HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY
Rotatory Motion and the “Screw Effect”
Wm. Thomson (Lord Kelvin) first asserted that magnetism possesses a
“rotatory” character related to heat or the thermal motions of a
body (Proc. R.S. viii , p. 150). Nikola Tesla made many
references to Wm. Thomson, pointing to his work as a prelude to his
own discoveries and applications which especially intensified in
1892. A review of the work of the world’s major minds leading up to
Tesla’s breakthrough is necessary to show just what Tesla discovered
and what it meant in respect to ether physics and physics in
Around 1870, Thomson had conducted experiments which seemed
to indicate that “gravitational action” could be induced by spheroidal bodies oscillated by electrical currents or mechanical
pulses (F. Guthrie Phil. Mag. xli , p. 405). The surface
pulsations could cause attractions or repulsions in respect to other
bodies, as verified by Thomson. Tesla was aware of Thomson’s work
during his student days in Graz, Austria, beginning 1875, when he
Thomson’s work undoubtedly served as the spark of
inspiration for Tesla in his early conception of an “ideal flying
machine” which would be propelled by electricity acting upon the
ether. This explains Tesla’s continual references to Thomson, such
as demonstrating during his 1892 London lecture, a ‘luminous wire’
sign powered by a Tesla coil, which said “WILLIAM THOMSON”.
At first, Thomson found that ponderomotive forces act between two
solid bodies immersed in an incompressible fluid, when one of the
bodies is immobilized and made to oscillate with a force which acts
along a line between its center and that of a much larger sphere
which is free. The free sphere was attracted to the smaller
(immobilized) sphere, if its density was greater than the fluid,
while a sphere of less density than the fluid was repelled or
attracted, according to the ratio of its distance to the vibrator in
relation to a certain quantity (Phil. Mag, xli , p. 405;
Letter, Thomson to F. Guthrie, p. 427.)
Thomson’s experiments were analogical ones, for which he had evoked
praise from his contemporaries even when he was still a teenager,
although his refusal to believe anyone’s assertions unless he could
build an analogical model to prove them often led to the
consternation of those of his contemporaries, such as Maxwell, who
relied often on mathematical equations. The sphere experiments
were designed to use mechanical and electrical wave methods to
construct a model to probe the gravitational, inertial and momentive
reactions of solid bodies in the ether.
The Faraday effect—the rotation of the plane of polarization of
radiation in a dielectric medium (such as the atmosphere, space, and
certain solid materials) in a magnetic field—stated that the angle
of rotation of radiation is proportional to the magnetic field
strength and the length of the path in the medium in the field.
These early experimenters knew there was a connection between the
rotatory motion and momentum, and sought to find it.
The rotatory (versus the linear) character of magnetic phenomena was
strengthened by Thomson’s experimentally verified conclusions on the
magnetic rotation of light. This rotatory character not only
influenced Tesla’s discovery of the rotating magnetic field, but is
also fundamental to inertia and momentum, as I will later explain,
since movement of a charged body constitutes a current which creates
a magnetic field which creates the rotatory motion which “bores”
through the ether like a drill to create momentum.
Thomson’s system was later investigated by C.A. Bjerknes between
1877 and 1910. Bjerknes showed that when two spheres immersed in an
incompressible fluid were pulsated, they exerted a mutual attraction
which obeyed Newton’s inverse square law if the pulsations were in
phase, while if the phases differed by a half wave, the spheres
repelled. At one quarter wave difference, there was no action. Where
pulses were non-instantaneous at distances greater than a quarter
wavelength, attractions and repulsions were reversed (Repertorium d.
Mathematik I [Leipzig, 1877], p. 268; Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. iii
, p. 276; iv , p. 29).
The publishing of these researches and experiments in the physical
journals of Europe were available to Nikola Tesla, during his
student days at the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria, and at
the University of Prague, in Czechoslovakia. Tesla could read and
understand all these pertinent journals in their original languages.
Around 1878, George Francis FitzGerald (1851-1901) (Phil Trans.
clxxi , p. 691; FitzGerald’s Scientific Writings, p. 45)
compared magnetic force and velocity in a quasi-elastic solid, based
on a model devised earlier by James MacCullagh (1809-47) (Brit.
Assoc. Rep., ), whose model was the only one which could
propagate waves with the properties of light—obviously analogous
to the electromagnetic theory of light—as shown by MacCullagh’s
ether equation of motion and ether theory which made it feasible to
extend ether concepts to represent optical phenomena, along with
magnetic and electric interaction.
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An Electrostatic Charge Carried Around
In 1879, Edwin H. Hall (Amer. Jour. Math, ii , p. 287) a
student in Baltimore, repeated an experiment suggested by H. A.
Rowland, his professor, whose original experiment with a gold-foilcovered
ebonite disk in a magnetic field showed that electric charges on a
disk were carried around with it as it was rotated (Ann, d. Phys,
clviii , p. 487). In Hall’s experiment, a gold leaf strip in
which a current was flowing, was placed into a magnetic gap. This
produced an electromotive force at right angles to the magnetic
field and the current, which was proportional to the product of the
two. Called the “Hall Effect”, it was already inherent in the three
previous effects discovered much earlier by Faraday.
Faraday had discovered induction, by forcing a conductor through a
magnetic field, cutting the lines of magnetic force and producing a
current in the conductor. The second of Faraday’s triad was
production of a magnetic field in an unmagnetized iron core, by
forcing a current-carrying conductor through a gap between the poles
of a core. Faraday’s third effect was the generation of a current.
Though Hall’s effect was inherent in the fact that it was the
reverse of the force required by Faraday to push the conductor
through a magnetic field. Hall’s work completed the triad of
effects, by bringing it into consciousness. This effect is the basis
for MHD (Magneto-Hydrodynamic) generators, and electropropulsion,
through the special means which would finally be brought into
fruition by the work of Tesla.
Since the galvanometer needle in Hall’s experiment was deflected
only when the magnetic field arose or collapsed, the physical thrust
created was a vector product which had already been expressly
suggested in Maxwell’s Treatise (1862), almost 15 years earlier
(derived from Maxwell’s analysis relative to Faraday’s work of c.
1845), though Maxwell failed to follow up with experiment (because
he died), the equations are still used.
Though it was said by Whittaker that the Hall effect, like the
magnetic rotation of light, occurs only in ponderable bodies and not
in the “free ether”, this statement was patently false, since the
effect actually depends on the conductivity of a medium. This was a
definite lie on Whittaker’s part, probably “required” under the 1951
revision. The fact that the effect occurs in “ponderable bodies” and
“conductive media” however, is all-important for electropropulsion,
since it shows the reaction between such bodies and media and the
underlying “etheric framework” which is accessed in the process.
Since the “natural media” (the ether and the atmosphere) so often
referred to by Tesla in his patents become conductive under the
influence of electromagnetic radiation of sufficiently high voltage
and frequency, the effects in the free ether, dependent upon proper
conditions, can affect the ether within a ponderable body, so as to
move the body through the free ether.
The most startling proof that
the Hall effect works in the free ether, was Tesla’s “transmission”
of electrical energy through space by high frequency oscillations,
as detailed in his 1892 Lecture before the Institute of Electrical
Engineers, London. Since an electric field ‘displaces’ the
ether—which is the basis for MHD pumping (especially when
pulsed)—the effect actually showed an operable “electromotive force”
(“emf”), or “electro-propulsive force”, between ponderable bodies
and the ether, by means of electromagnetic action.
The high voltage
and high frequency are required by the ether’s great density and
ultra-fineness. The moment Tesla had succeeded in transmitting
electrical energy by means of high voltage, high frequency
currents—“radio waves”—the ether was “accessed”. Tesla’s work at
that point had already verified experimentally everything that
Maxwell had mathematically analyzed as being the electromagnetic
nature of light.
Though it was strongly implied, the literature available to me
failed to explicitly state the idea that inertia and momentum are
the products of an electromagnetic rotatory force which acts within
bodies, upon a dense, incompressible ether which permeates all
bodies and all space. Neither was it specified that a pulsating
sphere or other ponderable body can be electrically propelled
through the ether, without the presence of another sphere or other
ponderable body to pull against—except in the statements of Nikola
Tesla and his “flivver”/”model T” electropulsive “ideal electric
In 1884, the year Tesla discovered the rotating magnetic field, J.J.
Thomson attempted to determine the field produced by a moving
electrified sphere, and the mathematical development of Maxwell’s
theory accelerated. It was naturally easier to solve such problems
from the known behaviors of simple geometric forms—planes, spheres,
and cylinders (J.J. Thomson, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. xv , p.
The possibility that the ether was composed of stationary
positive charges carrying their own ‘sub-electronic’ negative
charges which were elastic, and could be displaced, had apparently
evaded the thinking of Thomson. Although he had assumed that
displacement currents must occur in the ether, he had earlier
thought this was due to the magnetic effects of moving charges,
though he failed to show how the displacement currents occurred, or
what their effects were in terms of inertia and momentum.
There was already a sort of battle brewing between the proponents of
classical electrodynamics, and the proponents led by Maxwell of an
electromagnetic theory of light. To the former, conductivity
occurred in metal wires, etc., while with Maxwell, it occurred in
the surrounding dielectrics and ether-filled space, with the
conductors serving only to “guide” the action. Tesla appeared to fit
more into the Faraday/Maxwell camp. FitzGerald had unified the two
views by arguing validly that Maxwell’s unification was valid
because radiation could be generated by purely electrical means.
Along this line, Thomson (1884) first considered a charged sphere
moving uniformly in a straight line. He assumed that the electric
charges were uniformly distributed, with an electric field the same
in all directions, no matter what position the sphere was in, the
same as if it were at rest. This assumption proved true so long as
the velocity of the sphere and the velocity of light were neglected.
In 1889, Wm. Thomson (Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. i [30 Nov. 1889], p.
340), stated, “Rotational vortex-cores must be discarded; and we
must have nothing but irrotational revolution and vacuous cores.” By
this, Thomson meant that the vacuous “ether”, inside rotating tubes
of electromagnetism, did not rotate, presumably because of its
density, but also because, if the cores rotated along with the
rotating tubes of electromagnetic force, it would neutralize the
electro-mechanical action by which momentum is created.
FitzGerald found a purported error in Thomson’s work, saying that
the required “circuital condition” was not satisfied unless the
moving charges on the sphere were considered as current, combined
with the displacement and convection currents due to the motion. In
correcting Thomson’s error, FitzGerald went overboard in concluding
that the magnetic force due to the displacement currents of the
moving sphere, had no resultant effect. In this conclusion, FitzGerald seemed to have forgotten the “Faraday cage” and
“magneto-optical” effects, since a moving charged sphere would
constitute a current by his own admission, and all currents create
magnetic fields, which cause the rotation of electromagnetic
radiation and light in the surrounding ether as a resultant effect.
In 1888, Oliver Heaviside showed that the electrostatic and
electromagnetic units “vanished” inside the sphere. This was the
opposite to Faraday’s experiment in which electrostatic charges
placed inside a stationary, closed vessel, “appeared” on the
outside. Apparently, movement of the sphere—which increases its
momentum—appeared to Heaviside to force the charges back inside.
Heaviside’s conception of the “spherical” symmetry of charges during
movement was disproved by G.C.F. Searle in 1896 (Phil. Trans, clxxxvii , p. 675).
Searle found that a moving “point charge”
system is not a sphere, but an oblate spheroid, with a polar axis
along its direction of motion. What Whittaker failed to point out,
was the importance of this finding, a connection between inertia,
momentum, current, surface charges “vanishing” and “reappearing”,
and an electromagnetic polarity along the direction of momentum, as
well as an electro-mechanical link to the ether, since the
displacement of the electric lines and polarity correspond to the
movement, consistent to my thinking that the tubules create momentum
inside a moving body. The “vanishing” electrostatic/electromagnetic
units are ‘occupied’ internally by the microhelices, in perpetuating
the movement of the body through the ether.
During this time, Nikola Tesla had not tarried. He had already shown
that the “circuitous condition” could be met in a totally new way.
In his lecture before the A.I.E.E. at Columbia College, N.Y., May
20, 1891, he demonstrated his years-old technology, and stated that
he connected “one terminal” to a lamp and the other to,
body of the required size. In all cases the insulated body serves to
give off the energy into the surrounding space, and is equivalent to
a return wire.”
In this lecture, Tesla also demonstrated
“electromagnetic momentum” which J.J. Thomson was accredited with
discovering in 1893 (J.J. Thomson, Recent Researches in Elect. And
Mag., ,p. 13).
In the same year as Searle’s finding (1896), W.B. Morton (Phil. Mag,
xli |1896], p. 488) similarly showed that the surface density of a
charged body is unaltered by motion, but the lines of force no
longer leave the surface perpendicularly. He also found that the
energy of the surrounding field is greater when in motion than when
Since greater work is required to create a given velocity
for a charged sphere, than for an uncharged one, and since the
sphere can even move in a way which lessens the work, a connection
between moving charges and an ether was verified.
considered true because the charges increased the “virtual mass” of
the sphere, and the self-induction of convection currents is formed
when the charges are set in motion by movement of the sphere, but
neither of these explanations seemed to explicitly note that a force
between a moving charged mass and the space through which it moves
must have an ether framework to push or pull against, or that a
current is caused to flow between matter and the ether due to the
J. Larmor (Phil. Trans, clxxxvi , p. 697) suggested that the
inertia of ponderable matter may be ultimately proven to be of this
nature, since atoms were constituted of systems of electrons. The
only objection to this was an inconsistency with the alleged
“indivisibility” of the electron. This “indivisibility” I believe is
due to a deceptive “apparent effect”, produced by measuring
instruments which measure only “whole” electrons, because they use
only “whole protons”, rather than ether particles.
electron” is the “equal and opposite” response to a “whole” positive
charge. This is similar to Werner Heisenberg’s “uncertainty
principle”, in that exact measurement of less than a whole electron
is made impossible by the instruments of measurement.
If a greater “virtual mass” effect (W.B. Morton, supra) is created
electrically, which increases or decreases the ease of movement of a
body through the “free ether”, and increases the total energy of the
moving system, then a link between ponderable bodies and the etheric
framework was proven, and the means for creating the imbalance of
forces necessary for electro-propulsion—the use of moving charges in
a specific way to synthesize the currents of a moving system—was
just a matter of time and money for Nikola Tesla.
There were implications in the works of Faraday, Maxwell, Wm.
Thomson, J.J. Thomson, MacCullagh, Morton, Searle, Heaviside, Hall,
and FitzGerald, of a distinct relationship between momentum and the
movement of charges connected to mass, through an interpenetrating
gaseous, dynamic, neutral, ultra-fine ether existing in all space
and ponderable matter, upon which electromagnetic ponderomotive
Once the equilibrium of the ether and ZPR was
“disturbed” by the moving system, the ‘displacement’ could be
rectified only by an equal and opposite reaction, which was a flow
of current between the moving system and the ether. Thomson had
accepted the principle that the ether itself is the vehicle of
mechanical momentum. The Hall effect had shown that an electromotive
thrust is produced along a third axis as a result of a current and
magnetic field at right angles, and though it was alleged that this
thrust could not be produced “in the free ether”, but only in
ponderable matter, the works of Heaviside, Searle, and
that the moving charges could either increase or decrease the normal
ease of movement of a body, proving the feasibility for electropropulsion.
Since electrical processes are reversible,
Tesla’s method consisted of using Hall’s MHD method to cause a flow
of current between a ‘stationary’ system (relative to earth) and the
ether—as if it were a “dynamic” system—since it mimicked the
currents of a moving system, and created a disturbance in the ether
which could only be rectified by movement of the system. Once the
current commenced to flow, the magnetic fields thus created,
imparted the rotatory force which created the micro helical tubes of
force which ‘drilled’ their way around the irrotational ether cores,
and synthesized the momentum which propelled the system through the
Nikola Tesla’s statement (Lecture before the Institute of Immigrant
Welfare, May 12,1938), that he had his Dynamic Theory of Gravity
“all worked out” by 1893, and some ‘available’ documentation of
Tesla’s work of 1891 or earlier shows that he was already ahead of
the European field led by J.J. Thomson, Searle, Morton, and Larmor,
whose statements dated from the later 1890’s.
As for his 1915 progress, Tesla stated in a Dec. 8,1915 New York
Times article that his electro-propulsive,
would travel “...300 miles a second...” (1.08 million mph),
“...without propelling engine or wings, sent by electricity to any
desired point on the globe...”.
The Sept. 22, 1940 New York Times
article by Wm. L. Laurence completed the documentation, by stating
that Tesla had already tested his four-part Teleforce system, which
included “...a new method for producing a tremendous electrical
propelling force...”, as used on his electrical aircraft.
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TESLA AND THE GOOD OLD BOYS’ CLUB
When Tesla popped into the picture, the British “Good Old Boy’s
Club” had been debating ether theory for quite some time, and the
upstart Tesla must have hurt the pride of their linemen, by making
an end run to make a touchdown.
In 1847, W. Thomson, in discussing the motion of a magnetizable body
in a non-uniform field of force, said a charged body attracts a body
having a greater specific inductive capacity than that of the
surrounding medium, and repels a body with a lower specific
inductive capacitance, to afford the path of best conductance to the
lines of force.
Thomson had also stated that an electrode immersed
in a fluid insulating medium (an experimental analogy to a body in
ether-filled space), at “...sufficiently high frequency”, would
cause a gravitation of gases all around toward the electrode, but
that the general opinion (of he and his European colleagues) was
that it was “out of the question” that such frequencies could be
This last opinion was soon to be disproved by a close
follower and admirer of Thomson’s work. In reiteration, another
Thomson—J.J. Thomson—had claimed to have mathematically developed
the theory of moving tubes of force (Phil. Mag, xxxi , p.
149). For his Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (1893,
p. 13), his hypothesis was the “the aether is a storehouse of
mechanical momentum”, but was this correct? Isn’t it more likely
that the “storehouse” of “mechanical momentum” is in “ponderable
matter” which reacts with the ether?
Nikola Tesla’s lecture before the A.I.E.E. at Columbia College in
1891 was based on earlier experiments. He mentioned the “tubes of
force” and disclosed some of his discoveries concerning ether and
Feb., 1892 lecture before the Institute of Electrical
Engineers, London, at a time when the Good Old Boys were still
debating whether an electromagnetic action could occur in the free
ether, Tesla explained he planned to run motors at a distance by
wireless energy, with equipment he had already built, and to extract
free energy from the environment.
Four years later, Wm. Thomson stated his “inclination” to
“speculate” that “alterations of electrostatic force due to rapidly
changing electrification” are propagated by “condensational waves in
the luminiferous aether” (Bottomley, Nature liii , p. 268).
This seemed to indicate that Thomson was just beginning to take
In his 1892 London lecture for the Good Old Boys, Tesla had stated
that the ‘required’ frequencies— which Thomson had said were “out of
the question” to be produced—were “...much lower than one is apt to
estimate at first”, and continued (in pertinent part, emphasis
“We may cause the molecules of the gas to collide by the use of
alternate electric impulses of high frequency, and so we may imitate
the process of a flame; and from experiments with high frequencies
which we are now able to obtain, I think the result is producible
with impulses which are transmissible through a conductor.”
appeared to me of great interest to demonstrate the rigidity of a
”with such low frequencies as, say 10,000 per
second which I was able to obtain without difficulty from a
specially constructed alternator.”
“...how must a gaseous medium
behave under the influence of enormous electrostatic stresses which
may be active in the interstellar space, and which may alternate
with inconceivable rapidity?”
In this respect, Tesla seemed also to address the
ZPR. His statements also show he was attempting to make up his mind
as to the characteristics of the ether, such as whether it is rigid
or fluidic, and under what circumstances it may change, and its
static or dynamic nature, of high or low density, and so fourth:
“What determines the rigidity of a body? It must be the speed and
amount of moving matter. In a gas the speed may be considerable, but
the density is exceedingly small, in a liquid the speed would be
likely to be small, though the density may be considerable; and in
both cases, the inertia resistance asserts itself. A body might move
with more or less freedom through the vibrating mass, but as a whole
it would be rigid.”
This statement reflects Tesla’s prior tests, since, prior to his
1892 lectures in London, he had performed tests between two
electrified plates, stating that the “space” between became “solid
state” when subjected to “sufficiently high voltages and
frequencies”. This addressed the issue of how “solid bodies” can
pass through a dense, vibrating, interpenetrating mass of ether
which, as a whole is rigid.
This is the essence of how the “inertia
resistance” of the underlying ‘ether framework’ can be summoned up
by an electrified body which activates the ether with currents of
“sufficiently high voltage and frequency”. As the inertial
resistance of the ether “asserts itself, the electrified body is
propelled through the ether by MHD thrust, which is really the
“microhelical drills” at work.
The “specially constructed alternator” of which Tesla spoke was a
32-inch diameter one, which if similar to the type used on the
saucer I saw in 1953, was probably driven by one of Tesla’s
bladeless turbines. In the 1890’s, Tesla said the alternator had
produced up to 10 amps and 30 kilocycles.
One of these alternators
is shown below:
The saucer I saw in 1953 exhibited precessional characteristics
which could have been caused by the use of such an alternator, the
output and rpms of which under the circumstances could have been
varied with the power level of the saucer, as if it were being
turned progressively faster by a turbine as the ship used more power
to accelerate. The high angle and low frequency of the precessions
would be consistent with the use of a high frequency, large diameter
alternator, which was turned more slowly at hovering power, and
increased in rpm for more power as the ship accelerated.
Since the alternator would likely have been attached rigidly to the
airframe of the saucer, it could have caused the entire saucer to
precess at hovering power, while the downward acceleration due to
gravity was being balanced by the upward electropulsive
acceleration, as the ship hovered in place above the earth. This
phenomenon showed that the precession I observed in 1953 was either
due to rotating internal machinery, or to the “virtual” angular
momentum created by the electropulsive effects.
The balanced forces holding the ship in mid-air would have been
equivalent to holding it on “gimbals of air”, so that it precessed
freely according to the speed of the rotating alternator’s angular
momentum and mass. This would have required very little force,
because the electropulsive forces reduced the ships inertia to
On the other hand, the rotatory force which a magnetic
field imparts to electrical current, to create the microhelices,
could be the cause of precession, as an “equal and opposite
reaction”, by collective rotatory precessive action imparted to all
the atoms of the entire mass of the ship.
Tesla worked out the
problem of how to counteract the tendency of the ship to rotate due
to the torque of the alternator or turbine, by using two turbines or
alternators, turned on parallel axes in the same direction or
counter-rotated, as stated in his
patent #1,655,114, Apparatus for
Aerial Transportation, Jan. 3, 1928. In fact, a single alternator
and turbine turning on separate , parallel axes, linked by a gear
box, would accomplish the same thing.
As the ship accelerated to full speed and power, its low
precessional rate and high precessional angle became a mere
high-frequency wobble, as the ship shot to infinity in three seconds
(which I estimated roughly 7.5 miles). This was consistent with the
alternator being turned at a progressively higher speed.
The rapid precessive wobble of the ship’s periphery tended to blur its
outline, something which has made it more difficult to obtain sharp
definitions of the profiles of saucers in photographs and video.
Coupled with this physical vibration may be the “Faraday effect” -
the “magneto-optical effect” which tends to blur the outlines of
objects subjected to intense electromagnetic fields.
of the ship’s electric field also extends its magnetic field, and
causes a rotation of the optical plane, so in addition to visual
effects of the high frequency precessional oscillations, the optical
plane is actually rotated to create the weird magneto-optical
effects so often reported, and becomes distorted in the minds of the
mystics, who think it is some sort of “time travel” or
“interdimensional travel” effect, a “space-warpage” or “wrapping
around” of “time and space” by a “rotating body” as it moves through
space, ala Einstein, except saucers don’t “revolve”, as proven by my
Peiltochterkompass, and Einstein was full of baloney.
saucer may be powered by a Tesla alternator, a Tesla coil, or a
combination of the two. Tesla stated that the required currents
could be conveyed by conductor, which allows for the instantaneous
control of a ship by means of high voltage stepping switches or
relays. Since an on-board power generator is usually required
anyway, the use of an alternator is more convenient than a spark
gap, coil, and condenser combination, since the necessary high
frequency alternations can be easily stepped up to higher voltages
by several closely linked “extra” coils, placed about the ship.
It is possible that a ball-shaped cockpit was used on some of the
German Kreisel Tellers (“Gyrating Saucers”) of the 1940’s. The ball-
shaped cockpit would have been pressurized, mounted on gimbals, and
gyro-stabilized with a horizontally oriented Meisterkreiselkompass
(“Master-gyro-compass”), which would not only gyro-stabilize the
cockpit while the outer saucer precessed wildly, but would provide
the polar compass heading for the slave compass:
As the outer ship precessed because the alternator was bolted to the
outer airframe—the inner cockpit would be gyro-stabilized, so the
pilot and crew could have visibility of the outer environment. Even
with a precessional angle of 45 degrees, the pilot would still be
able to see where he was, and where he was going. I could not see
the top of the saucer I saw in 1953, so can’t say what the
visibility system was.
Back to Contents
TESLA’S DYNAMIC THEORY OF GRAVITY
According to Tesla’s lecture prepared for the Institute of Immigrant
Welfare (May. 12,1938), his Dynamic Theory of Gravity was one of two
far reaching discoveries, which he “...worked out in all details”,
in the years 1893 and 1894. The 1938 lecture was less than five
years before his death.
More complete statements concerning these discoveries can only he
gleaned from scattered and sparse sources, because the papers of
Tesla are concealed in government vaults for “national security"
When I specifically asked for these papers at the “National Security
Research Center”—now the “Robert J. Oppenheimer Research Center”- in 1979,
I was denied access because they were classified, even
though on that same day I discovered the plans for the hydrogen bomb
on an open shelf, and told a Harvard graduate student about it later
in the day at a Santa Fe restaurant. The guy went to Los Alamos,
copied the plans, and wrote an expose at Harvard.
In his 1938 lecture, Tesla said he was progressing with the work,
and hoped to give the theory to the world “very soon”, so it was
clearly his intent to “give it to the world”, as soon as he had
completed his secret developments.
The “two great discoveries” to which Tesla referred, were:
1. The Dynamic Theory of Gravity - which assumed afield of force
which accounts for the motions of bodies in space; assumption of
this field of force dispenses with the concept of space curvature
(ala Einstein); the ether has an indispensable function in the
phenomena (of universal gravity, inertia, momentum, and movement of
heavenly bodies, as well as all atomic and molecular matter); and,
2. Environmental Energy - the Discovery of a new physical Truth:
there is no energy in matter other than that received from the
The usual Tesla birthday announcement—on his 79th birthday
(1935)—Tesla made a brief reference to the theory saying it applies
to molecules and atoms as well as to the largest heavenly bodies,
“...all matter in the universe in any phase of its existence
from its very formation to its ultimate disintegration”.
Those imbued with relativist theory often refer to “pure energy” in
some “form”, but there is no such thing, since "energy" is an
abstract "ability" which is always in the future. Who’s to say what
“form” is “pure”, and what form is not?
My favorite philosopher, Ayn Rand, said.
“In reality, there are no
contradictions. Things are what they are irrespective as to whether
we know it or not. Check your premises.”
If the term “energy” is
only a convenient abstraction, then it does not exist in physical
form, and really describes the potential to perform work as a
by-product of matter and electromagnetic radiation in perpetual
motion, some of the force of which has been diverted through a path
where it performs the desired work, as it goes on its merry way
through the universe.
Every change of form of either matter or
radiation involves the “work” which induces the change, or the
“work” which is induced by the change. Without work there is no
change, but all work is ultimately the product of the universe in
perpetual, self-sustaining motion, as a rule and not an exception.
As for Tesla’s theory, we have hints, such as, that the earth is the
“star of human birth”. In poetic expressions, he hid scientific
meanings in statements such as, that using the “thunderbolt of Jove”
(the Indo-European sky god), man “annihilates time and space”, an
allusion to the use of electro-propulsion (“thunderbolts”), to
travel so fast, that time and space are “annihilated”.
government has stolen his papers, we must search for meaning
elsewhere. In an article, Man’s Greatest Achievement
John J. O'Neill, Prodigal Genius, 1944, pp. 251-252
outlined his Dynamic Theory of Gravity in poetic form (as
paraphrased by me):
That the luminiferous ether fills all space
That the ether is acted upon by the life-giving creative force
That the ether is thrown into “infinitesimal whirls”
(“micro helices”) at near the speed of light, becoming
That when the force subsides and motion ceases, matter reverts to
the ether (a form of “atomic decay”)
John J. O’Neill, Prodigal Genius, 1944, pp. 251-252
That man can harness these processes, to:
Precipitate matter from the ether
Create whatever he wants with the matter and energy
Alter the earth’s size
Control earth’s seasons (weather control)
Guide earth’s path through the Universe, like a space
Cause the collisions of planets to produce new suns and stars,
heat, and light
Originate and develop life in infinite forms
Tesla was referring to unlimited energy, derived from the
environment. Several of his major free energy discoveries have been
the exclusive stolen property of our
Secret Government. The
conversion of energy to a stronger force—electropulsion—used to
control the much weaker gravity force, would accomplish more work in
the same amount of time, and produce “over unity” results.
Some of Telsa’s unusual conceptualization of the ether had been
nonetheless expounded piecemeal, in his preceding 1890’s lectures.2
He later railed against the limited and erroneous theories of
Maxwell, Hertz, Lorentz, and Einstein.
T. C. Martin, Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nicola Tesla,
1894, Chapter XXV - Introduction - The
Scope of the Tesla Lectures.
Tesla’s ether was neither the “solid” ether with the “tenuity of
steel” of Maxwell and Hertz, nor the half-hearted, entrained,
gaseous ether of Lorentz. Tesla’s ether consisted of “carriers
immersed in an insulating fluid”, which filled all space. Its
properties varied according to relative movement, the presence of
mass, and the electric and magnetic environment.
Tesla’s ether was rigidified by rapidly varying electrostatic
forces, and was thereby involved in gravitational effects, inertia,
and momentum, especially in the space near earth, since, as
explained by Tesla, the earth is “...like a charged metal ball
moving through space”, which creates the enormous, rapidly varying
electrostatic forces which diminish in intensity with the square of
the distance from earth, just like gravity. Since the direction of
propagation radiates from the earth, the 2 T. C. Martin, Inventions,
Researches and Writings of Nicola Tesla, 1894, Chapter XXV -
Introduction - The Scope of the Tesla Lectures.
so-called force of gravity is toward earth.
Tesla commenced to complete his Dynamic Theory of Gravity at the
same approximate period of time that his experimental results and
theories had been revealed in the three lectures, often illustrated
with demonstrations using Tesla-invented equipment, as revealed in
the following eight excerpts, in pertinent part (emphasis mine):
1. “The most probable medium filling the space is one consisting of
independent carriers immersed in an insulating fluid”.
2. “In his experiments he dwells first on some phenomena produced by
electrostatic force, which he considers in the light of modern
theories to be the most important force in nature for us to
3. “He illustrates how mechanical motions are produced by a varying
electrostatic force acting through a gaseous medium.”
4. “One of the most interesting results arrived at in pursuing these
experiments, is the demonstration of the fact that a gaseous medium
upon which vibration is impressed by rapid changes of electrostatic
potential, is rigid “
5. “If through this medium enormous electrostatic stresses are
assumed to act, which vary rapidly in intensity, it would allow the
motion of a body through it, yet it would be rigid and elastic,
although the fluid itself might be devoid of these properties”.
6. “...on the assumption that the independent carriers are of any
configuration such that the fluid resistance to motion in one
direction is greater than in another, a stress of that nature would
cause the carriers to arrange themselves in groups, since they would
turn to each other their sides of the greatest electrical density,
in which position the fluid resistance to approach would be smaller
than to receding.”
7. “If in a medium of the above characteristics a brush would be
formed by a steady potential, an exchange of the carriers would go
on continuously, and there would be less carriers per unit volume in
the brush than in the space at some distance from the electrode,
this corresponding to rarefaction”.
8. “If the potentials were rapidly changing, the result would be
very different; the higher the frequency of the pulses, the slower
would be the exchange of carriers; finally, the motion of
translation through measurable space would cease and, with a
sufficiently high frequency and intensity of the stress, the
carriers would be drawn towards the electrode, and compression would
The eight above excerpts are further reducible to the following four
statements pertinent to electro-propulsion technology:
1. Mechanical motions can be produced by varying electrostatic force
acting through a gaseous (ether) medium, which thereby becomes
rigidified, yet allows solid bodies to pass through.
2. Under influence of stress in one direction (under the polarizing
influence of light or heat), the carriers may group together,
forming tubes of force, creating greater ease of movement in that
3. When a (D.C.) brush is created by a steady potential, a
continuous exchange of carriers is created corresponding to ether
rarefaction, as the tubes of force are drawn into the conductor.
4. With a sufficiently high frequency and stress intensity in the
opposite direction, carrier exchange is blocked by ether
compression, forcing the tubes of force to dissolve in the
conductors of the ship, imparting electromagnetic momentum. The
system, using the two kinds of potentials (D.C. and A.C.), is known
The steady potential of the brush creates the required exchange of
carriers, ‘ratifying’ (stretching) the elastic, rigidified medium
(composed of the carriers immersed in the insulating fluid) in
advance of the ship, as the high frequency A.C. to the rear
compresses them, blocking exchange from the rear, dissolving the
tubes of force (my “microhelices”), creating instant momentum,
normal to the surface (which is at right angles to the electric and
In 1884, John Henry Poynting’s theorem had been
that the flux of energy at any place is represented by the vector
product of the electric and magnetic forces, multiplied by C/4*PI.
This implied that forces in a conductor could be transformed there
into other forms. In 1893, J. J.
Thomson stated practically the same thing, saying “...the aether is
the vehicle of mechanical momentum, of amount (1/4*PI*C) (D*B) per
(Using e.-s. Units for D and E
and e.-m. Units for B and H.)
E = electrical force
D = electrical displacement
H = magnetic force
B = magnetic induction
3 Phil Trans. clxxv (1884), p. 343.
4 Recent Researches in Elect, and Mag. (1893), p. 13.
Heinrich Hertz’s theory 5 was that two systems of varying current
should exert a ponderomotive force on each other due to the
variations. Tesla’s disagreement was apparently based on the fact
that he proved that the “ponderomotive force” is due not to mere
“varying currents”, but to rarefaction and compression of the ether
carriers, respectively, produced by different kinds of currents
(D.C., A.C., rapidly varying electrostatic).
J. J. Thomson6 had extensively developed the theory of the moving
tubes of force, both magnetic and electric, saying that the magnetic
effect was a secondary one created by the movement of electric
tubes, and assumed:
that tubes exist everywhere in
space, either in closed circuits or terminating on atoms
that electric force becomes
perceivable only when electric tubes have greater tendency to
lie in one direction
that in a steady magnetic field,
positive and negative tubes may move in opposite directions with
that a beam of light is a group of electric tubes moving at C at
right angles to their length (providing a good explanation for
polarization of the plane of rotation).
Ann. d. Phys. Xxxi (1887), p. 421; Hertz's Electric Waves,
translated by D.E. Jones, p. 29.
6 Recent Researches in Elect.
And Mag. (1893), p. 13.
Tesla said his “dirigible torpedo” would fly at a maximum 300 miles
per second, perhaps since its forward velocity would be some maximum
fraction of C. Thomson’s later publishings on this subject followed
Tesla’s 1891 lectures before the Royal Society in London, and appear
to shed light on Tesla’s work, stating:
that a ponderomotive force is exerted on a conductor carrying
electric current, consisting of a transfer of mechanical momentum
from the agent which exerts the force to the body which 5 Ann. d.
Phys. Xxxi (1887), p. 421; Hertz’s Electric Waves, translated by
D.E. Jones, p. 29. 6 Recent Researches in Elect. And Mag. (1893), p.
that, if moving tubes entering a
conductor are dissolved in it, mechanical momentum is given to
that such momentum must be at right
angles to the tube and to the magnetic induction
that momentum stored in a unit volume of the field is proportional
to the vector product of electric and magnetic vectors.
“Thomson’s” Electromagnetic Momentum hypothesis was later developed
by H. Poincare7 and by M. Abraham8.
By 1910, it was said9 that the consequence of these pronouncements
left three alternatives:
1. Modify the theory to reduce to zero the resultant force on an
element of free aether (as with Maxwell, Hertz, and Einstein);
2. Assume the force sets aether in motion (as with Helmholtz);
3. Accept the principle that aether is the vehicle of mechanical
momentum of amount [D-B] per unit volume (as with Poynting and J. J.
Archives Ne erl (2) v (1900), p. 252.
8 Gott, Nach., 1902, p. 20.
9 Sir Edmund Whittaker, A
History of the Theories of the Aether and Electricity, 1910,
Whittaker’s greatest error was in omitting Tesla’s theory entirely.
After Tesla’s experiments verified it, right in front of the
esteemed members of the “Royal Academy”, the “three (later)
alternatives” were moot, and a new law existed, that of Tesla.
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Due to his pacifist sympathies, Tesla originally contemplated giving
his electric flying machine to the Geneva Convention or League of
Nations, for use in ‘policing the world’ to prevent war. Later
disillusioned after WWI with the collapse of the League, he said
“...underestimated man’s combative capacity”.10
10 New York Times, July 10,1934.
In 1919, his reason for increased secrecy emerged in an interview
with Frederick M. Kerby, for Resolution magazine, while discussing a
“three-hour” airplane between New York and London:
“...we have here
the appalling prospect of a war between nations at a distance of
thousands of miles, with weapons so destructive and demoralizing
that the world could not endure them. That is why there must be no
With the government’s spurning of his defense suggestions,
Tesla’s only recourse was to withhold his secrets from the world,
and to dissuade discovery in their direction.
In 1929, Tesla ridiculed Heinrich Hertz’s 1887-89 experiments
purportedly proving the Maxwellian “structureless” ether filling all
space, “of inconceivable tenuity yet solid and possessed of rigidity
incomparably greater than the hardest steel”. Tesla’s arguments were
to the contrary, saying he had always believed in a “gaseous” ether
in which he had observed waves more akin to sound waves. He
recounted how he had developed a “new form of vacuum tube” in 1896
(which I call the “Tesla bulb”),
“...capable of being charged to any
desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about
He described how purplish coronal discharges about
the bulb when in use, verified the existence of “particles smaller
than air”, and a gas so light that an earth-sized volume would weigh
only 1/20 pound. He further said sound waves moved at the velocity
of light through this medium.11
Tesla mentioned using his special
tube to investigate cosmic rays12, saying that when its emanations
were impinged upon a target material, radioactive emissions
resulted, and that radioactive bodies were simply “targets”
continuously bombarded by “infinitesimal bullets projected from all
parts of the universe”, without which “all radioactivity would
His description of these “bullets” was similar to the ZPR.
On Apr. 15,193213, Tesla said Einstein’s theory regarding changing
matter into force, and force into matter, was “absurd”. He compared
this to the difference between body and mind, saying force is a “...function of matter”, and that, just as a mind could not exist
without a body, “...without matter, there can be no force.”
New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 22,1929, pp. 1,29.
12 Letter, New York Times, Feb. 6,1932, p. 16, col. 8.
13 Nikola Tesla Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia
On Sept. 11, 1932 (New York Herald Tribune), Tesla derided the
Maxwellian/Hertzian ether, while saying that higher frequency waves
“...follow the curvature of the earth and bend around obstacles”,
yet in an Apr. 8,1934 New York Times letter, said that short waves
for “power purposes” of the ‘wireless art’, were inappropriate, and
that power will travel in “long waves”.
His 1929 attack on the Maxwellian/Hertzian ether theory—39 years afterward, during the
advent of Relativism—seemed relevant only to his concealed theory,
not to disclose it or promote it, but to conceal it.
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THE NATURE OF ELECTRICITY
What were the old ether physicists referring to when they attempted
to describe “an incompressible, perfect fluid”? What would a
“perfect fluid” do? It would be able to “wet” everything it came
into contact with, such as protons, and could flow everywhere
without resistance. One “fluid”—the ether—could flow everywhere, and
because of its density and ultra-fineness, nothing could stop it,
and it felt so resistance, but only matter felt resistance,
depending on the circumstances. Another fluid—electricity—could flow
in certain places, and wet only certain things, but often met
In order to understand the ether, we must get to know electricity
more intimately. Just like water, a proton will hold only so much
electricity on its surface, but the ‘surface’ of the proton is
probably similar to the outer area of a ball-shaped swarm of
hovering mechanical bees, powered by the ZPR, with a denser
agglomeration of “bees” toward the ‘ball’s’ center. If this swarm of
bees is subjected to a wave of rainy mist (the etheric ‘wind’), the
bees must all turn to face into the etheric wind to maintain their
The ‘water’ droplets—electric sub-charges carried by the
etheric wind—tend to agglomerate around the front side. Each bee, as
he flaps his wings, will get wet only so much, so that excess
‘water’ is thrown off and carried to the next bee, or the next swarm
of bees, by the etheric wind, and so forth, so that a ‘current’ of
droplets continues to flow through the ball of bees due to its
motion through the etheric wind, and transfers momentum between
masses. The ‘water’ tends to come off in larger drops, which have
formed from smaller droplets accumulated on each bee.
As in fluid
mechanics, the ‘drop’ size is the result of cohesiveness of the
electric ‘fluid’, the surface area of each ‘bee’, and the space
between each bee, all of which influences the final size of each
larger ‘drop’ (the “electron”) which accumulates enough to form it.
If one were to mathematically analyze the flow of “drops” (i.e.,
“quanta”) per mass unit, they would have an average rate of the flow
of charges/cm3 of etheric wind, for the momentum, as determined by
the “current” flow rate.
Much like the bees, as a body (its many electrons, atoms, and
molecules, with plenty of ‘space’ within and between) sits at rest
on the earth, it moves at fantastic speed through the universal
ether field, due to the earth’s revolution, orbit, and other
In his 1891 A.I.E.E. lecture at Columbia College, Tesla said in
pertinent part (emphasis mine):
“What is electricity, and what is
“...We are now confident that electric and magnetic
phenomena are attributable to the ether, and we are perhaps
justified in saying that the effects of static electricity are
effects of ether in motion”,
“...we may speak of electricity or of
an electric condition, state or effect”,
“...we must distinguish two
such effects, opposite in character neutralizing each other”,
“...for in a medium of the properties of the ether, we cannot
possibly exert a strain, or produce a displacement or motion of any
kind, without causing in the surrounding medium an equivalent and
“...its condition determines the positive and
negative character.” “We know that it acts like an incompressible
“...the electro-magnetic theory of light and all facts
observed teach us that electric and ether phenomena are identical.”
“The puzzling behavior of the ether as a solid to waves of light and
heat, and as a fluid to the motion of bodies through it, is
certainly explained in the most natural and satisfactory manner by
assuming it to be in motion, as Sir William Thomson has suggested.”
“Nor can anyone prove that there are transverse ether waves emitted
from an alternate current machine; to such slow disturbances, the
ether, if at rest, may behave as a true fluid.”
In his statements,
Tesla was balancing the various arguments in preparation for his
“...Electricity, therefore, cannot be called ether in the
broad sense of the term; but nothing would seem to stand in the way
of calling electricity ether associated with matter, or bound ether;
or, in other words, that the so-called static charge of the molecule
is ether associated in some way with the molecule.”
“...It cannot differ in density, ether being incompressible: it
must, therefore, be under some strain or in motion, and the latter
is the most 76 probable.”
Tesla therefore believed in an ether which
was in motion relative to earth, because the earth is in motion.
The thing which Tesla had realized, was that ether possesses
electric charges which are deposited on atoms. In supporting the
“dynamic” ether concept, he was supporting the “stationary ether”
concept, since the “motion” he referred to was “apparent” motion of
the ether perceived by an observer on earth, relative to a
The importance of cosmic motion to the
electromagnetic effects of static charges was brought up by Tesla in
“About fifteen years ago, Prof. Rowland demonstrated a
most interesting and important fact, namely, that a static charge
carried around produces the effects of an electric current.”
conceiving the electrostatically charged molecules in motion, this
experimental fact gives us a fair idea of magnetism. We can conceive
lines or tubes of force which physically exist, being formed of rows
of directed moving molecules; we can see that these lines must be
closed, that they must tend to shorten and expand, etc. It likewise
explains in a reasonable way, the most puzzling phenomenon of all,
permanent magnetism, and, in general, has all the beauties of the
Ampere theory without possessing the vital defect of the same,
namely, the assumption of molecular currents. Without enlarging
further upon the subject, I would say, that I look upon all
electrostatic, current and magnetic phenomena as being due to
electrostatic molecular forces.”
In these statements, Tesla showed he was aware that any “stationary”
locale on earth is actually in fantastic motion (“70,000 mph”). The
electrostatic charges “carried around” are currents between atoms
and the ether, which produce magnetism. The phenomena of ‘permanent
magnetism’ or ‘cosmically induced’ magnetism are apparently due to
electrostatic charges ‘carried around’ by cosmic motion, in the
universal ether field.
Since no one can hold an atom or molecule perfectly still—because it
is in fantastic motion—all atoms and molecules carry currents
producing magnetic fields. Since a magnetic field is the product of
a current, no one can produce a magnetic field without electricity,
moving through or along a conductor, or as electrostatic charges in
local or cosmic motion.
Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity and MHD method of Spacial
Electropulsion brought a cosmic crowning achievement to the works of
Faraday, Wm. Thomson, J. J. Thomson, and Edmund Hall.
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