September 06, 2020
linked to the US government and Democratic Party,
ran a fake news network on Facebook and Instagram,
spreading propaganda for Bolivia's coup regime
and the right-wing opposition
in Venezuela and Mexico.
The information warfare blitzkrieg relied on fake accounts and pages to spread disinformation on behalf of right-wing, US-backed governments in Latin America, while deploying covert propaganda to destabilize the leftist governments in Venezuela and Mexico.
The company behind the campaign, CLS Strategies, signed a contract to represent Bolivia's far-right junta and provide "strategic communications counsel" in the lead-up to that country's ostensible election.
After coming to power through a US-backed military coup in November 2019, the Bolivian regime has delayed the election numerous times on specious grounds.
CLS Strategies also used its network of fake accounts and pages to push propaganda on behalf of Venezuela's right-wing opposition and the US-backed parallel coup regime of Juan Guaidó.
Some of the CLS-run Facebook and Instagram profiles even posed as disgruntled Venezuelan soldiers, and called on members of the armed forces to rebel against their socialist government.
Other pages claimed to be run by disaffected former supporters of leftist leaders like Venezuela's Hugo Chávez and Bolivia's Evo Morales.
The DC-based company similarly filled social media with disinformation demonizing Mexico's left-wing President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) and his party Morena, who have been under increasing attack by right-wing oligarch forces.
On Facebook, the PR firm spent a staggering $3.6 million on ads to promote this propaganda.
CLS Strategies has close links to the US government. The firm employs former government officials like Mark Feierstein, who oversaw Latin America policy for the Obama White House.
Feierstein also served as coordinator of Latin America activities for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), a regime-change arm that has been used as a front for covert CIA operations and spearheaded the Trump administration's coup attempts in Venezuela.
Another CLS senior advisor, David Romley, worked as a Pentagon spokesman, press attaché to the secretary of defense, and public affairs officer for the US Marine Corps.
Before moving to CLS, Romley also served as vice president for communications at the German Marshall Fund, a prominent Cold War-era think tank funded by the US government and NATO that has been integral in pushing the new cold war on Russia and China.
A co-founder of CLS, Peter Schechter, was also the founding director of the Latin America center at the major Washington think tank the Atlantic Council, which is funded by the US and UK governments and European Union and acts as a de facto organ of the NATO military alliance.
Grayzone contributor Alex Rubinstein exposed Schechter's unsavory career as a Washington insider, revealing how CLS Strategies has worked on behalf of numerous right-wing Latin America leaders whose neoliberal policies spawned migration crises.
As Rubinstein reported, Schechter opened a progressive "Resistance"-themed restaurant in downtown Washington, DC called Immigrant Food, forging partnerships with immigrant rights NGOs.
Schechter's former clients at CLS include the Colombian ex-President Álvaro Uribe, who oversaw death squad massacres and is being investigated by his country's supreme court for involvement in crimes against humanity, along with Mexico's ex-President Enrique Peña Nieto, who is connected to drug cartels and major corruption scandals.
A decade before it was hired by Bolivia's coup regime, CLS Strategies signed a contract to represent another conservative dictatorial regime, this time in Honduras, after it took power in a US government-backed military coup in 2009.
On its website, CLS boasts of having lobbied for more than a dozen foreign governments and having,
According to the PR firm's own public listings, as well as Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) filings reviewed by The Grayzone, CLS Strategies has worked for right-wing political forces from,
Another CLS Strategies partner, Juan Cortiñas, boasted on the firm's website that he has represented top right-wing leaders and major corporations in Latin America, including the Venezuelan opposition.
Cortiñas previously worked as the press secretary for neoconservative Republican Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, a key figure in Florida's anti-Cuba lobby.
Since the fake news ring was exposed, however, CLS Strategies has edited its website to scrub some of these compromising materials, removing the bios of associates like Feierstein and Cortiñas.
This controversy underscores how US PR firms, elite Washington insiders, and foreign opposition groups work in tandem to promote right-wing regimes in Latin America while astroturfing opposition to democratically elected left-wing governments.
Given the extensive links CLS has to the Democratic Party, this scheme also highlights the bipartisan consensus around regime change and support for corrupt neoliberal leaders linked to death squads and drug trafficking.
Further, the scandal shows how foreign policy apparatchiks in Washington do exactly what they accuse Russia of doing:
Facebook deletes CLS Strategies fake news ring
The Grayzone has reported on social media corporations' US government-backed censorship of independent media outlets and voices critical of US foreign policy.
An accompanying report (PDF) released by Facebook acknowledged that these fake accounts portrayed themselves,
The social media giant said the network,
It identified the network as being connected to the PR firm CLS Strategies.
Facebook shared the information about this fake news ring with Stanford University's Internet Observatory, which analyzed the materials and published a report on September 4 (PDF), showing how CLS Strategies created 17 Facebook pages to promote the Venezuelan opposition, along with 11 for the Bolivian coup regime.
The Bolivia pages spread Spanish-language propaganda promoting coup leader Jeanine Áñez, a right-wing extremist from a fringe party that got just 4 percent of the vote in the November election but who was recognized by the United States as the country's supposed interim president.
The Stanford report noted that the,
Most of these propaganda pages were run out of the United States, although some operatives in,
In response to Facebook removing its propaganda network, CLS Strategies published the following statement on its website:
US infowarriors pose as Venezuelan soldiers and call for rebellion
The majority of the Facebook pages in this CLS Strategies-led fake news ring published boilerplate conservative propaganda, with names like "Undone with Socialism" and "Die Oppression - Free Venezuela."
But some of the accounts were more sophisticated disinformation operations, targeting disaffected leftists and even falsely posing as Venezuelan soldiers.
One CLS-run page, titled "Chavista FAN," posed as a member of the Venezuelan military who had supported late socialist President Hugo Chávez but lost faith in current President Nicolás Maduro.
This was echoed by another Facebook page, "Liberatory Soldiers," which falsely claimed to consist of members of the armed forces seeking to oust Maduro.
The "Chavista FAN" page included a profile photo of an anonymous soldier proudly identifying as a supporter of Venezuela's leftist Chavista movement. FAN is a play of words using the English word fan, which is common in Spanish, while also referencing Venezuela's military, the Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana, or FANB (but by removing the B, which references the left-wing nationalist Bolivarian movement popularized by Chávez).
In one particularly insidious post disclosed by Facebook, the CLS Strategies-run account clearly claims to be operated by members of the Venezuelan armed forces.
While making no mention of the suffocating US sanctions and embargo that have devastated Venezuela's health sector and economy and prevented the government from buying medical equipment and medicine, the Chavista FAN page wrote,
The use of "vamos" in the post ("are we going to") expressly includes the publisher in the collective we, as a putative member of the Venezuelan armed forces.
A post from a CLS Strategies-run Facebook account
Chavista FAN was targeted at patriotic leftist Venezuelans, but simultaneously spread disinformation on behalf of US-recognized coup leader Juan Guaidó.
Another post released in the report showed that the page pressured Venezuelan soldiers to rise up against their government, by reassuring them that Guaidó had offered "amnesty."
The post also implored soldiers to stop blocking the entrance of supposed "humanitarian aid" that Washington was using as a weapon in its coup attempt.
Venezuelan opposition propaganda
A similar Facebook page overseen by the DC-based PR firm was devoted specifically to supporting Venezuela's US government-funded far-right opposition leader María Corina Machado, a close ally of neoconservative Senator Marco Rubio who has openly, repeatedly called for the US military to invade her country.
DC PR firm spreads right-wing propaganda by posing as disgruntled leftists
CLS Strategies' Bolivia propaganda was similar to its disinformation campaign against Venezuela.
The firm created Facebook pages promoting the coup leader Jeanine Áñez with titles like "Everyone with Áñez."
The PR firm also set up a page called "Camacho Lovers Santa Cruz," devoted to the far-right goon squad leader, Luis Fernando Camacho, a businessman from Bolivia's wealthiest city who started his political career in a neo-fascist Christian paramilitary group founded by former Nazi collaborators.
Another page targeted Bolivian women specifically.
With the name "Free Bolivian Women," this Facebook profile posted propaganda attempting to link elected former President Evo Morales and his allies to organized crime, a common yet baseless talking point of the right-wing opposition.
CLS Strategies propaganda
Some of the CLS Strategies propaganda relied on more devious techniques.
A Facebook page the company oversaw was called "MAS for Bolivia," and sought to drive a wedge in between Bolivians who had previously voted for the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) party and the former President Evo Morales, who was overthrown in the 2019 coup.
On Instagram, the CLS disinformation campaign was similarly duplicitous.
In addition to running parallel accounts with some of the same names as the Facebook pages, CLS created profiles posing as disenchanted supporters of Venezuela President Nicolás Maduro.
("Madurista" is however not a term used by actual leftists in Venezuela; it is mostly an insult used by the opposition to attack President Maduro and his supporters.)
An even more dishonest Instagram account overseen by the US PR firm was called "VTV Journalists."
This page posed as former insiders from Venezuela's state broadcaster VTV, falsely claiming to be an,
These pages show how Washington-based CLS infowarriors posed as Venezuelan critical Chavistas and disgruntled Bolivian leftists to attract progressives who had supported Chávez, Maduro, and Morales, but to mislead them and warp their views by exposing them to opposition disinformation.
Conservatives already supported these right-wing opposition forces in Venezuela and Bolivia, so the PR firm was clearly seeking to mislead and propagandize left-wing sympathizers.
CLS Strategies signs PR contract with Bolivia's coup regime
After overthrowing Bolivia's democratically elected President Evo Morales in a US-backed military coup on November 10, 2019, the new junta immediately sought out public relations flacks in Washington help whitewash its image.
Almost exactly a month later, on December 11, 2019, CLS Strategies registered under the US Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) as a lobbyist for the Bolivian coup regime.
The firm signed a 90-day contract, at a neat $90,000, agreeing to,
This contract did not include CLS Strategies' work on behalf of the Venezuelan opposition.
It is not clear where the firm got the $3.6 million it spent on Facebook ads.
The FARA registration
As part of its contract with the Bolivian coup regime, CLS Strategies also helped coordinate meetings between top US government officials and the Bolivian junta's far-right minister of government, Arturo Murillo, according to another FARA document.
Murillo is an extremist who pledged to "hunt" left-wing leaders from Evo Morales' MAS party like "animals," and even went so far as to falsely claim that indigenous protesters massacred by the coup regime had actually shot themselves and then blamed it on the junta.
When he visited Washington in December 2019, CLS Strategies organized in-person meetings between Murillo and Senators Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, and Rick Scott, along with staffers from the,
CLS also successfully scheduled meetings between the extremist Bolivian minister and Luis Almagro, the hardline right-wing leader of the
The PR firm then helped plan an event with Murillo at the corporate lobby group the Council of the Americas / Americas Society.
CLS Strategies also coordinated interviews with Murillo for CNN en Español and the major Spanish news agency EFE.
On behalf of the coup regime, CLS likewise contacted the offices of Senator Tim Kaine and House Representatives,
...along with the the prominent DC think tank the Inter-American Dialogue, which hosted an event with Bolivian fascist coup leader Luis Fernando Camacho.
Meetings with top US government officials
The agreement that CLS Strategies signed with the Bolivian was personally signed by partner Brian Berry, who boasts of having worked for an array of large corporate clients.
At the same time, CLS Strategies Managing Director William Moore also registered with FARA to represent the Bolivian coup regime.
FARA requires registrants to disclose if they have made any political contributions in the past 60 days. Moore revealed that he had donated to Joe Biden's presidential campaign exactly one week before.
(This was months before the start of the Democratic presidential primaries.)
CLS Strategies Managing Director William Moore,
William Moore was identified in the Stanford Internet Observatory report as one of the CLS employees who operated the fake news campaign on Facebook.
CLS Strategies removed Moore's bio from its website, apparently in response to the revelation of its involvement in the Facebook fake news scandal. Moore also took down his LinkedIn profile.
But a cached version of Moore's CLS page is available, indicating that it was only recently scrubbed.
There, Moore boasts that,
Moore's bio adds,
He also represented numerous multinational corporations, helping them as they,
FARA registration filed
When CLS Strategies Managing Director William Moore and partner Brian Berry registered to lobby on behalf of the Bolivian coup regime, they were joined by another colleague: Juan Cortiñas Garcia.
Cortiñas and Moore reportedly led CLS Strategies' work for the Bolivian junta.
As with Moore's profile, Cortiñas' bio was removed from the CLS Strategies website, as the firm has apparently tried to scrub its involvement in the scandal. Coriñas also took down his LinkedIn profile, which he had linked to in his CLS bio.
But in its report on the CLS fake news ring, Stanford University linked to an archived version of Juan Cortiñas' professional profile. In this bio, he boasts of having,
Cortiñas, who also served as the press secretary for hard-line Florida Republican Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, added that he has
The FARA registration filed
FARA registration files reviewed by The Grayzone show that Juan Cortiñas has registered to work on behalf of numerous foreign governments, including,
CLS Strategies signs PR contract with Honduras' coup regime
Ten years before the United States backed a right-wing military coup in Bolivia, Washington did the same in the Central American nation of Honduras.
On June 28, 2009, the Honduran military overthrew the country's democratically elected left-leaning president, Manuel Zelaya, and physically removed him from the country.
Zelaya told The Grayzone in Honduras, in an interview on the 10th anniversary of the coup that the US government had threatened him because of his close political and economic relations with socialist President Hugo Chávez in Venezuela.
In the wake of the putsch, the new unelected right-wing regime in Honduras searched for publicists in DC. It found a loyal ally in a firm called Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates, which would go on to rebrand as CLS Strategies in 2014.
In September 2009, Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates filed FARA paperwork acknowledging that it had signed a four-month contract for the Honduran coup regime, at the cost of $292,000, not including tens of thousands more in additional expenses.
The FARA registration Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates
At the time, the senior vice president of Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates was Juan Cortiñas Garcia, who would go on to represent the Bolivian coup regime a decade later.
Cortiñas said in his FARA registration that his job was to,
In the years following the coup, Honduras became the murder capital of the planet, with some of the highest levels of inequality of any country.
The violence and widespread corruption fueled a massive refugee crisis on the southern US border.
The subsequent dictatorial leader of Honduras, Juan Orlando Hernández, or "JOH," is intimately linked to the drug trade; his brother Tony Hernández was convicted of trafficking nearly 200,000 kilograms (440,000 pounds) of cocaine and machine guns.
A US district court even stated that infamous Mexican drug lord El Chapo Guzmán gave JOH a $1 million bribe to help him rig Honduras' 2013 elections.
CLS Strategies signs PR contract with corrupt Colombian President Uribe
The Honduran coup regime is by no means the only connection between CLS Strategies and corrupt, drug-linked Latin American leaders.
The shadowy PR firm has also worked with a notorious demagogue who may have the dubious honor of being the most corrupt and violent president in modern Colombian history.
On its website, CLS boasts of having represented both the government of Colombia and the presidential campaign of far-right former leader Álvaro Uribe.
In August, Colombia's Supreme Court put Uribe under house arrest, accusing him of bribery and officially investigating his involvement in paramilitary massacres of human rights activists, which it emphasized are crimes against humanity.
CLS Strategies worked for Colombia
The US government has long known that Uribe is deeply involved with Colombian drug cartels and far-right paramilitary groups.
Declassified cables from the 1990s show that the US State Department was well aware of his criminal ties, but Washington still strongly supported his rise to power.
A ranch owned by Uribe and his family members was used as the base of a death squad.
CLS Strategies signs PR contract with corrupt Mexican President Peña Nieto
In addition to representing the drug-linked Honduran coup regime and death squad aficionado Álvaro Uribe, Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates also worked for the transition team of Mexico's notoriously corrupt President Enrique Peña Nieto.
Peña Nieto allegedly won the presidential election on July 1, 2012. Just five days later, on July 6, he signed a contract with Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates.
The PR firm agreed, for a monthly fee of $50,000 to,
Once again, CLS consultant Juan Cortiñas Garcia registered with FARA to represent Peña Nieto, pledging to work on,
CLS Strategies' involvement with Peña Nieto during this transition period is especially controversial, because he was credibly accused of rigging the 2012 election.
It appears the firm was hired to try to deal with these very serious, substantiated accusations.
Then-presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who came in second place (and now serves as the president of Mexico), immediately cast doubt on the 2012 election results.
In 2016, these accusations were confirmed by a prominent Colombian hacker named Andrés Sepúlveda.
Sepúlveda, who is currently serving a 10-year prison sentence for spying on Colombian officials, told Bloomberg that he was given a budget of $600,000 to assemble a team of hackers to rig the 2012 Mexican presidential election.
Bloomberg reported that he and his fellow hackers,
The FARA registration Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates
The corruption scandals involving Enrique Peña Nieto grow larger by the year.
In 2019, it was reported that Peña Nieto had accepted a $100 million bribe from the drug kingpin El Chapo, according to a witness at the drug trafficker's trial.
Then in August 2020, the former head of Mexico's state oil company, Pemex, revealed how the Peña Nieto administration had overseen a massive bribery scheme to push through the government's neoliberal economic policies.
Peña Nieto had campaigned on a promise of "energy reform" - that is to say, privatization of Mexico's oil industry, which had been controlled by the state practically since the revolution.
To push through these unpopular neoliberal policies, Peña Nieto took millions of dollars of bribes from the Brazilian corporation Odebrecht, which were rewarded with lucrative government contracts.
Peña Nieto then apparently used that dirty money to buy political support inside Mexico.
Leaked videos show that the Peña Nieto administration handed out cash in transparent plastic bags to get the votes needed to pass the privatization policies.
CLS Strategies' work for this cartoonishly corrupt Mexican president was particularly noteworthy because, according to Facebook, the firm went on to create fake accounts to spread propaganda against Mexico's current President López Obrador, or AMLO, a left-wing nationalist.
The Grayzone has reported on the escalating campaign by right-wing oligarchs to overthrow AMLO, and the opposition's links to the United States.
CLS Strategies' deep ties to the US government
CLS Strategies boasts on its website that it has a,
Among those veteran political operatives are some prominent former US government officials.
A senior advisor to CLS is Mark Feierstein, a longtime Democratic Party operative who has spent decades overseeing regime-change policies in Latin America.
Strategies senior advisor Mark Feierstein
Feierstein played a key role in the Obama administration's foreign policy team as the president's top advisor on Latin America, and served as senior director for Western hemisphere affairs on the National Security Council.
While working in the Obama administration, Feierstein helped oversee a 2012 soft coup against elected left-wing President Fernando Lugo in Paraguay, as first reported by Spanish researcher Julián Macías Tovar.
In his CLS Strategies professional bio, Mark Feierstein boasted that he,
USAID is a regime-change arm of the US government, and has been used to support coup attempts against leftist governments in Latin America.
Feierstein's CLS profile also trumpeted that he,
Feierstein previously served in the Bill Clinton administration, and advised the US ambassador to the OAS.
He also worked at another US government regime-change entity, the National Democratic Institute (NDI), in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In his CLS bio, Feierstein boasted that he spent his time at the NDI helping the right-wing Nicaraguan opposition challenge the Sandinista government.
Feierstein is also a close associate and friend of US regime-change operative Roger Noriega, a neoconservative Washington insider who crafted Latin America policy in the George W. Bush administration's State Department and Ronald Reagan's USAID, where Noriega oversaw support for far-right Contra death squads in Nicaragua.
Mark Feierstein's political background was included in a bio he had on the CLS Strategies website.
But the PR firm removed Feierstein's page, apparently in response to the backlash over its fake news ring. Feierstein's significant role in CLS drew the attention of the Bolivian media.
Another senior advisor for the influential firm is David Romley, who previously filled senior positions in the Department of Defense.
In his official CLS bio, Romley boasts:
CLS Strategies senior advisor David Romley
After leaving the US military, Romley went on to serve as vice president for communications at the Washington, DC-based German Marshall Fund, a hawkish think tank created during the first cold war to turn up the heat on the former Soviet Union.
Flush with funding from the US and German governments, NATO, European Union, and Western weapons corporations, the German Marshall Fund has in the Trump era become a major home for neoconservative operatives.
The German Marshall Fund sponsors a neo-McCarthyite organization called the Alliance for Securing Democracy, which has worked to fuel the new cold war on Russia and China.
Its slogan is, "Putin knocked. We answered."
And the outfit devotes an increasing amount of resources to attacking independent Western journalists who report critically on US foreign policy.
After leaving the German Marshall Fund, CLS senior advisor David Romley found cushy positions at other bellicose DC think tanks, including the neoconservative Hudson Institute and the Center for a New American Security (CNAS), which was closely linked to the Obama administration and was used to fill his State Department and Pentagon with experienced hawks.
But Feierstein and Romely are by no means the only powerful figures involved with CLS Strategies. The PR firm is also deeply tied to the Washington juggernaut the Atlantic Council, NATO's de facto think tank.
This is ironic, given that Facebook - which took down the CLS fake news ring on its platform - is itself a major financial sponsor of the Atlantic Council.
Other donors to the think tank include the governments of the United States, Britain, and the United Arab Emirates, NATO, and the European Union, along with corporate arms manufacturers and fossil fuel companies.
Before rebranding as CLS Strategies in 2014, the PR firm was called Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates. The 'S' in CLS comes from its co-founder Peter Schechter.
Schechter is one of the most influential operatives in Washington, DC working on Latin America related issues, and has extensive experience representing powerful right-wing heads of state.
In 2013, Schechter was the founding director of the Atlantic Council's Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center, which has pushed a hawkish line against the leftist governments in the region, advancing the interests of right-wing regimes and pushing neoliberal economic policies.
CLS founder Peter Schechter,
In 2017, Schechter left the Atlantic Council to found Altamar, a political communications consulting firm that has been hired by Colombia's former right-wing President Juan Manuel Santos and Peru's former neoliberal President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, who was forced to resign during impeachment proceedings over major corruption charges.
As The Grayzone contributor Alexander Rubinstein reported, Schechter went on to co-found a DC restaurant in 2019, called Immigrant Food.
Located blocks from the White House, Immigrant Food sought to capitalize on liberal opposition to President Donald Trump and his xenophobic rhetoric.
CLS Strategies and neoconservative Democratic Party operatives
Given CLS Strategies' extensive work with right-wing Latin American leaders, it might seem as though the influential PR firm would be affiliated with the Republican Party, a traditional bastion of antipathy toward socialist governments across the Global South.
But in reality it emerged from the heart of the Democratic Party.
Like Mark Feierstein and Peter Schechter, fellow CLS Strategies co-founder Robert "Bob" Chlopak has deep ties to the Democratic Party.
Before creating the PR firm in the 1990s, Chlopak served as the executive director of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee and the deputy director of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, where he boasts on his CLS profile that,
Future CLS Strategies founder Robert "Bob" Chlopak
A review of individual contributions by CLS Strategies employees filed with the US Federal Election Commission (FEC) shows that the majority of candidates supported are mainstream Democrats.
Joe Biden is particularly popular among CLS Strategies staff.
Co-founder Robert Chlopak donated $1,000 to Biden in March 2020, while fellow co-founder Peter Schechter donated the maximum $2,800 to Biden in April.
Schechter has poured tens of thousands of dollars into supporting the campaigns of right-wing Democrats like Hillary Clinton and Kirsten Gillibrand.
Chlopak, too, has donated many thousands of dollars to Democratic candidates over the years. He is a Democratic Party stalwart.
While lobbying for right-wing leaders in Bolivia, Honduras, and Mexico, CLS Latin America specialist Juan Cortiñas has donated to both Democrats and Cuban-American Republicans like Marco Rubio and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen.
If Joe Biden wins the 2020 presidential election, CLS senior advisor Mark Feierstein is likely to play a major role in the Democratic administration's Latin America policy.
As one organ of the blob of Beltway think tanks and contractors that prop up and profit from the bipartisan foreign policy consensus, CLS Strategies is hardly unique in its willingness to lobby for right-wing Latin American regimes, or in its zeal to destroy their leftist competitors.
Washington, DC is a base for propaganda schemes like the kind that CLS ran. But it is rare that they are exposed to the public in such a clear and comprehensive fashion.
The scandal only further illustrates the extent to which Washington sets the standard for the online disinformation campaigns it accuses its own enemies of deploying.