3.- US psi-spies

News of this massive Russian paranormal-warfare research projects eventually filtered out to the West. It was thought by CIA analysts that the Soviets might be capable of telepathically controlling the thoughts of leading US military and political leaders, as well as being able to remotely kill US citizens. Telekinesis could be used to disable US hardware such as computers, nuclear weapon systems and space vehicles. The report stated:

‘The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics are said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB.’

No wonder they were worried!

The term ‘eight-martini effect’ was coined by Norman Jackson, a CIA spokesman and former Technical Adviser to John McMahon, Deputy Director of the CIA. On the US TV show ‘Night Line’ (28 November 1995) which was about the use of remote-viewing programmes in the mid 1980s, he said,

‘Well, if it’s the eight-martini results you want to talk about, I won’t talk about them. “Eight-martini results” is an in-house term for remote-viewing data so good it cracks everyone’s sense of reality.’

After one particularly spectacular demonstration apparently, the CIA handlers had to have eight martinis to calm their nerves. The following is the story of how eight-martini effects were sometimes achieved by the US remote-viewing programme.


As early as 1972, it was feared that the Russians were developing a form of group-augmented telepathic telekinesis whereby a large number of telepaths could create thought-forms out of the collective unconscious and cause materialization. That would mean the Soviets could materialize their energy bodies in distant locations to steal top-secret documents or damage equipment (see Appendix 1, page 27, the apport technique).

The US effort was stimulated by information that they received in 1973 about the top-secret psychical research base to the north east of Leningrad, code-named ’Black Box’.


Dr Igor Vladsky sent a letter to Harvard psychologist Gene Kearney, giving information about the Leningrad psychical research facility and its telekinesis experiments. The Russians’ advances in ESP and telekinesis seemed to be leading them towards the ability to cause physical effects. This frightened the US missile command - if psychics could disable US ballistic missiles in their silos, or in flight, American deterrent capability would be destroyed. In 1975, Thomas Bearden, a nuclear engineer, was asked by the US Army to investigate this area of Russian psychical research. By then, the DIA were discussing Soviet psychokinesis at length:

All the Soviet and Czech research on PK is significant, especially that associated with the spectacular Soviet psychics Kulagina, Vinogradova and Ermolayev.

  • Kulagina’s highly publicized ability to affect living tissues might be applied against human targets

  • in like manner, Vinogradova’s power to move objects

  • Ermolayev’s levitational ability could possibly be used to activate or deactivate power supplies or to steal military documents or hardware

Robert Pavlita’s generators and Julius Krmessky’s PK indicators could be (and possibly are now) used to train large numbers of lesser known Soviet and Czech citizens to develop, enhance, and control their latent psychic abilities.


Such a cadre of trained but anonymous individuals could be used for any number of covert activities. Less spectacular, but more significant, is the fact that Soviet and Czech scientists are pursuing an interrelated, unified approach to determining the energy sources and interactions underlying PK and appear to be far ahead of their Western counterparts in reaching this goal. It will be but a short step from understanding to application and there is little doubt that many applications can be directed toward man for whatever purpose, be it good or bad.

[Appendix 2, page 51.]

Both superpowers became interested in telekinesis. Telekinetic effects may be small, but it does not take much force to ruin a circuit board in a missile-guidance system, or tear open a capillary in the brain.

In the early seventies, Soviet, Czech and Chinese paranormal-warfare projects forced the CIA reluctantly to start their own psi-spy programme but the number of scientists willing to help the CIA was very limited.

However, two physicists, Russell Targ and Dr Hal Puthoff, agreed to help the CIA. They began remote-viewing research at the Stanford Research Institute in California. On 6 June 1972, the first psychic experiments were begun with Ingo Swann, a leading clairvoyant. He had served in Korea, but by the 1970s was an artist who supplemented his income by becoming a subject in parapsychology experiments. His remote-viewing abilities were eventually demonstrated to be of a high order and he was later to invent the six stages of protocols now used by all US remote viewers. On this first test, Swann succeeded in psychically influencing a magnetometer. There followed a series of remote-viewing experiments which proved hit and miss.

In the autumn of 1972, Yuri Geller visited the Stanford Research Institute and was tested by Targ and Puthoff. His talent was alleged to be quixotic, hard to pin down.

* Mind Reach Hal Puthoff and Russell Targ (Delacorte, New York, 1977)

On one occasion in 1973, Swann demanded that geographical co-ordinates of the sites to be remotely viewed were given to him, rather than blind locations such as X. Targ and Puthoff were not pleased, but were forced into accepting co-ordinate remote viewing (CRV).


** Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Jim Schnabel (Dell, New York, 1977)


Remote viewing, a term coined by Targ and Puthoff, was a synergy created between telepathy and clairvoyance. It is like a psychic version of I spy with my little eye something beginning with the map co-ordinates... The monitor in this psychic-spying game travels mentally to that specific location, and the guesser attempts to obtain a mental image of that location and then sketches what he sees.

With this new form of remote viewing, Ingo Swann’s efficiency increased to meaningful levels, and the CIA became interested enough to increase their initial funding of the project. When Puthoff gave Swann the co-ordinates of a place just east of California’s Mount Shasta, the psychic’s response was, ‘Definitely see mountain to south west, not far, also east.’ The co-ordinates of a point 20 miles east of Mount Hekla volcano in southern Iceland produced: ‘Volcano to south west, I think I’m over ocean.’ When Puthoff gave the co-ordinates of the middle of Lake Victoria in Africa, Swann described: ‘Sense of speeding over water, landing on land. Lake to west, high elevation.’


Puthoff thought Swann had described the target inaccurately until he consulted the Times Atlas of the World and found his co-ordinates were those of the Tanzanian village of Ushashi, some 30 miles inland from Lake Victoria’s south-eastern shore. Results such as this enabled Puthoff to get funding from the CIA Technical Services Division in the Directorate of Operations, which was transferred to the Directorate of Science and Technology, later to be called the Office of Technical Services. There was also funding from the CIA Office of Research and Development.

Ingo Swann talks of an incident that occurred between 1975 and 1976 when he was asked to remotely view Soviet submarines:

‘This was one of those “big test” things that went on, with witnesses, and the room was filled with top brass. Oh my God! Hal, I don’t know what to do. I think that this submarine has shot down a UFO or the UFO fired on her. What shall I do? And Puthoff was as pale as anything you know, and he looked at me and whispered, “Oh Christ! It’s your show. You do what you think you should do.”


So I sketched out this picture of this UFO and this brass (two or three star general) sitting on my right grabbed it and said, “What’s that, Mr Swann?” I said, “Sir, I think it’s rather obvious what that is.” And he took the paper and stood up, and when he stood up, everybody else stood up except me and Puthoff, and he walked out of the room, and so did the others. So Puthoff and I went back to the hotel and I said, “Oh Christ, we’ve blown the program.” So we went out and got drunk on margaritas and things like that. Three days later Puthoff got a call. The call said, “OK, how much money do you want?”’

* Ingo Swann interview on ‘Dreamland’ transcribed organization, University of Wisconsin, 12 December 1996. Quoted from ‘Remote Viewing and the US Intelligence CommunityArmen Victorian (Lobster magazine June 1996 No. 31)

While these early experiments with Swann were going on, Puthoff got a call from Pat Price, a retired police officer, offering his services. Price was tested by CIA liaison officer Richard Kennett, who gave him the approximate co-ordinates of his summer cabin in West Virginia. When Price responded with a detailed description of a secret US military underground base, Kennett thought he had failed; but when Kennett drove to his cabin sometime later, he found the location that Price had described was situated nearby. The ’Sugar Grove’ - a National Security Agency (NSA) underground spy satellite, communication and telephone interception centre - had been described perfectly. Price had even named three of the senior officers who worked there.


This generated a very serious DIA probe into Puthoff, Targ and Price. Suspected of being communist spies, the entire project was examined with a fine toothcomb, as the Pentagon did not believe Price could have got such detailed information about the NSA base by psychic means. When no evidence could be found, the heat died down. Price offered to remotely view the Russian counterpart to the NSA base, to soothe the CIA’s discomfiture. He pinpointed the Russian base at Mount Narodnyna in a remote part of the northern Ural Mountains. He described the underground base, its high proportion of female personnel, radar dishes... The CIA were delighted.

Rivalry developed between Price and Swann, which was made worse by the fact that Price was acknowledged as the better psychic. Such was the power of Price’s remote viewing that he could read numbers and words at the site he was studying. Price was asked by the CIA to remotely view the Semipalatinsk military research facility. He successfully described 60 foot diameter steel spheres and extremely large cranes, constructed with the use of sophisticated welding techniques to seal these nuclear-bomb containers together. Satellite photos showed that Price’s remote viewing was correct. It was assumed the Semipalatinsk complex was developing an exotic high-energy, beam weapon using nuclear explosions to power the proton or neutron beam.

Pat Price’s death in 1975 under mysterious circumstances was highly controversial. It was alleged at the time that the Soviets poisoned Price, most likely with a mycotoxin. It would have been a top priority for the KGB to eliminate Price as his phenomenal remote-viewing abilities would have posed a significant danger to the USSR’s paranormal-warfare build-up. He may also have been the victim of an elite group of Russian psi-agents trained to remotely kill enemies of the Soviet Union. Whatever the true reason, Price, the leading US psi-spy, was probably the first casualty of the inner-space arms race.

Not to be outdone, Swann convinced Puthoff and Targ that he could train anyone to remotely view. The aim was to train military personnel with security clearance, rather than psychics who had none. Swann persuaded military top brass who came to inspect the remote-viewing research to take part by pointing out that the training would enable them to remotely view top-secret files. Intelligence operatives from the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency), NSA (National Security Agency) and other shadowy organizations also came calling. Such was the enthusiasm of the military and intelligence communities that they decided to fund a 20 year top-secret programme to train military remote viewers. This programme was called Stargate.

Ingo Swann used his co-ordinate remote-viewing system to help train the new breed of military remote viewers. These are the basis for the commercially available courses sold in the USA today, which cost $1000-7000 per week.

In 1976, the team started experimenting with precognitive remote viewing, which is a specialized version of clairvoyance, specifically to check on the future of the US embassy which was being built in Moscow but the remote viewers found it difficult to see that building in the future. When asked to describe the building as it would be in the mid-eighties, they could not agree on the same thing. What actually occurred was that the Russian construction teams had planted so many bugs in the structure (discovered by a giant X-ray machine brought in by the Americans), even using the steel supports as antennae, that eventually the construction had to be partly demolished.


The US government decided to take away the top two floors and build four secure floors atop the bug-ridden structure. This possibly explained why the US remote viewers could not home in on the building in the future - it had no future, as it was almost completely demolished.


In the late seventies, the US Army set up its own small remote-viewing programme. Taking orders from the Army’s Assistant Chief of Intelligence in the Pentagon, only a few dozen officials in the intelligence community knew about this project, code-named Grill Flame. Documents obtained from US intelligence, published in part in Lobster magazine, show that Grill Flame was the operational wing of the overall Stargate programme, which was originally set up in 1977 to assess what intelligence information an enemy could tap into by psychic means. In 1978, with the establishment of Detachment @G@ (later listed in the Intelligence and Security Command -INSCOM- books as Grill Flame), the US Army was given a new mission - to utilize remote viewing as an intelligence-gathering tool. Eventually, the entire Defense Department’s remote-viewing programme was moved under the administrative umbrella of Grill Flame.

Six people - Mel Riley, Joe McMoneagle, Ken Bell, Fern Gauvin, Hartleigh Trent and Nancy Stern - most of them army personnel, were tested by the Stanford Research Institute for the Grill Flame project and all were found to be suitable. Based at Fort Meade in Maryland, the home of the NSA, the largest US intelligence branch, this unit carried out remote viewing against Soviet and Chinese bases. In late 1978, its services were made available to anyone in the US intelligence community who had high enough access. General Ed Thompson, in overall command of the unit, increased funding so that Mel Riley, Joe McMoneagle and Ken Bell, nicknamed the ‘Special Action Branch’, could work full time on the project. In the summer of 1979, Mel Riley was assigned one of his first important remote-viewing targets - a Chinese nuclear-weapon test near Lop Nor. He remotely viewed an airborne nuclear-weapon drop by the Chinese in which the weapon exploded but failed to go into a nuclear chain reaction. He also reported that it was much more sophisticated in its construction than anticipated and made use of enrichment processes the intelligence people had not expected from China.

* Operational project summary: an unofficial list of nineteen apparent RV successes, 1974-93Dale Graff (CIA sponsored report, 1995).

Joe McMoneagle was asked by the NSA to remotely view a US consulate in the Mediterranean theatre from which the Russians were extracting information. McMoneagle correctly described a Russian listening post opposite the consulate, and the location of the electronic bug inside the consulate - he even psychically spied upon an NSA counterespionage team in a room beneath the Russians.

** Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Jim Schnabel (Dell, New York, 1977)

McMoneagle sensed radioactivity as a green glow when he was remotely viewing a Russian nuclear facility and saw a greenish glow emanating from the nuclear reactor. In 1979, he remotely viewed a greenish glow around a nuclear weapon on the seabed off the coast of Spain. The weapon was rumored to have fallen from an American nuclear bomber.

Like Joe McMoneagle at Fort Meade, Ingo Swann at the Stanford Research Institute was asked to detect nuclear reaction. Using remote viewing, he was able to determine the moment a rocket motor was fired, and in another case, the event and time of a nuclear-weapon detonation in Nevada.

The Fort Meade group were set to predict the impact site of Sky Lab. When the space station finally fell to Earth, it struck Western Australia; McMoneagle had predicted this general area in his remote viewing. Ken Bell successfully found a downed US helicopter in a remote part of Peru. He was distraught to remotely view the burnt and broken corpses of the pilot and co-pilot.

The Russians have spent billions of roubles developing ESP. Have the Americans developed the same telepathic scanning technology? One story has it that the Grill Flame group successfully psychically interrogated an agent in an Eastern European country. The CIA were suspicious of him but needed to know the right questions to ask to uncover his misdeeds. McMoneagle remotely viewed the agent and discovered that he had received a large amount of money. During his next annual lie-detector test, the agent, when questioned about the money, blurted out, ‘How could you have known that!’

* Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Jim Schnabel (Dell, New York, 1977)

The main aim of the CIA and DIA research teams at this time, however, was to develop a reliable psychic-spying method. To test out the powers of the US remote viewers, they were asked to spy psychically on US top-secret projects. McMoneagle remotely viewed a new experimental XM-1 tank in a hangar, correctly describing its special armour, main gun and targeting system and producing a detailed diagram of the tank, which was later to be the M1 main battle tank used by the US Army in the Gulf War. Riley psychically spied on the bat-like B1 stealth bomber, years before it was made public. Results like this proved to the military that remote viewing was a very powerful intelligence asset.

Unfortunately, the remote-viewing group’s warnings that psi-poisoned gifts from the Russians to US diplomats should be removed, or at the very least be put in isolated rooms, fell on deaf ears and at worst generated ridicule. Mainstream US society was not ready to understand that the Soviet Union had developed paranormal weapons and thus instigated a whole new branch of warfare.

In their psychic spying, the US remote-viewing group (the team of six were by now nicknamed the Naturals) studied the new main Soviet battle tank, the T-72. They also remotely viewed how one of these T-72s was stolen by the CIA from Eastern Europe and brought to the USA by freighter.

McMoneagle’s greatest display of remote viewing was in 1979 when he investigated a naval facility at Severodvinsk on the White Sea near the Arctic Circle. Within a huge building in the facility, McMoneagle discovered a giant submarine, the size of a First World War battleship. McMoneagle, with the aid of Hartleigh Trent, sketched the submarine which had 20 canted tubes for ballistic missiles, a double hull and a new type of drive mechanism. During one remote-viewing session, McMoneagle saw the Russians dynamiting a channel from the building, which was 100 yards from the water’s edge. Satellite photos confirmed the Typhoon class submarine at the dockside some four months after McMoneagle’s last remote viewing. His spectacular remote-viewing ability enabled him, in his own words, ‘to gain access to the insides of filing cabinets, desk drawers, rooms, buildings in restricted areas of other countries for espionage purposes’.


* Mind Trek, Joe McMoneagle (Hampton Roads Press, 1993)


The incident with the Typhoon submarine and his picture-perfect remote viewing of other sites demonstrated that Joe McMoneagle was now the finest remote viewer in the team. In fact, he was one of the US government’s premier psi-spies. When this army intelligence officer left Stargate in 1984, he was awarded a Legion of Merit for providing information on 150 targets that was unavailable from other sources.


While the Naturals were working on improving their technique, so other methods were constantly being developed, as CIA reports for their Research and Development Office, declassified in 1995, reveal. Targ and Puthoff at the Stanford Research Institute had refined many different training techniques. In outbound remote viewing, for instance, an experimenter mentally visited the target site, while the remote viewer tried to visualize the experimenter’s surroundings. Then the remote viewer was taken to the target site to get an actual look at what he had been seeing in his mind’s eye. This was extended to long-distance outbound remote viewing (without the final visit) which was used to look for kidnap victims, terrorist bombs, etc., with much work being carried out on high-tech targets including nuclear facilities and Mikoyan and Sukhoi the Soviet aircraft design bureaux. The remote-viewing unit was being trained in the technical mind-set needed to psychically spy on the Soviets and Chinese.

However, these all involved remote viewing being carried out from a normal state of consciousness, i.e. the beta state. The technique favoured by the Fort Meade military remote viewers was called extended remote viewing (ERV) whereby the remote viewer practiced psychic spying from a deeper level of consciousness, the theta state, normally found in dreaming. Biofeedback and EEG machines were used to train the remote viewer to put him- or herself into the theta state. A special room to cut out external stimuli was used to facilitate ERV. This advanced form of remote viewing was the technique the Russian remote viewers used.

Ingo Swann continued to use the co-ordinate remote-viewing method. In one notorious session he spoke about on a 1996 Equinox Programme, The Real X-Files, on Channel 4, he psychically spied on a location in the Soviet Union which was being used for biological-weapons research on unwilling human victims. This could have been the biological-warfare complex at Obolensk, in a forest to the south of Moscow. Swann catalogued a number of such biological-weapons sites, including one at Stepnogorsk, an island in the Aral Sea called Vozrozhdeniye, Berdsk and the city of Sverdlovsk, which in 1979 had suffered a deadly accident with anthrax spores that killed hundreds of Russians.

Gary Langford, another talented remote viewer from Stanford, and Swann also tested CRV techniques on underwater Atlantic ridges, looking for Russian ballistic-missile submarines. In fact, the Stanford and Fort Meade military remote viewers worked together on many projects. According to the ‘Operational project summary: an unofficial list of nineteen apparent RV successes, 1974-93’ compiled by Dale Graff and selectively released by the CIA to sponsored investigators in 1995, the strategic use of remote viewing was made plain by the Stanford remote viewers being used by the Air Force to look for the new MX ballistic-missile sites.


Soviet missiles were becoming so accurate that there was a possibility that they could destroy nearly all US land-based nuclear ballistic missiles in a first strike. In 1979, the Air Force had come up with the MX missile plan in which 200 mobile nuclear missiles were to be distributed, on a special railroad 30 miles long, between 23 specially hardened silos. The Soviets would have to fire two missiles per silo, necessitating a total of 9,200 Russian warheads, which was thought to be too many nuclear weapons for the Soviets to be able to deploy.

The Stanford Research Institute was asked by the Air Force to see if remote viewing could be used to pinpoint the missiles in their specific silos. Two thousand students were tested for remote-viewing abilities. Groups of those who passed were set to find the silos, in a shell-game simulation. They had 10 per cent accuracy. Mary Long, the remote-viewing prodigy of the group, reached 80 per cent accuracy. The Air Force were not pleased at this result, as it cast doubt on the efficacy of their plan. Since the Soviets were far more advanced than the USA in paranormal warfare, they probably had groups of remote viewers with Mary Long-like abilities. In the end, only 50 MX missiles were built and these were housed in old Minuteman silos at Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming and in Colorado.

CIA sponsored research enabled Puthoff to make a study of the brains of remote viewers, to see if any neurophysiological changes could be found. Los Alamos National Laboratory gave the Stanford remote viewers brain scans, using super-conducting magnetoencephalographs. Puthoff and the CIA were keen to find the part of the brain involved with psi activity, and they pinpointed the temporal lobes, which are situated to the front and side of the cortex, i.e. the top spongy grey matter of the brain (see Figure 1, page 00).

In 1980, the CIA asked Ken Bell to help them with a suspected KGB agent who had been detained by BOSS (the South African intelligence organization) in South Africa. The KGB agent was proving difficult to break. Bell remotely viewed the KGB suspect and telepathically interrogated the man. During this psychic interrogation, Bell asked the man questions which were telepathically transmitted to the Russian and appeared in the man’s thoughts as if he was asking them of himself. Bell discovered that the suspect was using a pocket calculator specially modified to decode messages from the KGB. One of the BOSS agents had taken the calculator home. When it was recovered and examined, it enabled them to prove the man was a KGB agent.

The Fort Meade group were called upon to spy on the ultra-secret nuclear testing base at Semipalatinsk, as well as looking for the crash site of a wrecked Soviet TU-95 bomber, but their real test was to come with the task of finding the whereabouts of US hostages in Iran, who were captured in 1979. In April 1980, Hartleigh Trent remotely viewed US special forces rappelling out of helicopters in Iran, and day after day, the group used remote viewing to keep tabs on the hostages. However, on 25 April 1980 President Carter announced that the rescue mission had been a debacle; Nancy Stern left the Grill Flame project, followed shortly by Fern Gauvin. By early 1981, most of the Grill Flame team had dispersed, Bell and Riley to the regular army and normal military work, and McMoneagle was nearing retirement. Hartleigh Trent died of cancer. The need for new blood from the Stanford Research Institute to bolster the US remote-viewing programme was growing.


By the early eighties, Ingo Swann was working for Jack Vorona of the DIA and General Ed Thompson, who was still in overall charge of the Fort Meade project. Puthoff had found that two-thirds of the data gained by remote viewing was correct, but the aim, as always, was to improve accuracy.

Techniques used by US remote viewers in these early days included locking up their thoughts in a ’mental suitcase’; ultra-quiet remote-viewing rooms; sensory deprivation tanks; alpha- and theta - inducing mind machines - now sold to the public; biofeedback using EEG machines to enable the remote viewer to get in the mood for remote viewing by entering a theta state.

Ingo Swann became interested in teaching pupils how to distinguish signal (or first impressions) from noise (or attempts to analyze). If the remote viewer’s first impressions were recorded without any attempt to analyze them, the information was of high accuracy. When the remote viewer tried to analyze what he or she was seeing, accuracy plummeted. This phenomenon was called analytical overlay. Within the first two seconds of studying an event, or part of the target, accuracy was high; once the remote viewer tried to analyze the image or information, the remote viewing became garbled or wrong. Puthoff postulated that the left hemisphere of the brain was not involved in psi activity.


Since the left part of our brains is involved in analytical, mathematical and alphanumeric data, he theorized that this part of our brain gets in the way of the deeper, non-language based parts involved in remote viewing. It is rather like a person with a damaged left hemisphere who can see and draw pictures but cannot label them accurately. Swann developed remote-viewing methods of working that concentrated on raw data, and then in later parts of the session, on bringing in analytical information, when it was more likely to be right. In this way, Swann assumed that the brain could be trained to evaluate psi data. In effect, he was attempting to rewire the neural network of the brain, to build in a sixth sense. This was his method:

  • Stage One - doodle the first thing that comes into your mind after being given the co-ordinates of the remote-viewing target. The essence of the target could be seen in this ideogram. As the session developed, visual imagery could be brought in and finally analytical information, which was strictly avoided until then.

  • Stage Two - allow visual and sensory data into your consciousness but discard any analytical mental processes. The raw data of remote-viewing perceptions was to the fore, with no conscious thought about what it may or may not be.

  • Stage Three - put an overview of your remote-viewing perceptions into a bigger picture, possibly drawing numerous pictures.

  • Stage Four - make lists of the emotional and aesthetic impact what you have seen in the remote-viewing session has had on you. List the tangibles and intangibles of which you were aware. Finally make a sketch including all the information acquired in the remote-viewing session.

These four protocols, as he called them, were used in the early days. Swann later added a Stage Five, in which ways of improving remote-viewing resolution were implemented; and a Stage Six, in which a three-dimensional representation of the target was arrived at, by making models of the target. Later still, other teachers introduced a stage seven which involves reading documents at the remote-viewing location. These CRV protocols still form the basis for all remote viewing taught in the USA.

Puthoff theorized that remote viewing was a form of subliminal perception, rather like the image flashed on the screen too fast to be consciously seen but nevertheless perceived by the subconscious. It seemed as if the remote viewer was travelling to the target for the briefest of moments, picking up a subliminal perception of it, then alighting back in his body. As the remote-viewing process was repeated, the remote viewer went back to the target and slowly built up a picture of what he was seeing as a set of subliminal images and perceptions that slowly, tenuously, slipped into conscious awareness. In later chapters, we will discuss how this US research fits into an overall theory of how remote viewing works - the physics of the paranormal.


Psychic Noreen Renier, during a 1981 lecture at the FBI’s training centre at Quantico in Virginia, predicted President Reagan would be the subject of an assassination attempt that spring, which turned out to be correct. The White House was very pro-paranormal. Ronald and Nancy Reagan regularly consulted astrologer Joan Quigley.

Freelance psi-spies such as Alex Tannous were kept busy by the CIA. When the CIA’s station chief in Beirut, William Buckley, was kidnapped by Moslem terrorists, the Agency’s Directorate of Operations asked Tannous to remotely view the captive. When Tannous reported the route of the kidnapping and that Buckley had been tortured to death by the terrorists, the CIA were not happy to hear his news - especially since it turned out to be true. Tannous’s group of private psi-spies were also used by the secret service to find an assassin code-named the ’Cat’, who was targeting Ronald Reagan.

A massive boost to official remote-viewing deployment in the US Army came with the appointment in 1981 of Major General Albert Stubblebine to head Intelligence Security Command (INSCOM). A true believer in remote viewing

- ’I will tell you for the record that there are structures underneath the surface of the Mars’ I will also tell you that there are machines under the surface of Mars that you can look at. You can find out in detail, you can see what they are, who they are and a lot of detail about them...you can do that through remote viewing’ * -

...and the merits of paranormal warfare, Stubblebine had pushed through neuro-linguistic programming in the management training of staff officers and the teaching of out-of-body consciousness at the Monroe Institute. The military, under Major General Stubblebine, with the help of Jack Vorona of the DIA and the technical expertise of Hal Puthoff, pushed forward the remote-viewing project at Fort Meade.

* Nexus magazine, Remote Viewing, Vol 2 No 21, Aug-Sep 1994

Colonel John Alexander oversaw many of these INSCOM projects for Stubblebine. Alexander, a true visionary, had published a seminal article in Military Review called ’The New Mental Battlefield’, in which he described remote viewing and extolled its usefulness, and suggested that effective mind-influencing devices were already a lethal reality referring to Warsaw Pact psychotronic weapons and how they might be used against the USA.

Another innovation, according to Sally Squires of the Washington Post (‘The Pentagon’s twilight zone’ 17 April 1988), was an Army war college called Task Force Delta, which looked at the development of paranormal warrior-monks. The project was to investigate strange philosophical practices for anything that might be of use to the military. Lieutenant Colonel Jim Chandler and like-minded officers from the Task Force came up with the name ’First Earth Battalion’ - an ecologically minded, politically correct, warrior-monk vision for the future soldier. A 1982 report of a Task Force Delta meeting was reported by Colonel Mike Malone:

’I am one of the tribal elders... my name is "The Mullet Man." I am known as the one who casts nets. And I try to tell people that of all those who cast nets, most should focus more on the casting than the catching. I live with, fish for, and push the cause of the mullet, because he is a "low-class" fish. He is simple. He is honest. He moves around in great formations and columns. He does damn near all the work...’

According to documents in my possession, Jack Houck, a defense consultant and the US expert on psychokinesis, introduced Stubblebine and Alexander to spoon bending, which Stubblebine subsequently showed to INSCOM officers, as well as to General Thompson, Directorate Chief at the DIA, and John McMahon, Deputy Director of the CIA.

For some time, character clashes had been evident amongst the Stanford researchers and Fort Meade remote viewers and now they became acrimonious. Russell Targ’s finance was stopped by the DIA for alleged sloppiness, and in 1983 he and remote viewer Keith Harary left to go into business on their own. Initially they proved spectacularly successful in analyzing the silver-futures options for clients,
* but again bitter acrimony was the end result. It seemed opening Pandora’s box of remote viewing led to bitter emotional and personality clashes.

* The goose that laid the silver eggs: a criticism of psi and silver futures forecasting, The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, October year October 1992, volume 86

In 1983, the military remote-viewing programme came under the auspices of INSCOM and the direct control of Stubblebine, in the process receiving the new code-name of Center Lane. The unit was used to look for terrorists, among other things. When Brigadier General James Dozier was kidnapped by the Italian Red Brigade, the team at Fort Meade was asked to find him. Langford had predicted the blue van that was involved in the kidnapping; McMoneagle gave an exact description of the second-floor room in Padua in which Dozier was being held; another remote viewer, Ted Wheatley, found the exact town. Dozier was eventually found and freed, thanks in part to signals intelligence by US special-operations teams. He was found in a second-floor room with a radiator on the wall at the store with a distinctive facade on the ground floor, just as McMoneagle described.

New blood was introduced by Stubblebine into the Fort Meade group, including Lyn Buchanan and Ed Dames.

Ingo Swann’s training enabled the new US military remote viewers not only to learn CRV and simple ERV, but to experience bilocation. This was seen as the first major step towards Russian techniques of remote viewing. It enabled the remote viewer to perceive the target as if he or she was actually there. In the US, bilocation was seen as the pinnacle of remote viewing, a peak experience to be enjoyed when it occurred. Of all Swann’s trainees, Tom Nance was the finest; he could make models of what he was remotely viewing, Stage Six of Swann’s training.

Stubblebine’s replacement by Major General Harry Soyster put the Fort Meade group into a strong decline; it was transferred to the DIA, renamed Sun Streak. While the Army’s remote-viewing group fell on hard times, the Stanford group blossomed, working for all branches of the US government. During 1984 and 1985, Jack Vorona of the CIA and Hal Puthoff lobbied congress, the military and intelligence agencies for funds. Remote-viewing demonstrations were held for the White House, the Navy, the Air Force, the CIA, Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Security Council, NSA, FBI, DEA, the Customs Service, the Coast Guard, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. As a result, they won the support of a Pentagon-affiliated agency and a five-year, $10 million research and development contract to work on the neurophysiology of remote viewing, and psi abilities such as psychokinesis.

Most of the old experienced remote viewers died from cancer or heart attacks, even McMoneagle had a massive heart attack that nearly killed him in June 1985. The American remote viewers were oblivious of the enormous remote-influencing and killing potential of the Soviet Union’s thousands of KGB trained paranormal-warfare experts. US remote viewers were seen as a danger to the Soviet’s paranormal-warfare capability. A paranormal first strike to take out US remote viewers would have been seen as a legitimate military operation by the KGB. Since the US did not possess any remote killers, it would be relatively safe, with no chance of a psi-counterstrike. Though no hard evidence shows this to be true, the massive Soviet capability in psi warfare lends credence to the first-strike scenario.

Sun Streak was given the job of remotely viewing high-tech Soviet weapons. In 1987, they psychically spied upon the Dushanbe satellite tracking, communication and strategic laser complex in the USSR. Mel Riley and Paul Smith were among the unit’s remote viewers. They located Chinese Silkworm missile emplacements in Iran, towards the end of the Iran-Iraq war. In 1988 and 1989, the unit helped the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) look for drug routes, vessels and barons. They also psychically searched for US POWs abandoned to their fate in Vietnam after the war.

With a new DIA operations officer, Fern Gauvin (a former Natural with Grill Flame), more exotic and occult techniques were practiced at Fort Meade. Up until then, CRV and ERV were the only techniques regularly used. Now channelling, allowing your body to be taken over by a spirit, was added to the portfolio of techniques. Written remote viewing, where the spirit wrote down the answer to whatever you were remotely viewing, enabled Angela Dellafiora to find a rogue US Customs Service officer, Charles Jordan, in Lovell, Wyoming. She predicted how Quaddafi would transport chemical weapons from the facility at Rabta by ship to another location, to avoid US surveillance and a presumed bombing raid. She even predicted a hijacking in Rome, or Athens, of US airline passengers by Moslem terrorists.

The channelling of information by discarnate spirits to enable remote viewing has a long history. Helen Duncan was a psychic who publicly stated at a séance during the height of the Second World War that a British battleship had been sunk. She was promptly jailed by the British authorities. It is known that Churchill was aware of psychic warfare during the Second World War. The lighting of candles and meditation on the powers of light was used to ward of the evil forces of Hitler.


* The Spear of Destiny, Trevor Ravenscroft, Neville Spearman, 1973.

Churchill was concerned that vital defense information may have been leaked by Helen Duncan if she was allowed to continue. A front-page article in The Times in January 1998, revealed that pressure was being put on the government to pardon Helen Duncan, Britain’s first convicted psychic viewer. Until this very day, psychic viewing is looked on by the British establishment with horror. A country such as the UK, obsessed with secrecy, cannot allow remote viewing to become public knowledge - as I have found to my cost.


In 1988, the new Secretary of Defense, Frank Carlucci, announced a $33 billion defense cut. A Pentagon Inspector General’s team arrived at Fort Meade to examine the work the US military remote viewers had been undertaking. Numerous files were shredded before the Inspector General’s team could examine them, remote viewers were told to avoid the inspectors. Not surprisingly, the Inspector General recommended that the remote-viewing unit be shut down. Many of the personnel left. Ingo Swann left Stanford in 1988; Ed Dames left the unit that summer, and Mel Riley retired in 1990.

In fact, the unit survived, but only four remote viewers were left at Fort Meade when the Gulf War started in 1991. They were asked to find mobile scud-missile launchers in the western desert of Iraq. Ken Bell and Joe McMoneagle, acting as private contractors, aided in this psychic hunt for the scuds. Towards the end of the Gulf War, David Morehouse and two other independent remote viewers, were asked by the DIA to examine the Iraqi army units which were torching the oil wells in Kuwait. Morehouse claims he saw the Iraqis releasing toxic agents into the conflagration.


According to Morehouse’s remote viewing, these nerve agents, mycotoxins and bacteriological substances, were spread at low concentrations to give US and UK troops chronic poisoning that would not show up at the time, but would disable or kill these soldiers years later. Acute poisoning which would have killed US and allied troops on the battlefield may have forced the USA to respond with nuclear weapons. The Iraqi command may therefore have considered they only had the option of a low-level chemical and biological weapon response. If Saddam Hussein actually ordered this attack, as Morehouse states, he is responsible for over 10,000 US deaths from Gulf War Syndrome. To add to this horror, nearly 250,000 ex-servicemen and women are now severely ill, many having children with birth defects.*

* Gulf War Syndrome: Biological Black Magic, David G. Guyatt, Nexus Aug-Sep 1997, Vol 4 No 5.

Sun Streak was now renamed Stargate (as the overall programme was called in 1977). In 1994, the American Institute for Research (AIR) was asked by the CIA to evaluate the remote-viewing programme. Ray Hyman, a psychology professor at the University of Oregon in Eugene, and Jessica Utts, a professor of statistics at the University of California, helped prepare the study. Hyman was skeptical.

‘My conclusion was that there’s no evidence these people have done anything helpful for the government,’ he said. Utts, however, thought some of the results were promising; ‘I think they would be effective if they were used in conjunction with other intelligence,’ she said, but that the statistical results were promising enough for research to continue. ‘I would like to see funding in the open science world - I think we’re at the point that something needs to be explained,’ she said.

However, David Goslin, who headed the AIR team, concluded that evidence for the 1993-94 period showed that remote viewing was not useful. This seems to have been a politically motivated decision, according to Dr Edwin C. May, Director of Research for Remote Viewing Programs for both the CIA and DIA:

’Dr May believes that the reasons for the cancellation of the RV programs were mainly due to the geopolitical shifts, and a review of priorities by the intelligence community.’ *

* Remote Viewing and the US Intelligence Community, Armen Victorian, Lobster vol 31 June 1996.


Dr Marcello Truzzi a research scientist in this area adds:

‘the recent strange CIA/AIR report on the one hand indicates about fifteen per cent above chance guessing rate while somehow managing to conclude that RV is not operationally useful (bad enough but also dismissing the many hits in the operational, non-experimental efforts with RV). Given the low reliability of so many espionage methods and sources, one would have expected them to be delighted with fifteen per cent over chance. Obviously, the conclusions were dictated in advance of the evaluation study and were mostly politically motivated.

The decision to halt remote viewing was extraordinary. According to conventional science, remote viewing could not possibly work. Fifteen per cent accuracy (McMoneagle states it was 50 per cent and Morehouse gives 80 per cent) shows that our conventional science must be wrong. Russian science had expanded to encompass psi and in doing so allowed them to develop operational psi warfare. US remote viewing, lacking a comparable theoretical basis, was easily dismissed by the skeptics as illusory.

In 1995, the CIA released information on the remote-viewing programme it had decided to discontinue. A 29 November Associated Press wire story stated:

CIA confirms US used ’psychic’ spies. Project ’Star Gate’ employed psychics to hunt down Libyan leader Muammar Quaddafi, find plutonium in North Korea and help drug enforcement agencies. CIA spokesman Mark Mansfield confirmed the existence of the Star Gate study. ‘The CIA is reviewing available programs regarding parapsychological phenomena, mostly remote viewing, to determine their usefulness to the intelligence community,’ he said.

But he noted that when the CIA first sponsored research on the program in the 1970s, the program was found to be ‘unpromising’ and was later turned over to the Defense Department.


The US remote-viewing programme was being run down by 1988. This might be comfortable for the scientific community, but in fact remote viewing is still being developed by the military, in absolute secrecy. DIA personnel and other secret groups in the US military are developing paranormal warfare along similar lines to the Russian research. The aim is to protect democracy against Chinese paranormal-warfare projects, including remote influencing. A May 1992 DIA report, classified Secret/NOFORN (no foreigner), as well as open-source literature on the scope and thrust of the Chinese parapsychological effort, shows a five to ten year intelligence gap in this area.

The US military’s official position on remote viewing was stated by CIA spokesperson David Christian, who accepted that no further governmental US research into remote viewing was warranted:

‘We think the intelligence community shouldn’t pursue research on this and that it is best left to the private sector.’

However, a carefully planned campaign of disinformation to mask the continued and accelerated study of psi warfare became necessary following a chance remark made by former president Jimmy Carter at a conference in South Africa in 1995. CNN reported on 20 September 1995:

Carter: CIA used psychics to help find missing plane. Atlanta, Georgia (CNN)

- Former President Jimmy Carter said the CIA, without his knowledge, once consulted a psychic to help locate a missing government plane in Africa. Carter told students at Emory University that the ‘special US plane crashed somewhere in Zaire’ while he was president.

According to Carter, US spy satellites could find no trace of the aircraft, so the CIA consulted a psychic from California. Carter said the woman ‘went into a trance and gave some latitude and longitude figures. We focused our satellite cameras on that point and the plane was there.’

The Carter statement was circulated by Reuters in September 1995 (‘Carter says psychic found lost plane for CIA’).

Milton Friedman, a speech writer for President Ford with inside information, writing in Venture Inward magazine, Jan-Feb 1996, in an article called, Intuition is Alive in Washington, has said that:

‘Remote-viewing accuracy was actually sixty per cent to eighty-five per cent (not fifteen per cent as claimed). The programs have not closed down but been moved under a deeper cloak of secrecy. (Other agencies like the FBI are now training their agents to use intuition in investigations like the Oklahoma City bombing incident.) The budgets are enormous - much more than the alleged twenty million dollars over twenty years. The intelligence data picked up by psi-spies is called, ’critical, crucial, vital and unavailable from any other source’. It was used by the highest echelons of the military and the government.’


The highest ranks of the military are involved in the new research. An official CIA paper written by Gerald K. Haines of the National Reconnaissance Office, states:

’There is a DIA Psychic Center and the NSA studies parapsychology, that branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of such psychic phenomena as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, and telepathy.’

Robert Gates, former Director of the CIA, estimated ‘that the intelligence community had invested about twenty million dollars over the sixteen-year period during which the threat was under examination.’

(‘Night Line’ TV show, 28 November 1995).

Ingo Swann responded on 1 December 1995:

A great deal was learned for those twenty million dollars, and our nation received a lot back for the bucks spent. And this knowledge, although somewhat on the shelf now, will soon come in handy again. Several quite respectable sources have informed me that two major nations are making advances in psychoenergetics applications, one of which is remote viewing. It is also alleged that a third, smaller nation with well-known and advertised hatred of the American way of life, is also making progress. I believe these sources, because I know that liberated Russia sold for big bucks the Soviet psychic secrets three times over in order to acquire needed foreign exchange monies.

The fifteen per cent accuracy cited in recent public statements on behalf of the CIA is the baseline which ordinary non-gifted and untrained persons often do achieve. This figure was identified very early in the Stanford research phase. The minimum accuracy needed by the clients was sixty-five per cent. In the later stages of the development [training] part of the effort, this accuracy level was achieved and often consistently exceeded.

...remote viewers did help find scud missiles, did help find biological and chemical warfare projects, did locate tunnels and extensive underground facilities and identify their purposes...

From the top of our system down, there are many who could stand up and be counted regarding the efficiency of developed remote viewing, and even regarding superior natural psychics. It has been circulated in the intelligence community that successful remote-viewing sessions probably saved the nation a billion-plus dollars in what otherwise would have been wasted, or misdirected, activities. Not a bad payback for the twenty million dollars.

US research into remote manipulating and influencing, which concentrates on the telepathic knockout at which the Russians are expert, and the use of sleep-wake hypnosis to control people at a distance or plant suggestions in their brains, has obvious military value. According in Armen Victorian,* it is headed by Colonel John Alexander, the former Director of Non-Lethal Weapons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, who remains advisory head of Nato’s Non-Lethal Defense initiative.


*The Pentagon’s PenguinArmen Victorian (Lobster magazine 28, Dec 1994)

He was assistant to General Stubblebine on Grill Flame. One of America’s leading experts on paranormal warfare, Alexander foresaw the danger psi warfare posed when most others ridiculed the very idea. He has been the prime mover in shaping DIA psi warfare for the twenty-first century.

The Japanese, having also bought the technology from the Russians, have brought psi warfare into the corporate arena. Any US firm that is not aware of it will be at risk. Russian researchers found they could remotely influence the decision-makers in foreign governments. New Scientist (23 December 1995) revealed a major Japanese Corporation’s attempts to use psychotronic technology in the business world to further Japanese interests. They are apparently developing mind-reading machines. US firms that are ignorant of psychotronics will be at a major disadvantage to foreign competitors who master this new field of study developed by the Soviet Union.

There is a danger that the Chinese are developing military remote influencers, who may be used against the USA and the West. Faced with these scenarios, there are secret psi-warfare projects spearheading US countermeasures.

Few people understand the power of psi, in effect consigning the paranormal to mental aberration or hallucination. There is a private programme which would not be subject to the US Freedom of Information Act. One of these new top-secret institutes is multi-millionaire Robert Bigelow’s Nevada-based National Institute for Discovery Science. Robert Bigelow is recruiting leading researchers in UFOs, remote viewing and other fringe sciences, with the aim of developing a biophysical research programme that can match the Russians, who still lead the world in this area. Colonel Alexander is a leading proponent of this type of this research and advises NATO on non lethal weapons and there uses.

*The Pentagon’s PenguinArmen Victorian (Lobster magazine 28, Dec 1994)


At the end of the millennium, it seems that the USA has indeed entered a new age, one in which American psi-spies stand between democracy and foreign powers, which by the use of remote viewing, remote sensing and remote influencing, can modify the decisions and behaviour of the politicians upon whom democracy depends. With the end of the Cold War, the inner-space arms race has not died down, but instead spread further afield.

Unraveling the nature of reality

I believe that the universe is more structured than modern theorists would imagine. Physics used to be an experimentally based science in which theories were developed to explain experimental data. In recent times, more and more complex theories have been developed, but little experimental work has been carried out because the high energies involved require particle accelerators that western governments do not fund because of the enormous cost. The next 20 years will therefore be full of more and more complex mathematical physical theories, which to all intents and purposes are improvable by experiment.


Physicists have, in effect, become highly educated science-fiction writers. In my research into remote viewing it forced me to reappraise the nature of reality in order to begin to come to terms with how it could possibly work. Science has overlooked the implications that remote viewing has for the nature of physical reality. According to physics and biology, remote viewing is not possible. In chapter 4, we look at the science underlying remote viewing.

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