THE ROAD TO ROME
The Bible—without question the most influential book ever produced—was written by men with secrets to conceal both from the Roman and Jewish authorities and from other competing sects.
Until archeological advances beginning in the nineteenth century, virtually everything humans knew about their origins came from the Bible filtered through the church priesthood. Individuals were both canonized and executed, cultures built and destroyed, and wars fought—all based on this one book.
Today it is clear that the Bible—inspired as it may be—is a hodgepodge of myths, legends, and parables from various cultures cobbled together with bits of history and philosophy.
Many passages were originally written using code words whose meanings were lost over time, causing misinterpretations. In other instances there was just plain tampering to advance some then-current dogma or political agenda.
Bible scholar and former intelligence analyst Pat Eddy wrote,
What Bible scholars euphemistically term "redactions" are nothing less than editing. Such editing of the Bible has contributed to misunderstandings and erroneous translations, keeping many of its messages a secret from the uninitiated. Often such secrets were suppressed by the Roman church because they contradicted its dogma.
Within the New Testament, there are tantalizing hints that even Jesus kept some secrets. Matthew 13:10 (Revised Standard) states, "Then the disciples came to Him |Jesus| and said to him, ’Why do you speak to them | the public] in parables?’ And he answered them, ’To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. For to him who has [knowledge] will more be given, and he will have abundance; but from him who has not, even what he has will be taken away. This is why I speak to them in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing, they do not hear, nor do they understand."
Mark 4:33 added, "With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it; he did not speak to them without a parable, but privately to his own disciples he explained everything." Explained everything? What did Jesus explain? Since only the parables are presented in the New Testament, it is clear that not all his secrets were given to the public.
Many secret societies and sects existed in biblical times that claimed to possess ancient knowledge. Like the religions of today, these groups vied with one another for control over these ancient secrets. Much like the later "Invisible College," these societies collectively were known as Mystery Schools, reservoirs of esoteric knowledge that was largely incomprehensible and thus fear-inspiring to the general public. Their literature was carefully constructed to both conceal and reveal some of their knowledge.
The road leading back from the fully established Roman church of the second millennium to the time of Jesus was a rocky one, filled with controversies, schisms, and contentiousness.
Even before the crucifixion there was an intense rivalry between the followers of Jesus and those of John the Baptist. The end result was the Johannite heresy—the idea that John was the true messiah rather than Jesus. Although largely exterminated by the early church, this concept continued up to modern times within certain elements of Freemasonry as well as the Mandaeans of Iraq.
Following the crucifixion, the rivalries between the Jewish community and the early Christians—and even within Jesus’ own followers—intensified.
There was a growing schism between the fundamentalist Jewish Christians belonging to the Essene sect and the Greek or Hellenized Christians in first century Jerusalem. Sounding much like the fundamentalists in America today, pious Jews attacked these foreigners for abandoning religious services for a Greek-style sports arena filled with wrestlers and discus throwers.
James and Mary Magdalene, as leaders of the Jerusalem church, were even at odds with Paul, who was bringing his Christian message to the gentiles to the north. There were immense squabbles over the most minute issues. In Galatians 5:12, Paul had become so exasperated with a continuing argument over circumcision that he expressed the hope that those initiating the controversy would emasculate themselves!
Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyon, by the middle of the second century condemned as heretics the followers of Jesus and James known as Nazarenes or the "poor."
Gardner noted, "The Nazarenes . . . denounced Paul as a ’renegade’ and a ’false apostle,’ claiming that his ’idolatrous writings’ should be ’rejected altogether.’"
Dr. Elaine Pagels, who chaired the Department of Religion of Barnard College at Colombia University, reported,
Though spared by the barbarians, the church still had to contend with a variety of sects, each with its own version of Christianity.
One such group was the Gnostics, who claimed to have an intuitive understanding of the mysteries of God and Earth. It was an understanding that resulted from rigorous training, initiation, and intuitive experiences, not simply intellectual study. The church found Gnostics particularly dangerous, for they disdained the need for a hierarchy of priestly officials to interpret the word of God.
Far from dangerous heretics, these passive Christians claimed to be the keepers of secret knowledge as indicated by the Gnostic papyrus books discovered at Nag Hammadi in 1945. It was this discovery which first afforded any view of Gnosticism other than the damning rhetoric of the church.
Gnosticism, derived from the Greek word gnosis or knowledge, reportedly was founded in the first century by Simon the Magician, a contemporary of Jesus later known as the "Father of All Heretics." He advanced the ideas of the Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, who taught that the human soul exists outside the physical body and therefore has access to universal knowledge and that wisdom (Gnosis) was brought down to Earth from the heavens.
Another important Gnostic was Basilides, an early Egyptian Christian who through his Alexandrian cult sought to blend into Christianity tin1 ancient mysteries of Mesopotamia. These Alexandrians believed that strange extraterrestrial beings called "aeons" acted as messengers between the heavens and Earth. The Persian Zoroaster began his own form of Gnosticism about five hundred years before the time of Jesus. Known as Zoroastrianism, this movement spread widely until pushed out by invading Muslims in the seventh century.
Occult author Andre Nataf stated that Gnosticism originated in Mesopotamia, first in the area of Iran then spreading into Asia Minor, Syria, and Babylon, where it was picked up by the Israelite captives and carried back to Palestine and Egypt.
According to the Hebrew Cabala, Gnostics seek to know the "secrets" of God, looking for answers within the sacred texts of whatever religion they accept. They seek the understanding of existence through interpretation of what they perceive as deeper meaning within the symbology of religious literature. "Gnosticism is religious existentialism," commented Nataf. Gnosticism flourished until declared a heresy by a council of bishops of the Roman church in A.D. 325.
Gnosticism was an integral part of the Ancient Mysteries since both involved the belief that only personal inner enlightenment could bring understanding. According to the Masonic philosopher Manly P. Hall,
Hall said such enlightenment and awareness had to be jealously guarded from "profane" persons who might abuse or misuse such knowledge. So lengthy periods of initiation were instituted and the most sensitive ancient knowledge was shrouded in symbols and allegory. "Christianity itself may be cited as an example," he wrote. "The entire New Testament is in fact an ingeniously concealed exposition of the secret processes of human regeneration."
Gardner wrote that such regeneration, specifically of the human spirit or energy, involved elevated consciousness which took place by degrees through (he thirty-three vertebra of the spinal column. "The science of this regeneration is one of the ’Lost Keys’ of Freemasonry," he explained, "and it is the reason why ancient Freemasonry was founded upon 33 degrees."
In the process of knowing, the Gnostic felt a sense of superiority and self-satisfaction.
Gnosticism also played an important role in an early Jewish ascetic sect known as the Essenes. The Essenes provoked such conflict with religious leaders of the other major Jewish sects, the Pharisees and Sadducees—they even argued that the established Hebrew lunar year was inaccurate—that the sect finally moved out of Jerusalem and established a monastery at Qumran on the north end of the Dead Sea which they called "the Wilderness." The Essene community was divided into two parts—married and unmarried members. All property was communal. In fact, the animosity of many modern Christians toward the Essenes largely came as a reaction to their overtly communistic lifestyle. These critics apparently forgot that all early Christians lived in much the same manner.
Members spent their days working and their nights in prayer. They taught the immortality of the soul and also tended toward a dualist outlook, believing in a spirit of goodness or light and one of evil or darkness.
The Essenes may have carried on the hermetic traditions of the Greeks. In the early twentieth century, a Russian-born train engineer named Georgi Ivanovich Gurdjieff claimed to have found the intact manuscript of an Essene master in an Indian monastery which explained the relationship of musical rhythms to the human body as taught by the sixth-century B.C. Greek philosopher Pythagoras. A great influence on the later Plato— that guiding light of Freemasonry, the Illuminati, John Ruskin, and Cecil Rhodes—Pythagoras offered the prescient idea that the Earth travels around the sun and was noted for his concept concerning the vibrations within celestial mechanics which he called the "harmony of the spheres."
Interestingly enough, it was Pythagoras, well known for his accurate prophecies, who may have been the first to predict a "New World Order." Some researchers interpreted this to mean the arrival of the messiah.
The word Essenes was derived from the Greek words essaios meaning secret or mystic, and essenoi, indicating healing or physician. According to Gardner, the Essenes were connected to esoteric healing traditions as a later branch of an Egyptian mystery school called the Great White Brotherhood of the Therapeutate.
Other authors also state that Jesus was an Essene and Hall added that so were his parents, Mary and Joseph, along with his brother James. Most modern fundamentalists tend to dismiss this connection because tying Jesus to Gnosticism and the Essenes disturbs their rigid dogma.
It would further disturb them to hear Gardner’s claim that, despite the interpretation of Bible translators, Jesus did not come from Nazareth. He said the word "Nazarene" and its variants came from the Hebrew word Nozrim, "a plural noun stemming from the term Nazrie ha-Brit ’Keepers of the Covenant,’ a designation of the Essene Community at Qumran on the Dead Sea. It is actually a point of contention whether the town of Nazareth existed at all during Jesus’ lifetime, for it does not appear on contemporary maps, nor in any books, documents, chronicles or military records of the period."
The Bible tends to confirm this in Hebrews 6:20 stating, "... where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek."
Gardner claimed the name Melchizedek—acknowledged as one of the most mysterious persons in the Bible—is an Essene composite of the archangel Michael and the Hebrew high priest or Zadok, hence Michael-Zadok. At least one author on this subject believed Melchizedek actually was the Sumerian deity Enki.
As with both Freemasons and the followers of Pythagoras, a prominent Essene symbol was the mason’s trowel. And like the Freemasons, the Essenes produced literature involving intricate codes and allegories to protect their knowledge from the uninitiated as well as from the Roman authorities.
For example, when writing about the Romans, they used the term Kit-tim, thought to refer to the ancient Chaldeans of Mesopotamia.
Another example was the use of the term "the poor," which most people conclude meant people of few resources. The Scrolls make it clear that the early Christian church in Jerusalem referred to their members as "the poor," indicating their humble lives.
According to Gardner and others, the terms "leper" and the "blind" were used to signify persons not initiated into the Essene traditions or "Way."
Several modern researchers, following in the steps of the Essenes and Cabalists, agree the Bible is a coded message. Michael Drosnin, formerly a reporter with the Washington Post and the Wall Street Journal, caused a stir in 1997 with the publication of his book The Bible Code. Drosnin wrote that Israeli mathematician Dr. Eliyahu Rips believed he had found a hidden crosswordlike code within the Bible, which accurately foretold of both Kennedy assassinations, World War II, the moon landing, the bombings of Hiroshima and the Oklahoma City federal building, and the election of President Bill Clinton. He wrote that a skeptical senior code breaker for the U.S. National Security Agency, Harold Gans, was shocked when he verified this Bible code using his own computer program.
C. L. Turnage, a diligent student of this concept, wrote,
According to Turnage, the Bible’s code involved symbolic references to multiple deities.
It is easy to see how the many translators and interpreters of the Bible went astray. Down through the years, interpretations of the Bible were made by men and women unfamiliar with either modern technology such as flight or with the allegories and codes employed by the original authors.
The Essenes also were one of the most effective of the ancient secret societies. Although undoubtedly known to their neighbors, their presence was either not recorded in the New Testament or later excised. Some researchers have referred to the Essenes as the protectors of "Mystic Christianity," the earliest form of Christianity which was based on the Ancient Mysteries.
Little to nothing was known regarding the Essenes until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, just two years after a Gnostic library was found in mountain caves near the upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi. Between 1947 and 1960, eleven caves eventually yielded about 800 manuscripts, 170 of them fragments of Old Testament works.
Apparently, as the Roman armies advanced during the Jewish Revolt of A.D. 70, the Essenes fled from Qumran after hiding their sacred texts in earthen jars buried in nearby caves. This literary treasure was discovered by two Bedouin shepherds who sold a few parchments to an antique dealer.
Eventually word of the discovery reached the ears of Hebrew University archeologist Yigael Yadin, who mortgaged his home and traveled into dangerous Arab areas seeking the scrolls. He managed to secure seven of them for his university, which promptly published them.
The Essene authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls had a profound effect on the first Christians in Jerusalem, who soon were differing in theology from Paul and his followers outside Palestine. This is evidenced by the fact that the interpretations of the Old Testament found in the scrolls are similar to the interpretations of James and the Jerusalem Christians.
The conflicts both within and without Christianity were settled by the Roman emperor Constantine in what Gardner described as "a strategic buy-out by the enemy."
This attempt to co-opt Christianity was sealed at the Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325, the same council where Arias was punched and tossed out. It was here that the Arians were banished and the Nicene Creed established, which formally defined God as a deity of three equal and coexisting parts—the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit or Ghost.
One year later, Constantine ordered the confiscation and destruction of all works which questioned the newly constructed orthodoxy and opened the Lateran Palace to the bishop of Rome creating an early Vatican of sorts. In A.D. 331 the emperor ordered new copies made of Christian texts, most of which had been lost or destroyed during the previous persecutions.
Based on the recent discoveries which made available such ancient texts as the Gospel of Truth, the Gospel of Thomas, the Testimony of Truth, the Gospel of Mary, and the Interpretation of Knowledge, researchers today have a much broader and more complete knowledge of biblical times than ever before in history, despite the fact that much of this new information has still not reached a general audience.
Author Nesta Webster, a passionate Christian writing in 1924, long before the recent finds, deplored the connection between Jesus and the Essenes as well as their source of knowledge.
Some of today’s recently acquired knowledge in astronomy and philosophy may have been commonplace to the Gnostic Essenes of Jesus’ time. Furthermore, Gardner observed,
Of all the Christian factions, the Essenes may indeed have had the purest of the ancient traditions at that time, thanks to the ancient Hebrew writings known as the Cabala.
Predominately of Jewish origins, the Cabala, also written as Kabbalah or Qabbalah, means "tradition" and, like recent claims about the Bible, was supposed to contain hidden meanings. Such cleverly coded knowledge was thought to be found within the Torah and other old Hebraic texts such as the Sefer Yezirah (Book of Creation) and the Sefer HaZo-har (Book of Light).
These books, which predate the Talmud, a compilation of elder Jewish laws and traditions first written in the fifth century A.D., were produced centuries before the time of Jesus. According to the Book of Light, "mysteries of wisdom" were given to Adam by God while still in the fabled Garden of Eden. These elder secrets were then passed on through Adam’s sons to Noah on to Abraham long before the Hebrews existed as a distinct people.
According to Nataf, "The mysterious Cabala is a form of Gnosticism [in which] man seeks to find divinity within himself."
The author of the HaZohar wrote that "the human dimension contains all things, and all that exists in accordance with that... Man contains all that is in heaven above and on earth below...." Here the Cabala exhibits an obvious connection to the celebrated proclamation of Hermes Trismegistus, also known as the Egyptian god Thoth, who proclaimed, "As above, so below."
The connection between Hebrew traditions and Egyptian mysticism may be even stronger than previously believed, as many authors, including Jewish scholars, now believe the Cabala was an oral tradition concerning ancient Egyptian "mysteries" handed down from Moses through the leadership level of the Israelites.
The idea of ancient secrets being passed down to Moses from the earliest times was strongly supported by Eliphas Levi, a pen name of the nineteenth century French Bible scholar Alphonse Louis Constant.
The biblical patriarch Abraham, a native of Sumer known early on as Abram, by some traditions was said to possess a tablet of symbols representing all of the knowledge of humankind handed down from the time of Noah. Known to the Sumerians as the "Table of Destiny," it was this table of knowledge—known to the early Jews as the Book of Raziel—which reportedly provided King Solomon with his vast wisdom.
The Sumerian "Table of Destiny" is thought to be the same as the "Tables of Testimony" mentioned in Exodus 31:18. Other Bible verses—Exodus 24:12 and 25:16—make it clear that these tables are not the Ten Commandments.
Much like our understanding of history and religion today, the information within the Cabala became garbled over the centuries through both misinterpretations as well as foreign influences.
Pure or tainted, the mystical knowledge of the Cabala passed from Mesopotamia through Palestine into medieval Europe where it first appeared in writing at the end of the thirteenth century. It was scribed by a Spanish Jew named Moses de Leon, who may have devised the title HaZohar, a literary creation which caused critics to accuse him of fabricating the entire work. Today, most scholars—both Jewish and gentile—agree that the content of the Cabala legitimately predates the Christian era.
It has been stated how the Knights Templar brought Cabalistic knowledge back to Europe from the Holy Land at the time of the Crusades and that this knowledge was passed along through the alliance of the order and mason guilds. Masonic historians have acknowledged that the first evidence of "Judeo-Christian mysteries" introduced into Freemasonry came during this very time. It has also been documented that the hidden knowledge within the Cabala has been utilized through the centuries by nearly all secret societies, including Freemasonry, the Rosicrucians, and through the Illuminati on into modern groups.
Masonic historian Wilmshurst confirmed this, stating,
According to Picknett and Prince, Cabalistic thought was also introduced to Europe within the banker/ruler court of the de Medicis in Florence, Italy, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, notably through a Cabalist named Pico della Mirandola.
Author Webster cites nineteenth-century literature claiming that Moses Mendelssohn, the noted Jewish philosopher and Bible translator who did so much to liberate Jews from repressive German laws, not only was a Jewish Cabalist but one of those men who inspired and mentored Illuminati leader Adam Weishaupt. Mendelssohn, who came to be known as "the German Socrates" after being favorably portrayed in a drama by his Masonic friend Gotthold Lessing, may have also been a link between Weishaupt and banker Mayer Rothschild. Another may have been Michael Hess, the tutor of Rothschild’s children and a "follower of Moses Mendelssohn," who later headed the Philanthropin School for needy Jewish children established by Rothschild.
This blending of Cabalistic teachings with later secret societies was further confirmed in 1984 when more than five hundred papers of a John Byrom were discovered in England. Byrom, who lived from 1691 to 1763, was a Freemason, a fellow of the Royal Society, and a leader of the Jacobite movement to restore the Stuart monarchy. He was a member of a group called the "Sun Club," also known as the "Cabala Club." His papers, according to Picknett and Prince, were "chiefly concerned with sacred geometry and architecture, and cabalistic, Masonic, hermetic and alchemical symbols."
All of the early societies—including the Mystery Schools of Greece and Egypt—sought to penetrate the secrets of the past.
The industrial revolution as well as the evolution theories of Charles Darwin have led most people to believe in the "progress of man"—that humankind evolved from tree-climbing primates to moderns with high technology. Today, recent discoveries and new interpretations of ancient literature and artifacts are leading many to believe the opposite—that humankind "fell" from a golden age into barbarity and is only now regaining lost knowledge.
Even world population figures suggest an early decline rather than growth in the human species.
According to the records of the ancient Sumerians and Egyptians, civilized humankind has been on Earth for more than 500,000 years. Yet the archeological record indicates that man may have actually regressed in knowledge and abilities until beginning a slow advancement some 13,000 years ago. Obviously, a new model of history is necessary.
Masonic philosopher Hall wrote that the Mystery Schools were created as secret societies to prevent outside interference as initiates attempted to bridge the gap between the material and spiritual worlds.
He explained that,
If the religious institutions could not correctly interpret their own theology, the same could be said of their scientific counterparts, who even today cannot explain artifacts still in existence. Recently, open-minded members of both the public and the sciences are taking a second look at some of this planet’s most intriguing anomalies and mysteries.
The world’s first secrets dealt with the true origins of mankind. Neither of the two most prevalent theories of today—Darwinism and Creationism—can fully account for human origins and development.
Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest fails to explain how humans overcame the thousands of deficiencies within the human DNA structure, while Creationism overlooks an impressive fossil record. Clearly a new model is required.
Recently, the theories regarding the origin of modern humans were further confused by the discovery of fossils indicating that Neanderthal, a primitive man, lived side-by-side with Cro-Magnon, modern man, in what is now Israel. Yet mysteriously, these two races apparently did not interbreed.
Furthermore, scientific testing showed that modern human remains in prehistoric Israel predated Neanderthal remains by as much as forty thousand years, presenting a severe blow to the theory of continuous evolution.
These findings also may have resolved the question of the infamous "missing link" between primitives and modern mankind—namely, that there is no such link. There appear to have been two separate species. Again, this requires a new model for human origins.
New models are today being expounded by a growing number of archeological, theological, and historical revisionists who are contesting the pat answers offered by conventional science over the past several decades.
Human nature being what it is, mainstream scientists and theologians are circling the wagons to defend their long-cherished theories. With the same intransigence of those who once proclaimed the Earth was flat, they are determined to defend their positions to the end despite a growing body of evidence to the contrary.
Such evidence is not a recent phenomenon. Many of this planet’s deepest mysteries involve artifacts dating back thousands of years. They include:
Why don’t we know more about our past and such artifacts as those few mentioned above? The answer lies in the destructive nature of humans. Only a few of Homer’s poems survived the destruction of his works by the Greek tyrant Peisistratus in Athens. Nothing survived the destruction of the Egyptian library in the Temple of Ptah in Memphis. Likewise, an estimated two hundred thousand volumes of priceless works disappeared with the destruction of the library of Pergamus in Asia Minor. When the Romans leveled the city of Carthage, they destroyed a library said to have contained more than five hundred thousand volumes.
Then came Julius Caesar, whose war against Egypt resulted in the loss of the great library at Alexandria, considered the greatest collection of books in antiquity. With the loss of the Serapeum and the Bruchion branches of that library, a total of some seven hundred thousand volumes of accumulated knowledge went up in flames. What little survived was destroyed by Christians in A.D. 391. European libraries also suffered under the Romans and later from zealous Christians. Between the sacking of Constantinople and the Catholic Inquisition, an inestimable number of ancient works were irretrievably lost. Collections in Asia fared little better, as Chinese emperor Tsin Shi Hwang-ti ordered wholesale book burning in 213 B.C.
The mystery of humankind’s past can be symbolized by two of the planet’s oldest edifices.
Conventional wisdom tells us that Egypt’s Great Pyramid and Sphinx were built by the Egyptians some 4,500 years ago. However, the recent discovery on both of erosion from heavy rainfall—an event which could only have occurred more than 10,000 years ago prior to the Giza Plateau becoming a desert — is evidence that these famous structures were built thousands of years before the ancient Egyptian civilization came on the scene. Maverick Egyptologist John Anthony West, who two decades ago took the lead in publicizing the prehistoric origin of the Sphinx, has been supported in recent years by the work of Boston University geologist Dr. Robert Schoch. Following scientific study in the early 1990s, West, Schoch, and other experts concluded that the Sphinx was constructed no more recently than 7,000 to 5,000 years ago—and this was considered by some a very conservative figure.
Despite recent scientific work on the Sphinx that supports West’s theories and the popularity of a 1993 NBC special on the subject, Egyptian authorities—apparently at the behest of traditional Egyptologists if not more secret groups—continue to deny researchers like West access to the antiquities they study.
The famous psychic Edgar Cayce in 1934 stated that the ancient Egyptians were the descendants of a previous civilization who constructed the Great Pyramid and Sphinx as a "Hall of Records"—their version of a time capsule—for the purpose of imparting scientific knowledge to future generations. Cayce even said that this library of knowledge would be found beneath the paws of the Sphinx. In the early 1990s, ground-penetrating radar confirmed what Cayce and some modern remote viewers have stated—that a chamber exists beneath the paws of the Sphinx. Oddly enough, no one has been authorized to excavate the site.
If the Sphinx was built before the end of the last Ice Age, it would date completion of the structure to some time prior to 15,000 years ago, which certainly excludes the Egyptians as its creators. Others are now admitting that a much older and even more sophisticated civilization predated the Egyptians.
"The workmanship level of jewelry as well as architecture in ancient Egypt was higher in the earlier periods," noted Tomas. Clearly, the Egyptian civilization did not spontaneously appear. It was the legacy of a predecessor.
The famous Egyptian Book of the Dead, in a passage containing a confession to the "Lord of Righteousness," reveals a remarkable correlation to the Ten Commandments of the Old Testament:
This comparison provided compelling support for those who claim that the biblical Israelites drew heavily from the ancient Egyptian texts. The Egyptians, in turn, gained their knowledge and beliefs from the older cultures of Babylon and Sumer.
Many authors in recent years have detailed a widely disparate number of archeological anomalies reaching from Tibet and India to South and Central America on into the Middle East. A reconstructed human called "Kennewick Man," whose remains were found in Washington State in 1996, more resembles Star Trek’s Captain Picard than he does an Indian. An archeological dig in 1977 found that Monte Verde, Chile, was inhabited at least 12,500 years ago—1,000 years prior to when the original Americans were supposed to have crossed the Bering Strait ice bridge.
So far, conventional science is at a loss to explain where these people came from or how they got to the Americas in prehistoric times.
The signs of advanced prehistoric civilizations are worldwide and unmistakable, yet do not easily fit in the conventional view of history. Recent discoveries and new interpretations of available data both add to a growing body of evidence indicating that civilizations with advanced technology existed long before written history.
In a book little known in America, Gods of the New Millennium: Scientific Proof of Flesh and Blood Gods, British author Alan F. Alford wrote, "A shadowy pre-history seems to exist as a legacy in the form of stone, maps and mythology, which our 20th century technology has only just allowed us to recognize."
Many blame the fact that these issues have been ignored for far too long on the specialization of fields of study. Both science and religion rarely give any serious consideration to each other. Archeologists rarely mix with linguists or geologists with historians. Hence much of mankind’s history has been left to those who present it from their own limited perspective. The more suspicious see it as a conspiracy by the wealthy elite to maintain power and control by keeping the public ignorant of their true origins and potential.
The idea that the origins of man are still largely hidden from us by both time and design is naturally quite disturbing to those who have spent lifelong careers presenting mankind’s history as one long evolution from savage to civilized man. Yet it is apparent from the available evidence that modern man may just now be regaining knowledge lost millennia ago.
It appears that bits and pieces of prehistoric knowledge survived in various esoteric forms through secret societies such as the Mystery Schools of Egypt and the schools of Pythagoras. These little-understood groups passed along not only religious concepts such as reincarnation or the transmigration of souls, but also real knowledge in architectural design, construction, astronomy, agronomy, and history. One of the underlying and unifying concepts of these early groups was monotheism, the belief in only one universal creative god.
The Hebrews are among the most well-documented peoples of the ancient world, yet there is no mention of working on the Great Pyramid in the otherwise detailed records of their time as Egyptian slaves. By all traditions, Hebraic knowledge stemmed from their patriarchs Abraham and Moses. The latter not only led them from Egyptian bondage but presented them with a lengthy list of laws and social customs.
Considering the material covered thus far, it is clear that the knowledge hidden within the secret societies, both ancient and modern, can be traced back to ancient Egypt.
According to the Bible, it was Moses and his exodus from Egypt with the Hebrews that set world history on the course that we all know. According to Webster, Moses gained the oral tradition of knowledge from the Egyptian Mystery Schools, which he handed down through subsequent Hebrew leaders. Many researchers believe pieces of this knowledge were passed along to the Western world through cryptic passages in the Talmud, the Jewish Cabala, and the Old Testament along with an oral tradition handed down through the secret societies.
Many thoughtful people have questioned both the origins and accounts of Moses. Sigmund Freud, in his 1939 book Moses and Monotheism, proposed that Moses was not a Jew but a ranking Egyptian connected to the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. One argument used by Freud was that many of the laws Moses presented to his Jewish following were of Egyptian origin. The similarity between the Ten Commandments and the Egyptian Book of the Dead has already been noted. Freud also questioned why any Jew would have wanted to retain any Egyptian customs once free of slavery.
Freud was not the first to question Moses’ Hebraic lineage. The author of the Old Testament book of Exodus (2:19) describes Moses as an Egyptian. Manetho, a priest and adviser to Pharaoh Ptolemy I some three hundred years before the birth of Jesus, wrote in the Aegyptiaca or History of Egypt, that Moses was a ranking Egyptian priest educated in the Ancient Mysteries at the lower Egyptian city of Heliopolis.
Gardner offered an even more startling supposition. He was puzzled that, considering Moses’ high position in Egypt as stated in the Old Testament, there appears to be no mention of him in the vast quantity of Egyptian literature now available. After careful study, he made a compelling argument that Moses and the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, of Amenhotep IV as he was officially known, were the same person. This was not an entirely new concept, as it was advanced by the Rosicrucians as far back as the eighteenth century.
Akhenaten, the most mysterious and little-known of the pharaohs, incurred the wrath of the Egyptian religious authorities when he closed the various Egyptian temples and built new ones to the vague and faceless god Aten. The omniscient Aten appears very close to the Mystery Schools’ view of one universal god. Furthermore, according to Gardner, Aten is the equivalent of the Hebrew Adon. Aten may have transliterated into the Hebrew Amen, meaning "so be it," a term still used in churches today, which evolved from the name of the supreme Sumerian god Anu.
Akhenaten’s childhood parallels that of Moses. When Pharaoh Amen-hotep Ill’s second wife Tiye became pregnant, it was decreed that if the child was a son and hence a pretender to the throne, he should be killed. Her first child was indeed a son, Tuthmosis, who died prematurely. Gardner said a second son was saved when "the royal midwives conspired with Tiye to float the child downstream in a reed basket to the house of her father’s half-brother Levi." Here the child was nursed by Tey, of the house of Levi. This youngster, named Aminadab, then was reared by these Hebrews. He received a religious education at Heliopolis and later married his half sister Nefertiti, which placed him in line for the throne.
The story of a child being saved by a basket of bull rushes in fact can be traced back to the Sumerian Sargon the Great who claimed, "My changling mother ... set me in a basket of rushes, and with pitch she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river, which . . . carried me to Akki, the drawer of water."
When the old Pharaoh Amenhotep III died, he was succeeded by his son Aminadab, now proclaimed Amenhotep IV. Amenhotep meant "Amen is pleased" and Aminadab, who had been taught of the Hebrew’s one god, soon changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning "Glorious Spirit of the Aten."
Akhenaten’s support of Aten was unpopular with the people, particularly the powerful priesthood, and he was forced to abdicate the throne, which passed to his cousin Smenkhkare. Banished from Egypt about 1361 B.C., Pharaoh Akhenaten gathered his friends and relatives—mostly the Hebrew relatives of Tey—and fled. The worship of Aten was eventually suppressed and any mention of Akhenaten’s name was forbidden, adding to the enigma concerning his life. According to Gardner, Akhenaten’s son by a deputy wife named Kiya later became the famous boy pharaoh Tutankhaten, who was forced to change his name to Tutankhamen to reflect the return to the worship of Amen rather than Aten.
Linking Akhenaten to the biblical account, he and a "brother," Aaron the Levite, returned to Egypt on orders of the "God of Abraham" to retrieve the Hebrews. After a duel in magic with Egyptian sorcerers, they departed with the remaining Hebrews.
He also noted that Akhenaten’s supporters still believed him the rightful heir to the throne and called him Mose, Meses, or Mosis, meaning "heir or born of." Thus, Moses might denote a title rather than a name.
Even in the Middle Ages, scholars pondered over the similarities of Moses, Hermes, and Thoth, all of whom were great leaders who obtained their knowledge directly from God. Tile work in the Siena Cathedral in Italy bears an inscription reading, "Hermes Mercury Tris-megistus, Contemporary Moses."
Further support for the Moses/Akhenaten theory may be found in Miriam, the woman most closely associated with the prophet and who was so instrumental in the Exodus from Egypt and subsequent events. In her we may find further support for the "Moses as Pharaoh" theory.
If Moses was Akhenaten, this makes the connection between the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews much stronger than previously suspected, and it goes far in explaining the obvious blending of Egyptian beliefs into Hebrew theology. Even if Moses and Akhenaten were not the same person, it is documented that Moses was well schooled in ancient knowledge and gained high status while living in Egypt. The New Testament book of Acts (7:22) stated, "And Moses was learned in all of the wisdom of the Egyptians, and he was mighty in words and in deeds."
Moses, by the biblical account, became the patriarch of the Hebrews after receiving messages and commandments from God while visiting Mount Sinai. While he met with Jehovah, his followers watched from a safe distance. What they saw was described in Exodus 19:18 (New International),
This description is quite compatible with the prophet Elijah’s later account of a meeting with Yahweh in 1 Kings 19:9-13. Elijah recounted that as he stood on the holy mountain, the Lord passed by him with a great wind, flying dust and rocks and trembling earth.
The prophet proceeded to hold a conversation with his god.
When Moses returned from his mountaintop experience, he carried with him tablets of stone. Once again there is a question of translation. Since all this occurred prior to the advent of the written Hebrew language, authors Knight and Lomas explained,
Jehovah is an English transliteration of the Hebrew Yahweh or Lord, a word which itself was early on expressed only by the consonants YHWH to prevent verbal misuse of the name. YHWH is an acronym of the famous Hebrew words in response to Moses’ question regarding how he was supposed to name his Lord: "I am that I am." (Exodus 3:14) The Canaanite term for Yahweh was Elohim, a plural noun derived from El or Eloh, meaning "Lofty One."
Yet the Bible continued to used the plural Elohim for the one God. Another Hebrew word for "Lord," meaning the one true God, was Adon or Adonai. In the earliest texts, the term "El" or "El-Shaddai (Lord of the Mountain) is used 238 times. El, used biblically as a synonym for Elohim, derives from the ancient Sumerian Enlil or Great Mountain Lord. It is clear that the original biblical authors were referring to a definitive single male personality rather than some vague and hypothetical god.
Moses displayed to his people stone tablets containing a set of laws given by Jehovah, many of which were promptly broken on orders of this same Lord. After admonishing Moses and his people not to kill, steal, or covet another’s property, Jehovah ordered them to the lands of the Amorites, Hittites, Canaanites, and others to kill men, women, and children and take their lands and possessions. This harsh order seems unworthy of a loving and merciful god and may be explained by the Egyptian priest Manetho, who wrote,
In order words, these orders came from a physical person rather than from some spirit.
An even more controversial interpretation was made by author Dr. Joe Lewels, former chairman of the Department of Journalism at the University of Texas at El Paso, who opined in his 1997 book The God Hypothesis that Jehovah was indeed a being of flesh and blood who flew in a craft that created fire, wind, and noise. This vehicle was used to transport Moses to the summit of Mount Sinai as stated in Exodus 19:4,
Lewels also noted that Moses and the Israelites were never allowed to see Jehovah’s face and wondered if his countenance was so non-human as to provoke fear and loathing.
This same concept was also advanced by researcher and author R. A. Boulay, who noted that from all cultures of the world have come stories of dragons or reptilians who coexisted with man—even created man— and were associated with powerful gems or crystals, walked on legs, flew in the air, fought each other over territory, and were revered by humans as "gods."
Recent writers such as Lewels and Boulay concluded that the biblical Jehovah was actually one of the ancient Sumerian "gods" who took a special interest in the descendants of the Mesopotamian patriarch Abraham.
In referring to the Genesis 17 covenant between Jehovah and Abraham, Lewels saw the command that all males be circumcised as a marking system, much as ranchers today notch the ears of their cattle.
Needless to say, it is extremely difficult to attempt to interpret concepts dating back thousands of years. One of the biggest problems in trying to sort out the truth behind the old stories and legends is the fact that many different names were used by different people at different times for the same person, place, or concept in symbolic stories called allegories or parables.
Such allegories, usually passing as myths, are the backbone of the Western world’s early religious and philosophical beliefs. Popularly thought to be separate pantheons of mythical characters, a close study of the ancient "sky gods" of major cultures clearly indicates that all stem from a common source. Indeed, when the earliest text from the Minoan culture was translated, it was found to contain a Semite dialect from Mesopotamia. It has been established that the Greek culture—the foundation of Western civilizations—stemmed from the early Minoans on Crete.
No one will agree on these specific connections between the "gods" because of the large amount of incidental material that grew up around them. But a general comparison of mythologies indicates common features which appear to go beyond coincidence and reveal the striking similarities between the ancient "gods":
The real question is how did Moses, and hence the Egyptians obtain knowledge of the Ancient Mysteries? Much of it apparently was passed down from the biblical patriarchs Isaac and Abraham.
In a family intrigue worthy of a soap opera, Abraham’s first son, Ish-mael, was born to an Egyptian servant named Hagar because Abraham’s wife, Sarai, was barren. Even though it was her own scheme, Sarai mistreated Hagar, who fled.
According to Genesis 17, it was about this time we are told that Jehovah changed his follower’s name from Abram (Exalted Father) to Abraham (Father of Nations) and ordered all male children circumcised. Abraham was promised a lineage that would rule over many nations, including Egypt and those of Mesopotamia. Sarai’s name was changed to Sarah (Princess), who soon gave birth to Isaac, the second son born to Abraham, who was one hundred years old at the time, according to Genesis 17:17. In Genesis 17:19, Abraham is told that Jehovah’s covenant will be established through Isaac. Apparently Isaac carried genetic traits gained through Sarah that were thought superior to those of Ishmael.
Abraham’s ancestors are all named in the Bible and, through his rather Terah, can be traced back almost two thousand years to Noah’s son, Shem, and, thus on back to Adam.
It is significant that Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldees near the northern onil of the Persian Gulf, a principal Sumerian city. In early Genesis, Abraham is only described as a Hebrew with a 318-man army of trained troops who was blessed by the mysterious Melchizedek. Later, in Genesis 24, Abraham has become "great," with many flocks and herds, silver and gold, camels and a large household filled with servants. He obviously was no small-time nomad but a wealthy and powerful citizen of Sumeria.
Following the destruction of Ur during a war about 2000 B.C., Abraham’s family moved northward to the city of Haran, named for Abraham’s brother, who was the father of Lot of Sodom and Gomorrah fame. Early in the twentieth century, archeologists discovered several northern Mesopotamian cities named after relatives of Abraham, including Haran, Terah, Nahor, Serug, and Peleg.
It was this dynasty that passed the ancient traditions of the Sumerians from Abraham to Moses.
The world’s deepest secrets all lead back to Sumer in Mesopotamia, the first known great civilization, located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers at the headwaters of the Persian Gulf. In biblical times, it was called Chaldea or Shinar. Today, it is known as Iraq.
The Sumerian culture seemed to appear from nowhere more than six thousand years ago, and, before it strangely vanished, it had greatly influenced life as far east as the Indus River, which flows from the Himalayas through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea, and as far west as the Nile of the later Egyptian kingdoms.
About 2400 B.C. Sumer was invaded from the west and north by Semitic tribes and by about 2350 B.C. was captive to the warrior leader Sargon the Great, who founded the Semite Akkadian dynasty which stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. After years of further wars and population displacements, the lands of Sumer were united under Hammurabi of Babylon, whose famous "Code" of laws may have been instituted to discipline the mass migrations of people in the wake of catastrophes at the time.
Alan Alford noted that the devastating eruption of the Greek island of Santorin and mysterious destruction on Crete as well as at Mohenjo-Daro, capital of an Indus Valley culture, took place about the time of Hammurabi’s rule. Alford saw a connection between these events and the removal of the Easter Island population, the emergence of Andean civilizations, and the arrival of the Mayas in Central America—all of which occurred about the same time. It is also now clear that the Code of Hammurabi was drawn from laws set down by the Sumerians centuries earlier, particularly the earliest law code yet discovered, issued by the Sumerian king Ur-Nammu.
Virtually nothing was known about the Sumerians until about 150 years ago when archeologists, spurred on by the writings of Italian traveler Pietro della Valle in the early seventeenth century, began to dig into the strange mounds dotting the countryside in southern Iraq. Beginning with the discovery of Sargon's palace near modern-day Khorsabad by the Frenchman Paul Emile Botta in 1843, archeologists found buried cities, broken palaces, artifacts, and thousands of clay tablets detailing every facet of Sumerian life. By the late nineteenth century, Sumerian had been recognized as an original language and was being translated. Despite today’s knowledge, the general public still has been taught little about this first great human civilization that suddenly materialized in Mesopotamia.
It is fascinating to realize that it may be possible to know more about this six-thousand-year-old civilization than we may ever know about the more recent Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. The explanation lies in the Sumerian cuneiform writing. Whereas the papyrus of other elder empires disintegrated over time or were destroyed by the fires of war, cuneiform was etched onto wet clay tablets with a stylus, creating a wedge-shaped script. These tablets were then dried, baked, and kept in large libraries. About five hundred thousand of these clay tablets have now been found and have provided modern researchers with invaluable knowledge of the Sumerians.
The Sumerian tablets went largely undeciphered until a German high school teacher named Georg Grotefend began the systematic translation of cuneiform in 1802. Today many tablets still have not yet been translated into English because the sheer quantity has overwhelmed the world’s handful of translators.
It must be understood that the Sumerian alphabet was essentially shorthand for a much older original language made up of logograms (symbols representing concepts rather than words) resembling nothing less than antique Chinese characters. Since it was not a detailed language like English, there has been wide latitude in its translation. When these translations began in the nineteenth century, the symbol for the Sumerian’s creators was simply thought to mean mythical "gods" and everything proceeded from that point.
Archeological studies have shown that shortly after 4000 B.C. within the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, marshes had been drained, canals dug, dams and dikes constructed, a large-scale irrigation system initiated, and large, gleaming cities built.
The first twelve major city-states — with exotic names like Ur, Nippur, Uruk, Lagash, Akkad, and Kish — were all centered around towering, stair-stepped temples called ziggurats (Holy Mountains) and each was ruled by its own "god," called an ensi. Spiraling outward from the ziggurat were public buildings, markets, and homes. Surrounding each city were large tracts of land also controlled by the local ensi. As these city-states developed, they came under the leadership of a king, called a lugal, who answered to the local "god."
Despite our superficial knowledge of the Sumerians, we have already been able to credit them with many world "firsts." Professor Samuel Noah Kramer, author of History Begins at Sumer and The Sumerians, noted that these people developed the first writing system (cuneiform), the wheel, schools, medical science, the first written proverbs, history, the first bicameral congress, taxation, laws, social reforms, the first cosmogony and cosmology, and the first coined money (a weighed silver shekel).
Many of the records left to us are of mundane daily affairs such as tax records, court hearings, and market quotations. In fact, these ancient people were little different than today’s societies. They laughed, loved and hated, squabbled and conspired, plotted against one another and eventually fought each other.
Author Tomas described the bust of the Sumerian queen Shub-ad, on display in the British Museum:
Sumerians traveled frequently and widely and are thought to have brought their advanced technology of shipbuilding and mapping to the early Phoenicians, who settled along the eastern Mediterranean coast in what is now Lebanon.
Their knowledge of the heavens was both amazing and puzzling.
Sumerian knowledge of the movements of the sun and moon resulted in the world’s first calendar, used for centuries afterward by the Semites, Egyptians, and Greeks.
As Alford pointed out, few people realize that we owe not only our geometry but also our modern timekeeping systems to the Sumerian base-sixty mathematical system. "The origin of 60 minutes in an hour and 60 seconds in a minute is not arbitrary, but designed around a sexagesimal [based on the number 60] system," Alford reported, adding that the modern zodiac was a Sumerian creation based on their twelve gods.
They used it to chart a great precessional cycle, dividing the 360-degree view from the Earth’s North Pole during its twelve-month orbit around the sun into twelve equal parts—or houses—of 30 degrees each. Taking into account the slight wobble in Earth’s orbit, movement through this complete cycle takes 25,920 years, an event known as the Platonian Year, named for the Greek scholar Plato who inspired the Knights Templar, Illuminati, and Rhodes’s Round Tables.
His question could be enlarged to ask how did the early primitive humans of almost six thousand years ago suddenly transform from small packs of hunter-gatherers into a full-blown—advanced even by today’s standards—civilization? Even the writers of The New Encyclopaedia Britannica acknowledged that serious questions remain concerning the Sumerian histories and cautiously explained that such queries "are posed from the standpoint of 20th century civilization and are in part colored by ethical overtones, so that answers can only be relative."
Since we now have thousands of translated Sumerian tablets along with their inscribed cylinder seals, perhaps we should allow the Sumerians themselves to explain.
The answer is that they claimed everything they achieved came from their gods.
Recognizing that even the most learned researcher before the turn of the twentieth century could not possibly have begun to think in terms of concepts we accept as commonplace today, Sitchin reasoned,
It is significant to learn that the Sumerians never considered, or referred to, the beings who brought them knowledge as "gods." This was a later interpretation by the Romans and Greeks, who fashioned their own "gods" after the earlier oral traditions.
The Sumerians called them the Anunnaki or Those Who Came to Earth from Heaven.
To understand the Sumerian version of the origin of humanity requires only a slight shift in mindset.
Sitchin, who has done so much to synthesize the vast amount of Sumerian knowledge into a consistent—if extraordinary—hypothesis, often has told how his shift of mindset occurred. As a schoolboy studying Hebrew in Palestine, Sitchin had the audacity to question why the Old Testament term Nefilim was translated as "giants" when the original word meant "Those Who Were Cast Down." Predictably, instead of being praised for his initiative and attention to accuracy, young Sitchin was chastised for questioning the Bible. But the incident set him on a lifetime quest for the truth behind the inconsistencies and puzzles of the ancient texts.
Sitchin’s question was well founded. Rather than simply "giants," the Holman Bible Dictionary defines the Old Testament Nefilim as "ancient heroes who, according to most interpreters, are the products of sexual union of heavenly beings and human women" as stated in Genesis 6:4 (New International):
A native of Russia, Sitchin was educated in Palestine and London, where he graduated with a degree in economic history from the University of London following studies at the London School of Economics and Political Science. After a stint as a writer and editor for economic and historical journals, Sitchin relocated to New York City in 1948 and soon became a U.S. citizen. During his years of study, Sitchin became fluent in a number of languages, including ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, and Akkadian, a later form of Sumerian.
Sitchin and others have simply taken the attitude that perhaps the ancient Sumerians were putting down on their clay tablets history as they understood it rather than mere myths. After all, the Sumerian descriptions of many ancient cities were believed fanciful stories until their ruins were discovered and excavated. Why not also consider their written history as reality?
After years of dedicated translation and study, Sitchin realized that the biblical Nefilim and the Sumerian Anunnaki represented the same concept—that in the Earth’s most distant past, beings came down from the stars and founded the earliest civilizations, a theme which has run through nearly all secret societies, from Freemasonry to the Thule Society, as previously reported.
Using Sitchin’s translations as a springboard, many authors in recent years have contributed to a more detailed understanding of the Anunnaki story. Based on Sitchin’s work, as well as others including Alan E Alford, R. A. Boulay, Neil Freer, Dr. Arthur David Horn, Dr. Joe Lewels, C. L. Turnage, Lloyd Pye, Laurence Gardner, and William Bramley, the account of the Anunnaki went something like this:
About 450,000 years ago, a group of spacefaring humanoid extraterrestrials arrived at planet Kartli. They came from a planet about three times the size of Kmli, which the Sumerians called Nibiru. Nibiru was depicted in the ancient Sumerian literature as the twelfth planet of our solar system.
As early as 1981 American scientists were theorizing the existence of a tenth planet in our system based on sightings by an orbiting telescope and studies of irregularities in the orbit of Pluto indicating an additional solar body.
There is no inconsistency here, as the Sumerians counted the moon and the sun as planetary bodies, thus arriving at the number twelve, the same number as their pantheon of Anunnaki overlords.
Truly amazing is the fact that these ancient Sumerians, whom we are told were just developing writing, accurately described and diagrammed the planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, even though these three worlds cannot be seen without the aid of a telescope. Uranus was not known to modern man until discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846, and Pluto in 1930.
Long considered fanciful myths, recent interpretations of Sumerian texts, particularly one entitled Enuma Elish now known as the Creation Epic, provided a most plausible explanation for the present composition of our solar system.
The texts described how more than four billion years ago, Nibiru, a rogue planet, entered our system, narrowly missing a large planet called Tiamat, which cracked due to the gravitational stresses. In a subsequent pass by Nibiru—in Sitchin’s early works he refers to this orb by its Babylonian name Marduk—Tiamat was actually struck and then bombarded by Nibiru’s attendant moons. Various sized fragments of Tiamat remained in its original orbit, becoming the asteroid belt, while the other half of the planet was knocked into a new orbit closer to the sun. This fragment over time coalesced into Earth. It was accompanied by one of Nibiru’s moons (Kingu) which became our own satellite.
Interestingly enough, this theory could explain why the Earth is missing much of its crust, particularly on the half encompassing the Pacific Ocean, as well as the origin of the asteroid belt. This theory also offered an explanation for comets, which have caused so much speculation among scientists. The idea is that when Nibiru and Tiamat collided, many tons of seawater from both worlds were thrown into space—termed "mingling of the waters" by the Sumerian scribes—along with dirt and debris which became erratic flying balls of "dirty" ice.
This concept was strengthened by the recent discovery of meteorites in Antarctica containing the same gases known to compose the atmosphere of Mars, as well as by the discovery by NASA scientists in 1996 of what appeared to be the remains of microorganisms in a Martian meteorite thought to be four billion years old.
Nibiru, called the "Planet of the Crossing" because its orbit crossed the solar system between Mars and Jupiter, proceeded on its elliptical orbit, which took it far outside the solar system before being pulled back by gravitational force. Nibiru has been symbolized in numerous societies— particularly Egyptian—as a "winged disc," a circle with wings stretching to either side.
Life on Earth evolved based on its one-year orbit around the sun, the solar year. Life on Nibiru developed based on its one-year orbit around the sun—3,600 years to Earthlings. It then stands to reason that life on Nibiru would have evolved somewhat sooner than on Earth. This disparity of time may also be illustrated as how an insect with a weeks-long life might perceive a human with a normal lifespan as immortal.
About 450,000 years ago, during Earth’s second ice age, the highly developed inhabitants of Nibiru—the Anunnaki of the Sumerian texts—journeyed to Earth as the two planets came into proximity. According to the Sumerians, their initial landings were made in water, just as our own astronauts at first splashed down in the ocean.
Logically, these ancient astronauts would have sought a base camp which provided moderate weather and a good source of water and fuel. Only one location met all these criteria—Mesopotamia. The Indus River valley and the Nile were two other good choices but did not offer easy access to fossil fuel, which is still plentiful in southern Iraq.
Some researchers view with suspicion the fact that the sites of these first Anunnaki settlements in the southern part of present day Iraq remain one of the few locations in the world where First World visitors cannot easily visit, thanks to the continued confrontation with Saddam Hussein with its attendant boycott and bombardments.
With the supreme Nibirian ruler, Anu —or An or El, depending on the source— supervising their effort from the home planet, the Anunnaki began a systematic colonization of Earth under the leadership of Anu’s two sons, Enlil and Enki. All of the Anunnaki leaders were later to assume the role of "gods," or Nefilim, to their human subjects. Amazingly enough, one of these Nefilim was named Nazi. One must wonder if the twentieth century German occultists knew of this connection.
Enlil was the mission commander, while Enki served as executive and science officer. There was immediate and long-standing antagonism between the two half brothers due to Nibirian protocol. As in later Earth dynasties, the firstborn Enki was relegated to secondary status because his mother was not the official wife of Anu. This removed him from the royal line of succession. Yet it was Enki who led the first expedition to Earth.
In one well-preserved text, Enki described his splashdown in the Persian Gulf,
Enki was both scientist and engineer. Under his leadership, the marshes on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf were drained, dikes along with irrigation systems were built as well as canals connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates. Reinforcements arrived under the leadership of Enki’s firstborn son, Marduk. Over thousands of years Earth time—but only a few years to the Anunnaki—a thriving colony of these visitors was put in place and their attention turned to their primary objective—gold.
Several researchers have composed elaborate metaphysical explanations for Anunnaki activities on Earth, many having to do with energy fields and spiritual planes disrupted by the passing of Nibiru and the creation of Earth. One theory was that the higher-evolved Anunnaki were attempting to rescue "lost souls" left behind after the planetary collision.
But more documented and acceptable is the idea suggested by Sitchin and others that these colonists were after Earth’s mineral wealth—particularly gold—for use on their home planet.
Apparently an initial effort to retrieve gold from the Persian Gulf by a water-treatment system proved inadequate for their needs. Anu, along with his heir Enlil, visited the colony and assigned Enki to find more gold. Enlil was placed in overall command of the Earth colony while Enki led a foray to Africa and, eventually, to South America, where gold mining operations were set up.
Proof of such early gold mining has come from scientific studies conducted for the Anglo-American Corporation, a leading South African mining corporation, in the 1970s. Company scientists discovered evidence of ancient mining operations which were dated as far back as 100,000 B.C. Similar ancient mine excavations have been found in Central and South America. This indicated the Anunnaki mining efforts were worldwide and may go far in explaining the early diffusion of humans.
Further substantiation of such wide-ranging travel may be found by comparing the names of ancient Mesopotamian cities as recorded by the second century A.D. geographer Ptolemy to counterparts in Central America:
The raw mined ore was then carried from the far-flung mines by cargo craft back to Mesopotamia for smelting and processing into hourglass-shaped ingots called ZAG or "purified precious." Engravings of such ingots are numerous and some of the actual ingots have been found in archeological excavations.
In an effort to ease the increasing rivalry between the half brothers Enlil and Enki, their father Anu placed Enlil in charge of the Mesopotamian colony E.DIN—perhaps the basis for the biblical Eden—while assigning Enki to AB.ZU or Africa, the "land of the mines."
Further problems for these extraterrestrial colonists arose due to climate changes, which caused hardships among the Anunnaki, and the unrelenting drudgery of the mining operations. One Sumerian text reported,
Obviously, such revisionism of ancient history has—and will continue to—have profound impact on conventional science. Dr. Arthur David Horn resigned as a professor of biological anthropology at Colorado State University in 1990 after he concluded that the conventional explanations for man’s origins he taught were "nonsense." After much study, he too came to believe that extraterrestrials were intricately involved in the origin and development of humans.
Enki’s plan to create a worker race was approved by the Assembly, and was the starting point for humankind’s origin, based on the Sumerian accounts. This explanation also clarifies one of the most puzzling verses in the Bible. After being assured in the Bible that there is only one true God, Genesis 1:26 quoted the singular God as saying,
This verse may carry two explanations—first, that the plural Elohim of the Old Testament, interpreted as "God" by the monotheists who wrote Genesis, indeed may have referred to the Anunnaki Assembly which approved the creation of man and, second, the idea of creating man "in our image" meant simply genetic manipulation of an existing species, not the creation of a new race.
As Sitchin explained,
The Anunnaki Earth mission’s medical officer was a female named Ninharsag, also known as Ninti, who had already been working with Enki in genetic experimentation. On at least one Sumerian cylinder seal an illustration of Enki and Ninharsag depicted them surrounded by vials or vessels, a table, shelves, a plant, and a helper, the scene looking very much like a laboratory. According to the Sumerian accounts, they produced many mutated creatures including animals such as bulls and lions with human heads, winged animals, and apes and humanoids with the head and feet of goats. If true, it is obvious such experiments may have been the source for the many legends of "mythological" creatures and superhu-mans, such as Atlas, Goliath, Gargantua, Polyphemus, and Typhon.
In the nineteenth century, huge sphinxlike statues were excavated in what once was the palace of the Assyrian King Sargon II, who ruled Mesopotamia from 721 to 705 B.C. These statues included a winged bull and a lion with human heads. Much of this art was purchased by John D. Rockefeller and transported to New York.
The Sumerian account of the creation of the first man —written as LU.LU in the Sumerian or in Hebrew, Adama, literally translated as Man of Earth or simply Earthling— is quite clear in light of today’s knowledge concerning cloning. But up to within twenty-five years ago or so, the whole concept would have been incomprehensible to even the most learned scholar. Enki and Ninharsag took the reproductive cell or egg from a primitive African female hominoid and fertilized it with the sperm of a young Anunnaki male. The fertilized ovum was then placed inside an Anunnaki woman—reportedly Enki’s own wife Ninki—who carried the child to term.
Although a cesarean section was required at birth, a healthy young male Adama hybrid was produced for the first time on Earth, bypassing natural evolution by millions of years. According to the ancient Sumerian reporters,
Afterward, Enki and Ninharsag went on to produce a number of Adamas, both male and female, although at this time they were incapable of reproduction and lived very short lives compared to the Anunnaki. This was apparently done in a conscious effort to prevent any competition from the new human race. It is interesting to note that, according to the Genesis 3:5, the very first order of the Elohim was that man—in the allegorical form of Adam and Eve—was to remain ignorant less "ye shall be as gods" (King James).
Several connections between the Sumerian version of man’s creation and the Bible are apparent. The Bible speaks of woman being created from Adam’s rib.
So, Eve may have received her "life" from Adam without any bone being involved, or genetic material may have been extracted from bone marrow.
The laboratory which produced the first Adamas was called SHI.IM.TI or "the house where the wind of life is breathed in" by the Sumerians. Compare this phrase with Genesis 2:7 in which God, after forming man from "the dust of the ground" or Adamu meaning earth, "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life."
"Adam was the first test-tube baby," proclaimed Sitchin after the birth of the first modern test-tube baby in 1978. He saw this modern birth as support for his Sumerian translations, especially in light of the fact that modern science only began to conceptualize manipulating our genetic makeup within the twentieth century.
That the ancient Sumerians passed along symbols representing the long-forgotten science of cloning is suggested by the caduceus, the logo of physicians even today. This ancient symbol of life-giving medical treatment represented by entwined snakes along a winged staff bears a striking resemblance to the double spiral strings of DNA molecules. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), only discovered in 1946, is composed of the amino acids within the human cell that store that individual’s genetic blueprint. It is the manipulation of DNA which can produce a clone (duplicate) or a hybrid.
Evidence that the first primitive humans originated in Africa has grown since the 1970s when some of the oldest prehuman remains were found there. The bones of "Lucy" and other australopithecines clearly indicated that early primates lived in that area of Earth more than three million years ago but were not as evolved as even the Neanderthal. Contrary to popular belief, scholars C. P. Groves, Charles E. Oxnard, and Louis Leakey have agreed that Australopithecus was totally different in morphology from humans. Groves commented that "non-Darwinian" principles would be required to explain any connection between "Lucy" and modern humans.
But woe to those who attempt to argue against conventional thinking. According to many independent researchers, there appears to be a conspiracy against any discovery which conflicts with prevailing wisdom. One example was the fate of Thomas E. Lee of the National Museum of Canada, who in the early 1950s discovered advanced stone tools in ice on Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron. These tools were shown to be at least 65,000 years old and perhaps as old as 125,000 years, totally contradicting conventional theories. Lee claimed he was "hounded" from his position, his work was misrepresented, and no one would publish his findings. Most of the artifacts "vanished" into storage bins, and the museum director was fired for refusing to discharge Lee.
One particularly exasperated researcher recently wrote,
As bluntly stated in the Bible, Adam and his progeny were not destined for a life of ease, but one of hard work and survival at the hands of their "Lords."
Horn stated that study of the Sumerian texts made it clear that,
But such civilization did not come before further tweaking of the human genetic code and finally an attempt to exterminate all human life. Since the first human workers were like mules and could not procreate, the Anunnaki had to constantly create new batches, a time-consuming procedure considering the span of time between in vitro fertilization and birth. So Enki and Ninharsag set about to create an Adama race which could reproduce itself.
Genesis 2:8-15 makes it clear that the Adama was created elsewhere and then placed in the Garden of Eden or that area of the original Anunnaki colony called E.DIN, accurately described as the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Sumerian texts related how an envious Enlil forcibly took humans from Enki’s African lab and returned with them to E.DIN where they were put to work producing food and serving the Anunnaki. But Enlil needed even more workers and turned to his brother Enki for help.
Alford theorized that in retaliation for Enlil’s raid on his African lab, Enki traveled to Eden, where he created a human reproduction lab for Enlil but secretly manipulated the genetic code to allow sexual reproduction.
Although the Sumerian texts describing the details of this process have been either lost or undiscovered as yet, researchers have assumed that the procedure again involved obtaining life-producing Adama DNA, possibly by extracting a rib while the subject was under anesthetics. This time the male Adama’s DNA was combined with a female Adama rather than an Anunnaki, with possibly some accompanying DNA sequence cutting and splicing, a procedure within our technology today.
The result was a male Adama with the ability to reproduce through sex with an Adama female, or to "know" a woman as the Bible euphemistically puts it. The man Adam had gained the "knowledge" of reproduction, a feat that many Elohim/Anunnaki, including Enlil, deplored. They complained that next the humans would want to live as long as themselves.
Therefore, DNA manipulation drastically reduced the human life span along with the ability to make full use of human brain capacity.
As the human population grew, both in the far-flung Anunnaki mining operations and in Mesopotamia, many Adamas taken to work in the other cities that were growing up along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some were returned to mining chores, and others may have escaped into the wilds or were sent away for population control. In any case, the Adama were sent out of Eden.
The result of this human population growth and their increasingly close contact with the Anunnaki was predictable. Genesis 6:1—4 related,
Over the centuries, the Adama race, in addition to such interbreeding, was the object of continued experimentation which eventually resulted in changing Neanderthal to Cro-Magnon.
But some specific deficiencies remained, including a progressive decline in the human life span. Descendants of the early Adamas lived for thousands of Earth years thanks to their Anunnaki genes. This time frame slowly declined as interbreeding continued and the effects of life on Earth took their toll. But the extreme life spans of the pure Anunnaki rulers made them appear as immortal. The Epic of Gilgamesh stated,
Authors Gardner and Alford and others believed that the longevity of the Anunnaki was further increased by chemicals and/or enzymes which retarded the aging process. Gardner stated the often-mentioned "Star Fire" of the ancient gods may have been an antiaging compound of the enzymes melatonin and serotonin found in menstrual blood.
Longevity is well reported in the Bible, which describes life spans ranging into the hundreds of years for pre-Noah humans like Adam, Seth, Knosh, Kenan, Enoch, and Methuselah. Pointing out that every early civilization sought the "Fountain of Youth" or some form of immortality, Alford saw the obvious concern over age by the ancient scribes, but argued that their dating system was deficient.
Since both the fossil record and the Sumerian texts place the advent of humans at more than 450,000 years ago, some adjustment must be made with the biblical numbers, Alford reasoned. He found that by multiplying the biblical ages by 100, he arrived at 165,000 years between the birth of Adam’s son Seth and Noah at the time of the Flood. This number is more consistent with the Sumerian accounts.
According to Sitchin’s time line, the first human—the Adama—was produced about three hundred thousand years ago. After further genetic manipulation, Anunnaki males began interbreeding with human women about one hundred thousand years ago. Not long after this, a new ice age began decimating the human population outside Anunnaki control. Neanderthal disappeared while Cro-Magnon survived only in the Middle East. By fifty thousand years ago, humans fathered by Anunnaki were permitted to rule in selected cities, further angering Enlil, already incensed that some Anunnaki would mate with human women. He even complained that the sound of mating humans kept him awake at night. Enlil became determined to do something about the irritating humans.
Accordingly, about twelve thousand years ago, when the Anunnaki leadership realized that severe climatic changes would occur with the imminent return of the planet Nibiru, Enlil made his move. In their Great Assembly, Enlil convinced the majority to allow nature to take its course—to wipe out the humans while the Anunnaki waited events out in evacuation ships orbiting the Earth.
Although Enlil’s plan was accepted, brother Enki had a plan of his own. Whether out of some affection for humans or simply to thwart Enlil’s plan, he passed along the murderous "secret of the gods" to one of his most prized human assistants, identified as the Sumerian Ziusu-dra or Utnapishtim.
The same Flood story was repeated in a Babylonian legend featuring Atra-Hasis as Noah.
Utnapishtim has been called the "Sumerian Noah" and the parallels between the biblical account of Noah and the Gilgamesh account of the Great Flood are both striking and obvious. Referring to the story of Noah, Sitchin stated,
According to the Sumerian texts, it was Enlil’s rival brother Enki who instructed Utnapishtim/Noah how to construct an ark, including the use of readily available bitumen to make it waterproof. The Gilgamesh version gave some interesting details deleted from the biblical account. Enki provided Utnapishtim with an excuse to explain to his neighbors why he was building a boat—he told them that as a follower of Enki he was forced to leave the Enlil-controlled area and needed the boat to journey to Enki’s territory in Africa.
Enki instructed Utnapishtim/Noah, "Aboard ship take thou the seed of all living things. ..." This instruction is most fascinating because, since Enki had been the science officer involved in the genetic engineering of humans, it would seem plausible that Utnapishtim/Noah took DNA samples of all living things rather than a boatload of animals, insects, and plants. A ship’s cabin full of sample vials would be much more reasonable than a floating zoological park.
Alford advanced the theory that Enki, genetically working through Utnapishtim/Noah and three ethnically different surrogate wives, produced three sons who represented the three races of the world. Thus, after the Flood, the races of humankind were represented. Other writers theorized that the different races of humankind represent genetic experiments by extraterrestrial races other than the Anunnaki.
The Akkadian account also made it clear the Great Flood was not the result of heavy rains. It described a darkness accompanied by colossal winds which increased in intensity, destroying buildings and rupturing dikes. Such conditions would be expected by the near passage of a large planetary body. Scattered archeological excavations over many years indicate that what is regarded as the Great Flood was a planet-wide catastrophe, though not every portion of the world was under water. One theory of the Flood was that the gravitational forces caused by the passing of Nibiru caused the Antarctic ice sheet, already unstable due to the end of the last ice age, to slip into the ocean, raising sea levels all over the planet. Even today, most of the original Anunnaki cities in Mesopotamia remain deep under water and silt near the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
After six days and nights, according to the Akkadian version, the elements went calm but no land was seen. Finally, as in the biblical account, the ark came to rest on a mountaintop, identified as Mount Ararat. After sending a dove, a swallow, and a raven from the ark, only the raven stayed gone, indicating that more dry land was nearby.
Utnapishtim/Noah and his family then left the ark and offered a burnt sacrifice, which drew the attention of the returning Anunnaki. An ancient text stated the "gods crowded like flies" around the cooking flesh. Apparently, they had developed a hunger for fresh food during their long confinement in the orbiting ships.
Confronted by the fact of human survival, and perhaps accompanied by some remorse over his actions, Enlil had little choice but to relent and permit further cohabitation by the humans.
This scenario could certainly explain the sudden absence of a sizable portion of the human population about ten thousand years ago—most were lost in the Great Flood.
With flood waters subsiding and Nibiru moving out of the solar system, the Anunnaki and the handful of surviving humans set about reconstructing the world. But this post-Flood world was to prove less peaceful than the previous one.
Prior to the Flood, any humans not working directly for the Anunnaki were roaming hunter-gatherers. Virtually overnight they suddenly became farmers.
The Sumerian tablets explained why humans began to cultivate the land and domesticate animals—because their gods ordered them to do so. And with farming came the concentration of people in cities, larger and grander than before the Flood. Each was ruled by one of the Anunnaki rulers, now beginning to be considered "gods" by the humans. As further evidence of the Flood, the earliest efforts at agriculture were found not in the rich soil of the river valleys but in the mountain highlands of Mesopotamia and Palestine.
Again, this is explained in a Sumerian text fragment, which stated,
Like humans, certain food crops appeared to have no antecedent in the Earth’s evolutionary chain. They just suddenly appeared—fully cultured—about thirteen thousand years ago according to archeological finds.
"There is no explanation for this botanogenetic miracle, unless the process was not one of natural selection but of artificial manipulation," commented Sitchin, noting that three critical phases of human development—farming (circa 11,000 B.C.), prehistoric culture (circa 7500 B.C.), and civilization (circa 3800 B.C.)—occurred at intervals of 3,600 years, the same period of time for a complete orbit by Nibiru.
In addition to "kingship" over crops and animals, the Anunnaki began to bestow leadership on selected humans. As humans grew ever more populous, the Anunnaki/Nefilim realized they had to take steps to maintain control over their creation. They also desired intermediaries between themselves and the humans, whom they still considered little better than animals.
During a post-Flood assembly of the Anunnaki/Nefilim, it was decided to divide the Earth into four regions, with the human population split up within three of these areas—lower Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, and the Indus Valley. The Anunnaki reserved the Sinai Peninsula—their new spaceflight center following the Flood—as their private, or "holy," sanctuary.
Obviously, this divide-and-rule strategy for the scattered human communities required separate leaders. Thus was born the concept of "kingship"—human rulers especially chosen by the Anunnaki or "gods" to represent them. The practice of dynastic kingship based on a royal lineage traceable to the gods is one that has impacted countries and governments up to the present day.
This practice began in the Sumerian city of Kish, which Sitchin equates with the biblical Gush. Garner agreed, locating the biblical Gush east of Babylon, not in Egypt. Genesis 10:8-12 relates that Gush was a grandson of Noah and father of the legendary Nimrod, who ruled and built such cities as Babylon, Erech, and Akkad from his base in Sumer, before constructing cities in Assyria, including Nineveh.
It may have been Nimrod’s attempt to thwart Enlil’s dispersion plan that led to the Old Testament story of the Tower of Babel. This narrative began at Baalbek, believed a post-Flood center for Anunnaki space shuttle operations located in what is now Lebanon. Massive granite blocks there, called "the Trilithon" and weighing more than three hundred tons each, buttress the idea that this may have once been a landing or launch pad.
An Arabic text found at Baalbek stated it was there that Nimrod and his followers tried to construct a shem, translated in Genesis 11:4 as, "... let us make a name for ourselves."
His explanation for the trouble at Babel was that the humans there attempted to construct their own launch tower, apparently hoping to produce their own shem or flying vehicle with a view toward arguing against the breakup of humanity with the off-world ruler An.
This activity only added to Enlil’s fear of human competition and made him even more determined to break up the humans. His reaction may have been reflected in Genesis 11:5-8 (Revised Standard),
Soon the three branches of humankind—all descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three sons of Utnapishtim/Noah—were transported to the preordained locations, where different languages indeed developed over time.
Alford theorized that Utnapishtim/Noah may have had wives representing separate racial groups. The offspring of these wives would have been of different races, offering an explanation for the presence of the Negroid race in Africa, Mongoloid in Asia, and Caucasoid in the Near East.
Both the Sumerian texts and the Bible agree that Shem and his descendants remained in the area encompassing Mesopotamia, Ham and his kin were taken to Africa—to include parts of Arabia—while Japheth’s people were transported to the Indus Valley, possibly becoming the mysterious "Aryans" who suddenly appeared there in prehistoric times.
A congenial peace should have come with this dispersion, accompanied by the growth of new cities with their newly installed kings and increased food production. But, unfortunately, it appeared that the ancient "gods" were no more able to produce lasting peace than were humans.
Trouble began even as the Anunnaki began to relocate their spaceflight facilities from Sumer—now mostly underwater—to the Sinai peninsula at a place which came to be called El Paran (God’s Glorious Place). As before the Flood, Mount Ararat—in what is now eastern Turkey and reportedly where the ark finally grounded—provided the northernmost landmark for a glide path to the Sinai landing facility. This base was located on the Thirtieth Parallel, the geographic center of Sinai, while the southern landmark was the two highest peaks of Mount Sinai, known respectively as Mount Catherine (8,652 feet above sea level) and the lower Mount Moses (7,500 feet). What was lacking for this glide path was a matching landmark to the west.
The editors of the Holman Bible Dictionary reported that "Sinai" probably came from the word meaning "shining" and was likely derived from the Babylonian god Sin. Sin was simply the Semitic name for Nannar, the firstborn son of the Anunnaki leader Enlil and sovereign of Ur, the home city of Abraham. Some researchers theorize that perhaps at some distant time the peaks of Mount Sinai also may have supported giant reflectors to aid the triangulation of landing pilots.
Sin also was the Chaldean name for the moon, where the Sumerians claimed Enki first obtained living organisms or "seed" for his human hybrid experiments from that left over from the clash between Nibiru and the planet Tiamat.
Due to the destruction of the Anunnaki Mission Control Center at the Sumerian city of Nippur during the Flood and the need for a location equidistant from the glide path lines, a new control center was built at Mount Moriah, translated as "Mount of Directing." It was the site of the future holy city of Jerusalem, long considered a most sacred place by all major Western religions.
By the time their space-related work was completed, new generations of the Anunnaki had been born on Earth. Appearing like a script from some ancient soap opera—one that would be replayed down through recorded history—there are accounts of intrigues, conspiracies, and outright wars pitting brother against brother and sister against sister. These conflicts, rebellions, and wars would eventually involve humankind, providing their first exposure to armed combat, which continues even today.
According to the Sumerian texts, Enki’s firstborn son, Marduk, gained sovereignty over the lands of Egypt and became known as Ra. It was his children, Shu and Tefnut, who set an example for future pharaohs by wedding each other. Their offspring, Geb and Nut, also married and were the next royal couple as well as the parents of some of Egypt’s most famous god/rulers—Osiris, his sister/wife Isis, Seth, and Nephtys, sister of Isis. All this interfamily marriage led to a succession problem solved by dividing the country. Osiris was given Lower Egypt and Seth the mountainous Upper Egypt. Unsatisfied with his apportionment, Seth began to maneuver against Osiris and thus began the legendary wars of ancient Egypt.
Following the death of Osiris, his son Horus sought revenge on Seth, who moved eastward, capturing the Sinai spaceport. Enraged that the descendants of Enki had control of the space facilities, the followers of Enlil attacked Seth’s forces. This family rivalry had been passed down since the earliest times.
Led by Ninurta, a son of Enlil, the Sinai facility was retaken. Ruler-ship fell to the new kings of Babylon, Assyria, and Caanan, who themselves were engaged in near ceaseless wars. Many of these conflicts were faithfully recorded in the Old Testament, complete with obscure names and unpronounceable places which have proved difficult for historians to fully understand due to the ever-changing names from one language to another.
Armed conflict, which had begun with rivalries and intrigues between the Anunnaki overlords, now was being carried on by their human followers and had turned into a conscious control mechanism along with the religious veneration of the Anunnaki, already proven to be successful in keeping the unsophisticated humans in line.
But, as is usually the case in so many wars, things got out of hand for the Anunnaki.
In a story reminiscent of Romeo and Juliet, a granddaughter of Enlil named Inanna married the youngest son of Enki, Dumuzi, with the wary blessing of both feuding families. But when Dumuzi was killed after being taken into custody by Marduk/Ra for violating the Anunnaki moral code, Inanna attacked Marduk/Ra.
To stop this conflict, Marduk/Ra was tried for Dumuzi’s death. As it could not be proven whether the death had been deliberate or accidental, it was decided to sentence Marduk/Ra to life imprisonment in a huge, impenetrable place whose walls reached the skies. Sitchin identified Marduk’s prison as none other than the Great Pyramid.
He wrote that his translations of the Sumerian texts explained that the curious well shaft within the Great Pyramid—a puzzling hand-hewed tunnel connecting the pyramid’s descending passage to its ascending passage—was dug to bypass the large granite stone which plugs the ascending passage in order to rescue Marduk/Ra after he was granted a reprieve but ordered into exile. This capture, imprisonment, and supposed death of an Egyptian god is well recounted in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Inanna, far from satisfied with this turn of events and desirous of power for herself, could only be sidetracked by being given control over another area, possibly the population in the Indus Valley. Mounded ruins representing Mohenjo-Daro, the largest city of a civilization dated back to before 2500 B.C., were first recognized on the Indus River in southern Pakistan in 1922. Although thoroughly—and strangely—devastated in some prehistoric time, the baked-brick construction of buildings and the preplanned layout of the city indicated to some researchers an obvious connection with Sumer. Alford said the city was inhabited by a people called the Harappans, who "worshipped a sole female deity, whose depiction bore an amazing similarity to other images of the goddess Inanna."
Whether this Indus goddess was Inanna or not, she continued her quest for power, according to the Sumerian texts, eventually replacing Nin-harsag among the major Anunnaki leaders. She also found a human hybrid that she used to carve out a new empire. This man was Sharm-Kin, better known as Sargon the Great. Believed to be the offspring of a human mother and an Anunnaki father, Sargon founded the Semite Akkadian dynasty about 2200 B.C., which finally encompassed all of Mesopotamia. Recall that Sargon claimed that he, like the later Moses, was plated in a sealed basket of reeds by his mother and floated down a river to safety.
With the fall of Sargon and the Akkadian empire, Marduk/Ra slipped from exile and attempted to regain his sovereignty over Babylon. This led to changing alliances as the forces of Enlil and Inanna lined up against those of Marduk and his father Enki. Even a son of Marduk named Nergal or Erra, joined the forces of Enlil arrayed against him, making the conflict a true civil war.
Fearing Marduk’s ambitions, the Anunnaki persuaded Anu to allow the use of seven mighty weapons, now believed by many to have been tactical nuclear missiles, against Marduk/Ra. This all occurred some time before the year 2000 B.C.
It is at this point that the biblical patriarch Abraham joined the narrative. According to Sitchin, Abraham was far from just a wandering Hebrew as often popularly believed. He said that careful study of a variety of texts clearly indicated that Abraham of Ur was a ranking Sumerian.
Abraham also commanded armed troops, as evidenced by Genesis 14:14-16, which recorded how he took 318 "trained men" to rescue his nephew Lot and family from an invading coalition of armies following the orders of Marduk.
Moving with the apparent intention of retaking the Sinai spaceport, these armies from the north had been turned back before reaching the Sinai and had stopped to sack the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Siddim Valley on the southern edge of the Dead Sea after defeating the kings of the cities. It was here they had taken Lot prisoner before moving back north and here that Lot was returned after his rescue by Abraham.
And it was also here that the world may well have felt the first blast of a nuclear explosion.
Sitchin posited that it was in fact Abraham and his warriors who,
Alford argued that Abraham’s god Yahweh, originally El Sbaddai or God of the Mountains, may have been a son of Enlil named Ishku, also known as Adad. According to Alford, it was this Anunnaki who later kept in communication with his chosen people through a radio transmitter-receiver named in the Bible as the Ark of the Covenant.
Boulay also saw the ark as a radio device and thought it significant that the ark had to be completed according to very precise instructions before the tablets containing the Ten Commandments were placed inside.
A verse in the Old Testament (Numbers 7:89) may even have described the location of the device’s speaker:
Since their Enlilite "gods" had failed to protect them from the invading coalition army, the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah may have switched their allegiances to Marduk. Whatever the reasons, Enlil and his sons, Ninurta and Adad, years later prepared to launch the nuclear missiles as an act of revenge.
But in honor of Abraham’s past service, they decided to give him warning. As also described in Genesis 18, Yahweh came to Abraham and warned him that the cities would be destroyed because they had turned away from him. Evidence that the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah was a planned event can be found in this warning coupled with Abraham’s bargaining with Yahweh, reducing the number of righteous persons for which the cities might be spared down from fifty to ten.
This foreknowledge is also evidenced by the warning of Lot in Sodom by two "angels," although the original Hebrew word Mal’akhim actually only meant "emissaries." Following some trouble with the neighbors over the visitors, as quoted in Genesis 19:12-13, the pair told Lot,
Lot and his kindred fled to the mountains as instructed, bur the fiery cataclysm reached out to his own family. According to Genesis 19:26, Lot’s wife, who had lagged behind, was turned to "a pillar of salt." Sitchin noted that the original Sumerian word interpreted by Hebrew scribes as "salt" also meant "vapor." Lot’s wife then was vaporized by the explosion which consumed Sodom and Gomorrah. Lot and the rest of his family may have been shielded by the crest of a hill or the like. The Sumerian text Erra Epos quoted one of those behind the destruction as vowing,
In the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was common for some victims shielded from the initial blast to survive while unprotected people standing next to them were vaporized.
In the meantime, Abraham, standing miles away in the mountains, looked down and saw a column of dense smoke rising as if from a furnace.
Another result of the attack may have been a breach in the south end of the Dead Sea, which not only covered the bombed cities with saltwater but created the shallow southern section of the sea below the Lisan peninsula.
Ironically, it may have been Marduk’s own son who triggered the nuclear attack as one Babylonian text stated,
Evidence for the nuclear aspect of this destruction came from archeological reports that surrounding settlements were suddenly abandoned for several centuries about 2040 B.C. and that spring water near the Dead Sea has been found to still contain harmful amounts of radioactivity.
Concurrent with the devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah, the Sinai spaceport also was targeted for nuclear destruction, apparently to prevent it from falling into Marduk’s hands. Other targets, unrecorded and as yet undiscovered, may also have experienced nuclear detonations.
According to Sitchin, Alford, and others, the Sinai detonation produced an unnatural scarring of the peninsula, which can still be seen from space, as well as a multitude of scorched rocks in the area.
The nuclear blasts also created an unexpected and tragic aftermath. A radioactive cyclone was created, which moved northeastward through Mesopotamia, obliterating all life and ending the Sumerian civilization.
Conventional history states that mighty Sumer, which suddenly appeared about six thousand years ago, simply vanished just as suddenly, absorbed by the new empires of Babylon and Assyria. The Sumerian texts tell a much more horrible story.
According to various "lamentations" translated by the Sumerian scholar Kramer, they reported,
This one great storm of radioactive fallout annihilated the world’s first great civilization, leaving the bodies of the population "stacked up in heaps."
It was at this time that the detailed narratives of Sumer and its gods ceased. It would be centuries before civilization and writing once more flourished in Mesopotamia as memory of the great cataclysm faded into vague stories of the nightmare.
It was the Anunnaki’s nuclear Armageddon, with their millennia-old colony of Eden blown away. One theory was that the Anunnaki, shocked by what they had wrought, retreated to an enclave in the Sinai where most of them made the decision to return home, perhaps leaving behind only a caretaker force.
To humans, all this occurred in ancient times, more than four thousand years ago. To the Anunnaki, this would be just a little over a year of their time. Some researchers feel an Anunnaki rescue mission may still be on the way to Earth. Only time will tell.
Survivors of this early holocaust faced a period of regression and barbarism. The remaining humans made the best of things and began rebuilding their civilizations, a slow process without the aid of their "gods."
Abraham and his people moved away from the devastation to the south, where he fathered Isaac at the age of one hundred years, thanks to his hybrid genes. Isaac’s son, Jacob, became known as Israel, a name soon applied to his entire people. Some believe that the name Israel is nothing less than a combination of the Egyptian gods OsirlS and RA and the Mesopotamian god EL.
After about thirty-five generations of Israelites had passed along oral accounts of the events above, it was finally written down in Hebrew. What happened next, as they say, is history.
It must be stressed that the preceding only begins to scratch the surface of the wealth of data now available—both archeological and in the cuneiform tablets—that supports this incredible narrative with its far-reaching implications. And none of the authors and researchers studying this subject feel they have all the facts.
Dr. Horn may have spoken for most when he wrote,
Also understand that all of the above narrative is recounted, in one form or another, in the Sumerian texts uncovered only in the last 150 years, all of which predate the Bible by at least two thousand years.
Just consider what current events will sound like two thousand years from now—the greatest nation on Earth bombing some of the smallest and weakest for no clear reasons, people starving in parts of the world while farmers are paid not to plant crops in others, technophiles sitting at home playing electronic golf rather than the real thing, and police forces ordered to arrest people who simply desire to ingest a psychoactive weed. People of that future era will also likely laugh it all off as fantastic myths.
Yet searchers for truth cannot afford to laugh off the accounts of the Sumerian reporters who have been proven so accurate in much of their records. Just as the overwhelming evidence of conspiratorial control in government, business, and the media cannot be ignored.
It is amazing that we have as much information today as we do. Sitchin expressed admiration for the countless unsung persons who, wittingly or unwittingly, preserved the elder knowledge as well as they did.
He also pointed to the internal consistency of their accounts, stating,
Outlandish as these concepts may appear to some, many people today believe strongly that in the near future this version of history will become both popular and widespread, eventually studied and taught in seminaries, universities, and science centers. Already, breakthroughs in astronomy, anthropology, archeology, and Egyptology have only tended to support the theses of Sitchin and others.
None of this is meant to deny the existence of a universal creative force—God—the-absolute All or Oneness of all energy and mailer. The modern UFO contactees and abductees uniformly tell us that even the "aliens" they have experienced claim awareness of a Supreme Being.
The knowledge of this one God, who must have created the Anunnaki creators, plus the awareness that there is more to life than this material plane of existence, has been secretly nurtured within all of the secret societies. Beyond any question, there are metaphysical—spiritual—aspects of this whole issue, but that is not within the purview of this work.
The Sumerian explanation for creation and the origin of man is most compelling. It is not only internally consistent but well supported by evidence from all around the world. Likewise it provides feasible explanations for some of Earth’s most puzzling anomalies and mysteries. It just makes more sense than many of the reaches of rationalization by past science.
So we have arrived at the Secret of Secrets, the hidden knowledge passed down through the ages by the Mystery Schools and secret societies—not only is humankind not alone in the universe but nonhuman intelligences most probably had a hand in our creation. See Alien Agenda for an overview of the UFO phenomenon and its connection to both modern governments and secret societies.
The idea of ancient advanced civilizations is really not a new one. In 1882, during a time of ignorance and total disbelief in things extraterrestrial, scholar Ignatus Donnelly in Atlantis: The Antediluvian World wrote that the gods and goddesses of ancient mythologies were actually the kings and queens of Atlantis, a pre-Flood high-tech civilization from which sprang all subsequent human societies.
Frederick Soddy, the British Nobel Prize-winning chemist who established isotopes as a geologic age determinate, in 1909 wrote,
Swiss author Erich von Daniken, though harshly criticized by mainstream scientists and theologians, wrote immensely popular books on early extraterrestrial visitors, or Ancient Astronauts, beginning in 1970. Subsequent discoveries in archeology and anthropology have only reinforced von Daniken’s theories. As recently as 1998 he wrote,
Author Boulay opined,
Journalist Charles Fort in 1941 concluded,
Alan F. Alford mused over how the elder gods might try to maintain control today.
Other authors, such as Masons Hall and Mackey along with the Christian Webster, also traced the secret knowledge back to Mesopotamia, but they saw the division between humans and nonhumans as a metaphysical struggle between light and darkness.
In the 1920s Webster asked,
Mackey stated ancient knowledge was composed of "two great religious truths"—the unity of God and the immortality of the soul. He noted that elder Masonic "Constitutions" traced this hidden knowledge or,
Hall said this knowledge can be used to,
It is the immense and ancient power of the knowing elite—traceable through both blood and philosophy—that has sought to usurp and control virtually every major movement toward the development of full human potential, from long before early Christianity to the New Age. Since it has been clearly demonstrated that this knowledge—or view of the world—is still tightly held within the inner sanctums of the secret societies, there appear to be but three possibilities:
If the Sumerian version of our history is correct, then the Anunnaki may still be here, under a variety of guises based on advanced technology. After all, while the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah would be more than four thousand years ago to us, it would only be just a little more than a year to the Anunnaki.
Whatever the truth may be, we must be wary of leaders who attempt— whether by force, manipulation, or deceit—to move whole populations in directions they may not wish to go and might not be beneficial to all.
We must acknowledge that while many "leaders" are not in government, they may control our lives far more than any petty bureaucrat because of the inordinate power they have over what we see and hear.
In the past, wars and religion were successfully used as control mechanisms. Today, with nuclear weapons making large-scale wars unthinkable and organized religion on the wane, economics—the power of money— has become the method of choice for control of the masses by the inner elite of the secret societies.
From the viewpoint of 1948, author George Orwell described a picture of the future as "a boot stamping on a human face—forever." Is this to be our future?
As we enter the third millennium, new thoughts, new ideas and new knowledge seem to be pushing us forward at an ever-increasing pace. We find our worldview and mindset constantly evolving into whole new patterns of understanding in what are obviously extraordinary times.
In just the first few months of 1999, a national television audience was presented a variety of programming devoted to government conspiracies, UFOs, alien contact, new rooms and tunnels discovered within the Great Pyramid, and the distinct possibility of a prehistorical highly advanced civilization on Earth, with the promise of more revelations to come.
Many of us look the other way, hoping we won’t have to deal with the mind-expanding questions that new knowledge brings. We avoid those TV shows and books which are liable to upset our traditional mindset.
But it’s no use. We hear about them in office conversations, radio talk shows, and even occasionally as brief pieces in the mainstream media. The discussion of topics which once were prohibited are now commonplace.
So what’s to be done in this era of spiritual poverty in the midst of material wealth?
Knowledge is indeed power. It is time for those who desire true freedom to exert themselves—to fight back against the forces who desire domination through fear and disunity.
This does not have to involve violence. It can be done in small, simple ways, like not financing that new Sport Utility Vehicle, cutting up all but one credit card, not opting for a second mortgage, turning off that TV sitcom for a good book, asking questions and speaking out in church or synagogue, attending school board and city council meetings, voting for the candidate who has the least money, learning about the Fully Informed Jury movement and using it when called—in general, taking responsibility for one’s own actions. Despite the omnipresent advertising for the Lotto—legalized government gambling—there is no free lunch. Giving up one’s individual power for the hope of comfort and security has proven to lead only to tyranny.
It is a time for truth—about our past and present, about who really rules and about what’s being done to this planet in the name of progress and profit. Love your country so much that you will look past the jingoism and sound bites to starkly view the fear-inspiring depravations and corruption within the national government and oligarchy. Such truth must be made available to everyone, not just to the manipulative elitists of the secret societies.
The time for secrecy is at an end.
Don’t wait for the corporate controlled media to inform and explain. Read and listen to everything within reach and search for sources of alternative information—on the Internet, in documentaries, in old library books and unconventional bookstores. Read and watch things you normally wouldn’t. Then quietly contemplate. Use that God-given supercomputer called your "brain." Perhaps more important, feel what’s right within your heart, your soul, your innermost being.
And remember there remains one last great secret. This one is within the hands of the general public. Namely, that there are more of us than there are of them. And we keep gaining knowledge daily.
This knowledge comes from individual initiative, not from government committees or the so-called "experts." If one truly desires to be free, there must first be a search for truth, without the aid of paid experts, academic snobs, media pundits, clerics, gurus, or government leaders—all of whom have their own agendas to press.
True innovators like Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, and Bill Gates did not conform their thinking to conventional wisdom. Like these men, and many more like them, each individual makes his or her own destiny. We are creative beings and would like to create the best possible world for ourselves. But this is impossible when the creative process is based on incomplete or erroneous information designed to instill fear and dissension.
There are more people today who sincerely desire peace and brotherly love than ever before. Unfortunately, those who strive for power and control usually achieve it. And they want to keep it. But the time for brute force has past. Today, they can control the six billion members of the human community only through deceit and secrecy.
Once you have found your own heartfelt truth, that truth must be shared, so as to lift the curtain of secrecy which contributes to the ignorance, fear, and confusion of our time and create a new spirit of human tolerance and togetherness.