutic potential, and its
pharmacological safety in model system, curcumin, the bioactive
extract of turmeric, promises a great future in human clinical
studies designed to prevent and/or delay age-related diseases,"
explained the authors of a review on these and other animal
studies involving turmeric.
Improve the quality of your life with
therapeutic doses of curcumin
Even with all the data showing that it can help boost energy levels,
cleanse the blood, heal digestive disorders, dissolve gallstones,
treat infections, and prevent cancer, some health experts have been
reluctant to recommend taking turmeric in medicinal doses until
human clinical trials have been conducted.
But unlike pharmaceutical drugs, taking
turmeric is not dangerous, and civilizations have been consuming
large amounts of it for centuries as part of their normal diets.
According to consumption data collected back in the 1980s and 1990s,
the average Asian person consumes up to 1,000 milligrams of turmeric
a day, or as much as 440 grams per year, which equates to roughly 90
milligrams of active curcuminoids per day at higher end of the
And these figures, of course, primarily
cover just the amount of turmeric consumed as food in curries and
other traditional dishes, which means supplements with similar
concentrations are perfectly safe and effective.
But the truth of the matter is that you can safely take much higher
doses of both turmeric and curcumin, and doing so will provide even
The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon
State University (OSU) has compiled a thorough list of turmeric's
benefits with detailed information about the doses used to achieve
You can access this list here:
Seven ways to get more super-healing turmeric
in your diet
by P.F. Louis
May 27, 2013
You probably know by now that turmeric has been acknowledged as a
potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer substance.
Turmeric is a rhizome with edible roots that grow underground
horizontally. It's actually related to ginger and somewhat resembles
Turmeric's active ingredient, curcumin, is often extracted and used
in many clinical studies for cancer and chronic inflammation such as
But there are ways to enjoy turmeric as a spice to please your
palate and add its active ingredient, curcumin, as a daily part of
your body's biological chemistry.
Regardless of recipe differences, keep in mind that for optimum
curcumin absorption from turmeric, three basic elements are
You can choose one or two fats from the following cold-pressed or
organic fat sources:
goat and cow milk
Soy milk and Canola oil are not
the best choices.
Easy ways to add more turmeric into
Turmeric can spice up your rice
It's especially appropriate for organic white
basmati or Indian "parboiled" rice. Parboiled white rice is
often from India, and it is nutritious and digestible enough
recommended by Ayurvedic doctors.
By the way, Asian rices generally contain less arsenic than
Make sure the rice isn't overcooked or soggy, then lightly
stir-fry the rice in a suitable pan with a cold-pressed
organic oil of your choice sprinkled with black pepper. Add
some chopped cilantro and/or whatever salivates your taste
Eggs can be fried or scrambled
using butter or coconut oil with a liberal sprinkle of
turmeric and sea salt. Don't forget the pepper.
Use green or
brown lentils that can be cooked in around a half-hour with
a two-to-one liquid to lentil ratio. You might try organic
vegetable stock instead of purified, fluoride-free water.
When the lentils are almost done, lightly stir fry-turmeric
powder in ghee or coconut oil. Mix the turmeric and oil and
with the lentils and some black pepper.
You can create a similar dish
with chick peas or garbanzo beans.
If you use canned
garbanzo beans, make sure they are organic and the cans are
labeled BPA-free. But it's healthier and cheaper if you
simply soak dry bulk organic chick peas in pure water
overnight and boil them for a half-hour or so.
Either way, coat the chick peas with plenty of turmeric
powder, black pepper, and some sea salt mixed with an
organic cold-pressed oil of your choice. Then lightly roast
the mixture on a medium level oven setting for 15 to 20
A cooling turmeric summer elixir
can be prepared by first boiling some turmeric root, letting
it cool down somewhat, discarding the root and adding honey,
lemon or lime, and a dash of ground turmeric with a pinch of
black pepper. Pour over ice and enjoy.
How about a smoothie?
blend a half or a whole banana with some grated or powdered
ginger, raw honey, freshly squeezed lemon juice, a teaspoon
of bee pollen with two teaspoons of turmeric paste made by
stirring turmeric over heat in ghee or coconut oil and black
Blend with activated almond milk. Dana will
tell you how to make activated almond milk
Here's a convenient way to
ensure your daily turmeric: Prepare a turmeric paste that
you can refrigerate for several days and use to quickly
prepare a "Golden Milk".
Here's a show and tell for that:
How Curcumin Protects Against Cancer
by J. Everett Borger
Life Extension Magazine
According to the American Cancer Society,1 one out
of every three women in the United States risks developing some form
of cancer over the course of their lives.
For men, that number rises to one in
two. Since cancer is an age-related disease, the risk of diagnosis
increases the longer one lives, making it the second leading cause
of death in this country.2,3
These data underscore a stark reality. When it comes to cancer
prevention, the medical establishment and drug company profiteers
remain grossly negligent in protecting the public. The result is
countless avoidable cancer deaths each year. There is an urgent need
to provide aging individuals with validated interventions to target
cancer’s multiple causative factors before they take hold.
Among the most compelling and under-recognized of these is curcumin.
In contrast to mainstream oncology’s focus on single-agent toxic
treatments, curcumin has emerged as a potent multimodal
cancer-preventing agent, with 240 published studies appearing in the
global scientific literature in the past year alone.
In this article, you will learn of the multiple factors involved in
carcinogenesis (cancer development).
You will discover up-to-date research
demonstrating curcumin’s power to disrupt specific molecular
mechanisms that lead to cancer - and to even treat the disease in
System-Wide, Safe, Multimodal Defense
Curcumin is derived from the Indian spice turmeric and possesses
several active components, all of which contribute to its
anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive power.4-6
fact, curcumin targets ten causative factors involved in cancer
Disrupting any one of these factors gives you a good chance of
preventing cancer; disrupting several provides even greater
protection, including the prevention of DNA damage.7
By blocking the inflammatory master molecule nuclear factor-kappaB
(or NF-kB), curcumin blunts cancer-causing inflammation, slashing
levels of inflammatory cytokines throughout the body.8,9
Curcumin also interferes with production of dangerous advanced
glycation end products that trigger inflammation which can lead to
Curcumin alters cellular signaling to enhance healthy control over
cellular replication, which tightly regulates the cellular
reproductive cycle, helping to stop uncontrolled proliferation of
new tissue in tumors.11
It promotes apoptosis in rapidly
reproducing cancer cells without affecting healthy tissue11-13 and
reins in tumor growth by making tumors more vulnerable to
pharmacologic cell-killing treatments.11,14
In addition, curcumin regulates tumor suppressor pathways and
triggers mitochondrial-mediated death in tumor tissue, thereby
increasing the death of cancer cells.11,15
Finally, curcumin interferes with tumor invasiveness and blocks
molecules that would otherwise open pathways to penetration of
tissue.2 It also helps to starve tumors of their
vital blood supply and it can oppose many of the processes that
permit metastases to spread.8,16,17
These multi-targeted actions are central
to curcumin’s capacity to block multiple forms of cancer before they
Combating Deadly Cancers in Women
Breast cancers vary widely in their responsiveness to standard
treatment. Cancers that depend on the hormone estrogen for survival
are more effectively treated with conventional methods.
Those that lack receptors for female
hormones are far more resistant to treatment. This is where
curcumin’s value truly lies, because it has the ability to induce
apoptosis (programmed cell death) in a variety of hormone-negative
Remarkably, curcumin produces virtually
no change in healthy breast cells, with very low toxicity even at
doses as high as 8,000 mg daily.21
In human cancer patients, curcumin doses as high as 3,600 mg a day
have been shown to induce the following favorable anti-cancer
Paraptosis. A process similar to
apoptosis (programmed cell death), curcumin initiates
paraptosis only in breast cancer cells, resulting in their
Targeted destruction of
cancer-cell mitochondria (leaving mitochondria in healthy
Disruption of the cancer cell
cycle. Curcumin can “suspend” cancerous cells in a
non-reproductive state within their life cycle, thereby
halting their replication.20,23-25
Cancer cell downregulation.
Curcumin blocks a group of molecules vital to the process of
metastasis. In animal models, it has been shown to reduce
metastatic spread to the lungs via this pathway.17,26,27
Arrested stem cell development.
Curcumin inhibits growth and renewal of so-called cancer
stem cells, aberrant cells now believed to be at the root of
many cancers, including breast cancer.3,28
Curcumin has also been shown to
effectively combat cervical cancer, a leading cause of cancer death
in women in developing nations and a common cancer in this country.29
It is caused largely by infection with
the human papilloma virus, or HPV. Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory
effects break the link that triggers HPV-induced cancer development.29,30
Curcumin further promotes apoptosis of cancer cells within the
lining of the uterus and reduces the growth rate of painful but
non-malignant uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids). 31-34
Collectively, these effects make curcumin attractive both as a
primary chemopreventive agent in women at risk for breast cancer and
an adjuvant treatment option in those who have already developed the
Prostate Cancer Defense
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in
American men.35,44 Fortunately, its long latency
period and slow growth rate make it a prime candidate for
Curcumin strikes at multiple targets in
prostate malignancies, interfering with the spread of cancer cells
and regulating inflammatory responses through the master regulator
Like certain breast cancers, prostate cancer is often dependent on
sex hormones for its growth. Curcumin reduces expression of sex
hormone receptors in the prostate, which speeds androgenic breakdown
and impairs cancer cells’ ability to respond to the effects of
It also inhibits cancer initiation and
promotion 43 by blocking metastases from forming
in the prostate and regulating enzymes required for tissue
Combating Gastrointestinal Cancers
Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in adults and
the second leading cause of cancer deaths.45,46
Despite aggressive surgical care and
chemotherapy, nearly 50% of people with colorectal cancers develop
recurrent tumors.47 This may be due in part to the
survival of dangerous colon cancer stem cells that resist
conventional chemotherapy and act as “seeds” for subsequent cancers.3,48,49
On the other hand, these cancers are excellent candidates for
prevention, since they follow a predictable sequence from
non-malignant polyps to full-blown cancerous growths, usually
requiring a decade to develop.46
Much as with malignancies of the breast, cervix, and prostate,
curcumin slows the progression from colon polyp to cancer by damping
down the inflammatory cascade triggered by NF-kB and
This halts the growth of cancer cells
before they can become detectable tumors via a host of interrelated
Curcumin also creates a gastrointestinal environment more favorable
to optimal colon health by reducing levels of so-called secondary
bile acids, natural secretions that contribute to colon cancer risk.52
That has a direct effect, inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells
and further reducing their production.53
Curcumin also suppresses colon cancer when combined with other
polyphenols such as resveratrol.46,54 The
combination of curcumin with green tea extracts has prevented
experimentally induced colon cancer in rats.55
Curcumin also synergizes with standard chemotherapy drugs, helping
to boost their efficacy and potentially reduce the dose of toxic
chemotherapy products, minimizing needless harm and suffering for
cancer patients.45,47-49 Curcumin increases colon
cancer cell response to radiation.56
A novel feature of curcumin is its ability to bind to and activate
vitamin D receptors in colon cells.57 Vitamin D is
known to exert potent anti-cancer properties.
Curcumin is equally powerful at preventing cancers in the stomach.
It inhibits growth and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells
in the laboratory and is particularly effective in stopping cancers
that have become resistant to multiple drug treatment.58-60
Curcumin can prevent gastric cancer cells from progressing through
their growth cycle, blocking further tumor growth.60
Infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a
known cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer.61
Curcumin blocks growth of H. pylori and reduces the rate at which
stomach cells react by turning cancerous.61,62
This effect is again related to
curcumin’s fundamental ability to block activation of inflammatory
What You Need to Know: Multimodal Anti-Cancer
Power of Curcumin
Curcumin has emerged as a
potent cancer-preventing agent, with 240 published
studies appearing in the global scientific literature in
the past year alone.
Its multimodal effects act
to simultaneously counter ten discrete causative factors
in cancer development.
It intervenes at each stage
in the complex sequence of events that enable cancer
cells to develop, proliferate, and metastasize.
Its multitargeted mechanisms
of action have yielded compelling results in combating a
remarkably broad array of cancers, including those of
the breast, uterus, cervix, prostate, and GI tract.
A blossoming body of
research reveals curcumin’s promise in countering
cancers of the blood, brain, lung, and bladder as well.
Further Preventive Potential
Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and gene-regulating
powers have been explored in preventing or treating cancers of the
blood-forming system (leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas) as well as
those of the brain, lung, and bladder.12,13,63-81
Even aggressive tumors of the head and
neck, often following years of smoking, are proving responsive to
Curcumin is also emerging as a
potentially effective intervention for pancreatic cancer - one of
cancer’s most lethal and aggressive forms.86-90
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US, and the risk
of developing the disease increases significantly as we age.
Curcumin has emerged as a potent cancer-preventing agent, with 240
published studies appearing in the global scientific literature in
the past year. Curcumin’s multimodal effects act to simultaneously
counter ten discrete causative factors in cancer development.
It intervenes at each stage in the complex sequence of events that
must occur in order for a cancer to develop, progress, invade, and
ultimately metastasize to healthy tissue.
The multi-targeted mechanisms of curcumin have yielded compelling
results in combating a remarkably broad array of cancers, including
those of the breast, uterus, cervix, prostate, and GI tract.
A burgeoning body of research
demonstrates curcumin’s potential to counter cancers of the blood,
brain, lung, and bladder as well.
Ten Key Causative Factors in...
More than many other age-related
diseases, cancer results from the cumulative effect of years of
discrete, small-scale assaults on the body.
Oxidation, inflammation, stress,
infection, and other physiological insults take their toll,
inflicting lethal damage over time that sets abnormal cell
proliferation in motion.91,92
DNA damage. Numerous
biomolecular assaults strike at the “blueprint” that
cells need in order to replicate themselves accurately.
DNA damage is often referred to as the “initiator” in
cancer development - the first step in the onset of most
Excessive or chronic
inflammation. Inflammatory processes trigger the release
of a host of disruptive cytokines (cell-signaling
molecules) that affect virtually all cellular functions.
Inflammation is commonly referred to as a cancer
“promoter” for this reason.
Disruption of cell signaling
pathways. Normal communication within and between cells
assures proper regulation of their healthy function.
These pathways are easily disrupted by adverse events
such as inflammation.
Alterations in the cellular
reproductive cycle. Cells undergo a four-stage process
as they prepare to replicate themselves. The cell cycle
itself is controlled by signaling pathways that can be
altered or disrupted at each of these stages.
Abnormal regulation of
apoptosis. Apoptosis is the process of naturally
“pre-programmed” cell death that prevents overgrowth of
tissue. When apoptosis fails, cells may undergo
Altered survival pathways.
The flip side of unregulated apoptosis: survival of too
many healthy cells, paradoxically, can endanger the host
by permitting a cancer to take hold by increasing the
odds of mutation and proliferation.
proliferation. Certain hormones and other stimuli can
directly trigger cells to reproduce without safe limits,
especially when the preceding regulatory mechanisms have
Aggressive invasion of
healthy tissue. This is accomplished by excessive
production of enzymes and adhesion molecules that
“dissolve” tissue and allow the tumor to literally take
root. The word “cancer” itself is derived from the
crab-like appearance of fully-developed malignancies,
which extend tendrils in all directions into healthy
Rapid angiogenesis. Tumors
require growth of new blood vessels for nourishment.
They are endowed with the capacity to spontaneously
generate new blood vessels just like healthy tissue.
Angiogenesis in cancer tissue is a primary means by
which tumors grow.
Metastasis. This is the
migration of cancerous cells to regions of the body
beyond the locus of the primary tumor. Metastases are
the distinguishing features of most malignant cancers,
and the typically herald the onset of end-stage disease
because they disrupt otherwise healthy tissues.
2. Anand P, Sundaram C, Jhurani S, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal
BB.Curcumin and cancer: an “old-age” disease with an “age-old”
solution. Cancer Lett. 2008 Aug 18;267(1):133-64.
3. Subramaniam D, Ramalingam S, Houchen CW, Anant S. Cancer stem
cells: a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010 May;10(5):359-71.
4. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major
constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and
clinical research. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):141-53.
5. Goel A, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin, the golden spice from Indian
saffron, is a chemosensitizer and radiosensitizer for tumors and
chemoprotector and radioprotector for normal organs. Nutr
Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):919-30.
6. Murphy EA, Davis JM, McClellan JL, Gordon BT, Carmichael MD.
Curcumin’s effect on intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis
in the Apc(Min/+) Mouse. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010 Oct 15.
7. Biswas J, Sinha D, Mukherjee S, Roy S, Siddiqi M, Roy M.
Curcumin protects DNA damage in a chronically arsenic-exposed
population of West Bengal. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010
8. Bachmeier BE, Killian P, Pfeffer U, Nerlich AG. Novel aspects
for the application of Curcumin in chemoprevention of various
cancers. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010 Jan 1;2:697-717.
9. Sikora E, Bielak-Zmijewska A, Mosieniak G, Piwocka K. The
promise of slow down ageing may come from curcumin. Curr Pharm
10. Sajithlal GB, Chithra P, Chandrakasan G. Effect of curcumin
on the advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in
diabetic rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Dec 15;56(12):1607-14.
11. Ravindran J, Prasad S, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin and cancer
cells: how many ways can curry kill tumor cells selectively?
AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):495-510.
12. Zhang J, Du Y, Wu C, et al. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in
human lung adenocarcinoma cells through miR-186* signaling
pathway. Oncol Rep. 2010 Nov;24(5):1217-23.
13. Zhang J, Zhang T, Ti X, et al. Curcumin promotes apoptosis
in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells
through an miRNA signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
2010 Aug 13;399(1):1-6.
14. Clark CA, McEachern MD, Shah SH, et al. Curcumin inhibits
carcinogen and nicotine-induced mammalian target of rapamycin
pathway activation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Sep 17.
15. Cheng CY, Lin YH, Su CC. Curcumin inhibits the proliferation
of human hepatocellular carcinoma J5 cells by inducing
endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Int
J Mol Med. 2010 Nov;26(5):673-8.
16. Bar-Sela G, Epelbaum R, Schaffer M. Curcumin as an
anti-cancer agent: review of the gap between basic and clinical
applications. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(3):190-7.
17. Wang L, Shen Y, Song R, Sun Y, Xu J, Xu Q. An anticancer
effect of curcumin mediated by down-regulating phosphatase of
regenerating liver-3 expression on highly metastatic melanoma
cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;76(6):1238-45.
18. Al-Hujaily EM, Mohamed AG, Al-Sharif I, et al. PAC, a novel
curcumin analogue, has anti-breast cancer properties with higher
efficiency on ER-negative cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010
19. Rowe DL, Ozbay T, O’Regan RM, Nahta R. Modulation of the
BRCA1 protein and induction of apoptosis in triple negative
breast cancer cell lines by the polyphenolic compound curcumin.
Breast Cancer. 2009 Sep 2;3:61-75.
20. Banerjee M, Singh P, Panda D. Curcumin suppresses the
dynamic instability of microtubules, activates the mitotic
checkpoint and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. FEBS J. 2010
21. Bayet-Robert M, Kwiatkowski F, Leheurteur M, et al. Phase I
dose escalation trial of docetaxel plus curcumin in patients
with advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther.
22. Yoon MJ, Kim EH, Lim JH, Kwon TK, Choi KS. Superoxide anion
and proteasomal dysfunction contribute to curcumin-induced
paraptosis of malignant breast cancer cells. Free Radic Biol
Med. 2010 Mar 1;48(5):713-26.
23. Sun A, Lu YJ, Hu H, Shoji M, Liotta DC, Snyder JP. Curcumin
analog cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells: exploitation of
a redox-dependent mechanism. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Dec
24. Quiroga A, Quiroga PL, Martinez E, Soria EA, Valentich MA.
Anti-breast cancer activity of curcumin on the human
oxidation-resistant cells ZR-75-1 with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase
inhibition. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2010;8(3):261-6.
25. Hua WF, Fu YS, Liao YJ, et al. Curcumin induces
down-regulation of EZH2 expression through the MAPK pathway in
MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jul
26. Boonrao M, Yodkeeree S, Ampasavate C, Anuchapreeda S,
Limtrakul P. The inhibitory effect of turmeric curcuminoids on
matrix metalloproteinase-3 secretion in human invasive breast
carcinoma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 Jul;33(7):989-98.
27. Ibrahim A, El-Meligy A, Fetaih H, Dessouki A, Stoica G,
Barhoumi R. Effect of curcumin and Meriva on the lung metastasis
of murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. In Vivo. 2010
28. Kakarala M, Brenner DE, Korkaya H, et al. Targeting breast
stem cells with the cancer preventive compounds curcumin and
piperine. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Aug;122(3):777-85.
29. Madden K, Flowers L, Salani R, et al. Proteomics-based
approach to elucidate the mechanism of antitumor effect of
curcumin in cervical cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty
Acids. 2009 Jan;80(1):9-18.
30. Prusty BK, Das BC. Constitutive activation of transcription
factor AP-1 in cervical cancer and suppression of human
papillomavirus (HPV) transcription and AP-1 activity in HeLa
cells by curcumin. Int J Cancer. 2005 Mar 1;113(6):951-60.
31. Yu Z, Shah DM. Curcumin down-regulates Ets-1 and Bcl-2
expression in human endometrial carcinoma HEC-1-A cells. Gynecol
Oncol. 2007 Sep;106(3):541-8.
32. Liang YJ, Hao Q, Wu YZ, Wang QL, Wang JD, Hu YL. Aromatase
inhibitor letrozole in synergy with curcumin in the inhibition
of xenografted endometrial carcinoma growth. Int J Gynecol
Cancer. 2009 Oct;19(7):1248-52.
33. Malik M, Norian J, McCarthy-Keith D, Britten J, Catherino
WH. Why leiomyomas are called fibroids: the central role of
extracellular matrix in symptomatic women. Semin Reprod Med.
34. Tsuiji K, Takeda T, Li B, et al. Inhibitory effect of
curcumin on uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation. Gynecol
Endocrinol. 2010 Jul 30.
36. Teiten MH, Gaascht F, Eifes S, Dicato M, Diederich M.
Chemopreventive potential of curcumin in prostate cancer. Genes
Nutr. 2010 Mar;5(1):61-74.
37. Piantino CB, Salvadori FA, Ayres PP, et al. An evaluation of
the anti-neoplastic activity of curcumin in prostate cancer cell
lines. Int Braz J Urol. 2009 May-Jun;35(3):354-60; discussion
38. Khan N, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Apoptosis by dietary agents
for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Endocr Relat
Cancer. 2010 Mar;17(1):R39-52.
39. Thangapazham RL, Shaheduzzaman S, Kim KH, et al. Androgen
responsive and refractory prostate cancer cells exhibit distinct
curcumin regulated transcriptome. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008
40. Tsui KH, Feng TH, Lin CM, Chang PL, Juang HH. Curcumin
blocks the activation of androgen and interlukin-6 on
prostate-specific antigen expression in human prostatic
carcinoma cells. J Androl. 2008 Nov-Dec;29(6):661-8.
41. Shi Q, Shih CC, Lee KH. Novel anti-prostate cancer curcumin
analogues that enhance androgen receptor degradation activity.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2009 Oct;9(8):904-12.
42. Choi HY, Lim JE, Hong JH. Curcumin interrupts the
interaction between the androgen receptor and Wnt/beta-catenin
signaling pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Prostate
Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010 Dec;13(4):343-9.
43. Wan SB, Yang H, Zhou Z, et al. Evaluation of curcumin
acetates and amino acid conjugates as proteasome inhibitors. Int
J Mol Med. 2010 Oct;26(4):447-55.
44. Herman JG, Stadelman HL, Roselli CE. Curcumin blocks
CCL2-induced adhesion, motility and invasion, in part, through
down-regulation of CCL2 expression and proteolytic activity. Int
J Oncol. 2009 May;34(5):1319-27.
45. Nautiyal J, Banerjee S, Kanwar SS, et al. Curcumin enhances
dasatinib-induced inhibition of growth and transformation of
colon cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2010 Apr 19.
46. Patel VB, Misra S, Patel BB, Majumdar AP. Colorectal cancer:
chemopreventive role of curcumin and resveratrol. Nutr Cancer.
47. Patel BB, Majumdar AP. Synergistic role of curcumin with
current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview. Nutr
Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):842-6.
48. Yu Y, Kanwar SS, Patel BB, Nautiyal J, Sarkar FH, Majumdar
AP. Elimination of colon cancer stem-like cells by the
combination of curcumin and FOLFOX. Transl Oncol. 2009
49. Patel BB, Gupta D, Elliott AA, Sengupta V, Yu Y, Majumdar
AP. Curcumin targets FOLFOX-surviving colon cancer cells via
inhibition of EGFRs and IGF-1R. Anticancer Res. 2010
50. Milacic V, Banerjee S, Landis-Piwowar KR, Sarkar FH,
Majumdar AP, Dou QP. Curcumin inhibits the proteasome activity
in human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res.
2008 Sep 15;68(18):7283-92.
51. Watson JL, Hill R, Yaffe PB, et al. Curcumin causes
superoxide anion production and p53-independent apoptosis in
human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010 Nov 1;297(1):1-8.
52. Han Y, Haraguchi T, Iwanaga S, et al. Consumption of some
polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid,
the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer. J
Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8587-90.
53. Wang BM, Zhai CY, Fang WL, Chen X, Jiang K, Wang YM. The
inhibitory effect of curcumin on the proliferation of HT-29
colonic cancer cell induced by deoxycholic acid. Zhonghua Nei Ke
Za Zhi. 2009 Sep;48(9):760-3.
54. Majumdar AP, Banerjee S, Nautiyal J, et al. Curcumin
synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer. Nutr
55. Xu G, Ren G, Xu X, et al. Combination of curcumin and green
tea catechins prevents dimethylhydrazine-induced colon
carcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Jan;48(1):390-5.
56. Sandur SK, Deorukhkar A, Pandey MK, et al. Curcumin
modulates the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells by
suppressing constitutive and inducible NF-kappaB activity. Int J
Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Oct 1;75(2):534-42.
57. Bartik L, Whitfield GK, Kaczmarska M, et al. Curcumin: a
novel nutritionally derived ligand of the vitamin D receptor
with implications for colon cancer chemoprevention. J Nutr
Biochem. 2010 Feb 11.
58. Koo JY, Kim HJ, Jung KO, Park KY. Curcumin inhibits the
growth of AGS human gastric carcinoma cells in vitro and shows
synergism with 5-fluorouracil. J Med Food. 2004
59. Tang XQ, Bi H, Feng JQ, Cao JG. Effect of curcumin on
multidrug resistance in resistant human gastric carcinoma cell
line SGC7901/VCR. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005 Aug;26(8):1009-16.
60. Cai XZ, Wang J, Li XD, et al. Curcumin suppresses
proliferation and invasion in human gastric cancer cells by
downregulation of PAK1 activity and cyclin D1 expression. Cancer
Biol Ther. 2009 Jul;8(14):1360-8.
61. De R, Kundu P, Swarnakar S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of
curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and
during infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009
62. Zaidi SF, Yamamoto T, Refaat A, et al. Modulation of
activation-induced cytidine deaminase by curcumin in
Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
Helicobacter. 2009 Dec;14(6):588-95.
63. Uddin S, Khan AS, Al-Kuraya KS. Developing curcumin into a
viable therapeutic for lymphoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs.
64. Vyas HK, Pal R, Vishwakarma R, Lohiya NK, Talwar GP.
Selective killing of leukemia and lymphoma cells ectopically
expressing hCGbeta by a conjugate of curcumin with an antibody
against hCGbeta subunit. Oncology. 2009;76(2):101-11.
65. Xiao H, Zhang KJ, Zuo XL. Reversal of multidrug resistance
of the drug resistant human multiple myeloma cell line MOLP-2/R
by curcumin and its relation with FA/BRCA pathway. Zhonghua Xue
Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2009 Jan;30(1):33-7.
66. Cotto M, Cabanillas F, Tirado M, Garcia MV, Pacheco E.
Epigenetic therapy of lymphoma using histone deacetylase
inhibitors. Clin Transl Oncol. 2010 Jun;12(6):401-9.
67. Kelkel M, Jacob C, Dicato M, Diederich M. Potential of the
dietary antioxidants resveratrol and curcumin in prevention and
treatment of hematologic malignancies. Molecules.
68. Kikuchi H, Kuribayashi F, Kiwaki N, Nakayama T. Curcumin
dramatically enhances retinoic acid-induced superoxide
generating activity via accumulation of p47-phox and p67-phox
proteins in U937 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Apr
69. Sanchez Y, Simon GP, Calvino E, de Blas E, Aller P. Curcumin
stimulates reactive oxygen species production and potentiates
apoptosis induction by the antitumor drugs arsenic trioxide and
lonidamine in human myeloid leukemia cell lines. J Pharmacol Exp
Ther. 2010 Oct;335(1):114-23.
70. Zhang C, Li B, Zhang X, Hazarika P, Aggarwal BB, Duvic M.
Curcumin selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell
lymphoma cell lines and patients’ PBMCs: potential role for
STAT-3 and NF-kappaB signaling. J Invest Dermatol. 2010
71. Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, et al. Curcumin
decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer
cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5345-54.
72. Leite KR, Chade DC, Sanudo A, Sakiyama BY, Batocchio G,
Srougi M. Effects of curcumin in an orthotopic murine bladder
tumor model. Int Braz J Urol. 2009 Sep-Oct;35(5):599-606;
73. Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Burghardt R, Safe S. Drugs that
target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor
receptor in bladder cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2010
74. Tharakan ST, Inamoto T, Sung B, Aggarwal BB, Kamat AM.
Curcumin potentiates the antitumor effects of gemcitabine in an
orthotopic model of human bladder cancer through suppression of
proliferative and angiogenic biomarkers. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010
75. Purkayastha S, Berliner A, Fernando SS, et al. Curcumin
blocks brain tumor formation. Brain Res. 2009 Feb 10.
76. Schaaf C, Shan B, Buchfelder M, et al. Curcumin acts as
anti-tumorigenic and hormone-suppressive agent in murine and
human pituitary tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. Endocr Relat
Cancer. 2009 Dec;16(4):1339-50.
77. Bangaru ML, Chen S, Woodliff J, Kansra S. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane)
induces apoptosis and blocks migration of human medulloblastoma
cells. Anticancer Res. 2010 Feb;30(2):499-504.
78. Elamin MH, Shinwari Z, Hendrayani SF, et al. Curcumin
inhibits the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and triggers
apoptosis in medulloblastoma cells. Mol Carcinog. 2010
79. Schaaf C, Shan B, Onofri C, et al. Curcumin inhibits the
growth, induces apoptosis and modulates the function of
pituitary folliculostellate cells. Neuroendocrinology.
80. Su CC, Yang JS, Lu CC, et al. Curcumin inhibits human lung
large cell carcinoma cancer tumour growth in a murine xenograft
model. Phytother Res. 2010 Feb;24(2):189-92.
81. Wu SH, Hang LW, Yang JS, et al. Curcumin induces apoptosis
in human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells through ER
stress and caspase cascade- and mitochondria-dependent pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2010 Jun;30(6):2125-33.
82. Lin YC, Chen HW, Kuo YC, Chang YF, Lee YJ, Hwang JJ.
Therapeutic efficacy evaluation of curcumin on human oral
squamous cell carcinoma xenograft using multimodalities of
molecular imaging. Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(2):343-58.
83. Rai B, Kaur J, Jacobs R, Singh J. Possible action mechanism
for curcumin in pre-cancerous lesions based on serum and
salivary markers of oxidative stress. J Oral Sci.
84. Shin HK, Kim J, Lee EJ, Kim SH. Inhibitory effect of
curcumin on motility of human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B
cells via suppression of ERK and NF-kappaB activations.
Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):577-82.
85. Wong TS, Chan WS, Li CH, et al. Curcumin alters the
migratory phenotype of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through
up-regulation of E-cadherin. Anticancer Res. 2010
86. Glienke W, Maute L, Wicht J, Bergmann L. Curcumin inhibits
constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation in human pancreatic cancer
cell lines and downregulation of survivin/BIRC5 gene expression.
Cancer Invest. 2010 Feb;28(2):166-71.
87. Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Lei P, Safe S. Inhibition of
NFkappaB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin
is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation. J Biol
Chem. 2010 Aug 13;285(33):25332-44.
88. Kanai M, Yoshimura K, Asada M, et al. A phase I/II study of
gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus curcumin for patients with
gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. Cancer Chemother
Pharmacol. 2010 Sep 22.
89. Lin L, Hutzen B, Zuo M, et al. Novel STAT3 phosphorylation
inhibitors exhibit potent growth-suppressive activity in
pancreatic and breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar
90. Ramachandran C, Resek AP, Escal on E, Aviram A, Melnick SJ.
Potentiation of gemcitabine by Turmeric Force in pancreatic
cancer cell lines. Oncol Rep. 2010 Jun;23(6):1529-35.
91. Bengmark S. Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural
NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric
oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic
diseases. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006
92. Bengmark S, Mesa MD, Gil A. Plant-derived health: the
effects of turmeric and curcuminoids. Nutr Hosp. 2009
93. Argyle DJ, Blacking T. From viruses to cancer stem cells:
dissecting the pathways to malignancy. Vet J. 2008