by General Leonid Ivashov
15 June 2011

from VoltaireNetwork Website

Spanish version



While the U.S. empire is teetering on the brink of collapse, General Leonid Ivashov turns his attention to the BRICS and brings into focus their potential for ushering in an alternative world order beyond the range of the dollar dictatorship and, ultimately, the predominance of so-called 'western values.'


The BRICS countries leaders (L-R) Russian President Dmitry Medvedev,

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh,

Chinese President Hu Jintao, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff

and South African President Jacob Zuma meet the press

during the BRICS Leaders Meeting in Sanya, south China’s Hainan Province

April 14, 2011.


More than ever over the past decade, geopolitics watchers whose approach to international developments is - in line with the projections made by founders of the school of thought N.Ya. Danilevsky, O. Spengler, and A.J. Toynbee - premised in the assumption that distinct civilizations will overshadow countries and ethnic groups as the actual players in global politics can say that reality is generating ample evidence to confirm the concept.

The BRICS summit which convened in China’s Sanya must be credited with being more than a forum of one of the countless political groups popping up across the world as countries combine their efforts in advancing common interests.


BRICS - the alliance of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa - deserves to be viewed from a wider perspective, considering that every one of the member countries represents a civilizational type which is both particular and highly important on the global scale. As a result, the agreements sealed in Sanya represent a serious bid to reconfigure today’s world, and the Western financial elites which seek primacy based on the U.S. dollar and military might are confronted with a major challenge. [1]

It is an open secret that the U.S. largely owes its own prosperity as well as the ability to support countries eager to stay in Washington’s orbit to the privilege of flooding the world with dollars which, like counterfeit money, totally lack material backing.


Since the collapse of the USSR, the countries which defied dollar dominance invariably came under heavy pressure and in a number of cases - under devastating attacks.


S. Hussein who banned dollar circulation in all spheres of Iraq’s economy including oil trade was displaced and executed and his country was left in ruins.


M. Gadhafi started switching Libya’s oil and gas business to gold-backed Arab currencies and air raids against the country followed almost immediately… Tehran had to put its plan to stay dollar-free on hold to avoid falling victim to aggression.

Still, even enjoying unlimited U.S. support, the financial empires built by Rothschilds and Rockefellers are powerless against the five largest civilizations represented by countries accounting for nearly half of the world’s population, especially given the fact that three of them are nuclear-armed and two are already knocking on the nuclear club’s doors.


BRICS is clearly immune to forceful pressure, its member countries do not appear vulnerable to color revolutions, and the strategy of provoking and exporting financial crises may easily backfire.

In contrast to the U.S. and the EU, BRICS countries altogether own natural resources sufficient not only to keep their economies afloat in the settings of contracting availability of hydrocarbon fuels, food, potable water, and electric power but also to sustain vigorous economic growth. The shift to national currencies in the financial transactions between the BRICS countries should guarantee an unprecedented level of their independence from the U.S. and from the West in general, but even that is only the tip of the iceberg.


A grand geopolitical project is beginning to materialize, and the statement on Libya issued by the BRICS summit reflects the alliances growing determination to respond with convincing political measures if the West’s expansion over the east continues.


Besides, Chinese leader Hu Jintao directed biting criticism at Washington over human rights abuses, and the message is sure to resonate considering that at the moment the U.S. is home to over 13 million Chinese whose loyalty to Beijing shows no signs of fading away.

Logically, the steps BRICS will likely be taking in the foreseeable future will include the following:

  • Tighter coordination in international politics, economy, and environment protection in the ranks of the alliance

  • Initiatives aimed at drawing into BRICS the countries sharing civilizational foundations with the alliance’s current members

  • The linking of the Muslim world to BRICS and the integration into it of such key Muslim countries as Iran, Syria, Malaysia, and Turkey

  • Synchronization of international politics decision-making within BRICS

  • Efforts to induce an overhaul of global organizations, for example, to reorganize the UN Security Council so as to ensure that the world’s civilizations are represented in it on a permanent basis

  • The establishment of a BRICS common market and economic coordination zone

  • The creation of a BRICS shared security framework

Two processes are exerting definitive influences over the current global geopolitical dynamics.

  • On the one hand, attempts are made to establish - regardless of the imminent human costs - a unipolar world order propped up by financial and military might. Crises, armed conflicts, and various calamities are provoked with the purpose, as they are supposed to justify instituting a world government, control over which the main financial empires will easily seize.


  • On the other hand, the contours of an alternative world order offering greater fairness, rooted in different philosophies of individual existence, and based on its own economic and social order are increasingly visible.

Since individual countries and national governments are defenseless at the face of the global financial centers, civilizations have to take over the leading role in the struggle for the survival of mankind, and the advent of BRICS, along with its potential partner - the Shanghai Cooperation Organization - reflects one of the first initiatives of the kind.


Interestingly, due to profound geopolitical reasons the civilizations now moving to the front stage are oriental and carry essentially non-Western values, moral norms, and forms of social organization.

The alternative world order should assign greater importance to moral regards in all types of activities and prescribe collectivist rather than egoistic approaches to global and regional problems.


Moderation in the use of natural resources and the taming of consumer appetites would necessarily be built into the model as well as the diversity of world views that will persist despite the pushy propaganda of the new age-type universal religion sanctioning the unipolar world order.

The implementation of the underlying plans of the Sanya summit is contingent upon the BRICS’ being armed with an adequate strategy and a vision of its unique long-term objectives. The mission of formulating them rests with the science of geopolitics. In China, an organization akin to Russia’s Geopolitics Problems Academy has been given an official status.


Similar research centers exist in India, the country which has adopted an original geopolitical doctrine.

From Moscow’s standpoint, the geopolitical rise of BRICS is a process which helps Russia both maintain its status in international politics and preserve its statehood and territorial integrity.


We therefore wish BRICS success.



[1] “Statement by the IMF Executive Directors Representing Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa on the Selection Process for Appointing an IMF Managing Director”, Voltaire Network, 24 May 2011.









Sanya Declaration

BRICS Leaders Meeting
14 April 2011
from VoltaireNetwork Website


Chinese President Hu Jintao (C), Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff (2nd R),

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (2nd L), Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (1st L)

and South African President Jacob Zuma (1st R)

attend a photocall in Sanya, south China’s Hainan Province

April 14, 2011.
©Xinhua/Li Xueren

  1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa, met in Sanya, Hainan, China for the BRICS Leaders Meeting on April 14, 2011.


  2. The Heads of State and Government of Brazil, Russia, India and China welcome South Africa joining the BRICS and look forward to strengthening dialogue and cooperation with South Africa within the forum.


  3. It is the overarching objective and strong shared desire for peace, security, development and cooperation that brought together BRICS countries with a total population of nearly 3 billion from different continents. BRICS aims at contributing significantly to the development of humanity and establishing a more equitable and fair world.


  4. The 21st century should be marked by peace, harmony, cooperation and scientific development. Under the theme Broad Vision, Shared Prosperity, we conducted candid and in-depth discussions and reached broad consensus on strengthening BRICS cooperation as well as on promoting coordination on international and regional issues of common interest.


  5. We affirm that the BRICS and other emerging countries have played an important role in contributing to world peace, security and stability, boosting global economic growth, enhancing multilateralism and promoting greater democracy in international relations.


  6. In the economic, financial and development fields, BRICS serves as a major platform for dialogue and cooperation. We are determined to continue strengthening the BRICS partnership for common development and advance BRICS cooperation in a gradual and pragmatic manner, reflecting the principles of openness, solidarity and mutual assistance.


    We reiterate that such cooperation is inclusive and non-confrontational. We are open to increasing engagement and cooperation with non-BRICS countries, in particular emerging and developing countries, and relevant international and regional organizations.


  7. We share the view that the world is undergoing far-reaching, complex and profound changes, marked by the strengthening of multipolarity, economic globalization and increasing interdependence.


    While facing the evolving global environment and a multitude of global threats and challenges, the international community should join hands to strengthen cooperation for common development.


    Based on universally recognized norms of international law and in a spirit of mutual respect and collective decision making, global economic governance should be strengthened, democracy in international relations should be promoted, and the voice of emerging and developing countries in international affairs should be enhanced.


  8. We express our strong commitment to multilateral diplomacy with the United Nations playing the central role in dealing with global challenges and threats.


    In this respect, we reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more effective, efficient and representative, so that it can deal with today’s global challenges more successfully.


    China and Russia reiterate the importance they attach to the status of India, Brazil and South Africa in international affairs, and understand and support their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN.


  9. We underscore that the concurrent presence of all five BRICS countries in the Security Council during the year of 2011 is a valuable opportunity to work closely together on issues of peace and security, to strengthen multilateral approaches and to facilitate future coordination on issues under UN Security Council consideration.


    We are deeply concerned with the turbulence in the Middle East, the North African and West African regions and sincerely wish that the countries affected achieve peace, stability, prosperity and progress and enjoy their due standing and dignity in the world according to legitimate aspirations of their peoples.


    We share the principle that the use of force should be avoided. We maintain that the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of each nation should be respected.


  10. We wish to continue our cooperation in the UN Security Council on Libya. We are of the view that all the parties should resolve their differences through peaceful means and dialogue in which the UN and regional organizations should as appropriate play their role. We also express support for the African Union High-Level Panel Initiative on Libya.


  11. We reiterate our strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stress that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. We believe that the United Nations has a central role in coordinating the international action against terrorism within the framework of the UN Charter and in accordance with principles and norms of the international law.


    In this context, we urge early conclusion of negotiations in the UN General Assembly of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and its adoption by all Member States. We are determined to strengthen our cooperation in countering this global threat. We express our commitment to cooperate for strengthening international information security.


    We will pay special attention to combat cybercrime.


  12. We note that the world economy is gradually recovering from the financial crisis, but still faces uncertainties. Major economies should continue to enhance coordination of macro-economic policies and work together to achieve strong, sustainable and balanced growth.


  13. We are committed to assure that the BRICS countries will continue to enjoy strong and sustained economic growth supported by our increased cooperation in economic, finance and trade matters, which will contribute to the long-term steady, sound and balanced growth of the world economy.


  14. We support the Group of Twenty (G20) in playing a bigger role in global economic governance as the premier forum for international economic cooperation. We expect new positive outcomes in the fields of economy, finance, trade and development from the G20 Cannes Summit in 2011.


    We support the ongoing efforts of G20 members to stabilize international financial markets, achieve strong, sustainable and balanced growth and support the growth and development of the global economy.


    Russia offers to host the G20 Summit in 2013. Brazil, India, China and South Africa welcome and appreciate Russia’s offer.


  15. We call for a quick achievement of the targets for the reform of the International Monetary Fund agreed to at previous G20 Summits and reiterate that the governing structure of the international financial institutions should reflect the changes in the world economy, increasing the voice and representation of emerging economies and developing countries.


  16. Recognizing that the international financial crisis has exposed the inadequacies and deficiencies of the existing international monetary and financial system, we support the reform and improvement of the international monetary system, with a broad-based international reserve currency system providing stability and certainty.


    We welcome the current discussion about the role of the SDR in the existing international monetary system including the composition of SDR’s basket of currencies. We call for more attention to the risks of massive cross-border capital flows now faced by the emerging economies.


    We call for further international financial regulatory oversight and reform, strengthening policy coordination and financial regulation and supervision cooperation, and promoting the sound development of global financial markets and banking systems.


  17. Excessive volatility in commodity prices, particularly those for food and energy, poses new risks for the ongoing recovery of the world economy. We support the international community in strengthening cooperation to ensure stability and strong development of physical market by reducing distortion and further regulating financial market.


    The international community should work together to increase production capacity, strengthen producer-consumer dialogue to balance supply and demand, and increase support to the developing countries in terms of funding and technologies. The regulation of the derivatives market for commodities should be accordingly strengthened to prevent activities capable of destabilizing markets.


    We also should address the problem of shortage of reliable and timely information on demand and supply at international, regional and national levels. The BRICS will carry out closer cooperation on food security.


  18. We support the development and use of renewable energy resources. We recognize the important role which the renewable energy plays as a means to address climate change. We are convinced of the importance of cooperation and information exchange in the field of development of renewable energy resources.


  19. Nuclear energy will continue to be an important element in future energy mix of BRICS countries. International cooperation in the development of safe nuclear energy for peaceful purposes should proceed under conditions of strict observance of relevant safety standards and requirements concerning design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants.


  20. Accelerating sustainable growth of developing countries is one of the major challenges for the world. We believe that growth and development are central to addressing poverty and to achieving the MDG goals.


    Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is a moral, social, political and economic imperative of humankind and one of the greatest global challenges facing the world today, particularly in Least Developed Countries in Africa and elsewhere.


  21. We call on the international community to actively implement the outcome document adopted by the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals held in September 2010 and achieve the objectives of the MDGs by 2015 as scheduled.


  22. Climate change is one of the global threats challenging the livelihood of communities and countries. China, Brazil, Russia and India appreciate and support South Africa’s hosting of UNFCCC COP17/CMP7.


    We support the Cancun Agreements and are ready to make concerted efforts with the rest of the international community to bring a successful conclusion to the negotiations at the Durban Conference applying the mandate of the Bali Roadmap and in line with the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.


    We commit ourselves to work towards a comprehensive, balanced and binding outcome to strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol.


    The BRICS will intensify cooperation on the Durban Conference. We will enhance our practical cooperation in adapting our economy and society to climate change.


  23. Sustainable development, as illustrated by the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and multilateral environmental treaties, should be an important vehicle to advance economic growth.


    China, Russia, India and South Africa appreciate Brazil as the host of the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development and look forward to working with Brazil to reach new political commitment and achieve positive and practical results in areas of economic growth, social development and environmental protection under the framework of sustainable development.


    Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa appreciate and support India’s hosting of the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.


    Brazil, China and South Africa also appreciate and support the India’s hosting of sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to be held in October 2012.


  24. We underscore our firm commitment to strengthen dialogue and cooperation in the fields of social protection, decent work, gender equality, youth, and public health, including the fight against HIV/AIDS.


  25. We support infrastructure development in Africa and its industrialization within framework of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).


  26. We have agreed to continue further expanding and deepening economic, trade and investment cooperation among our countries. We encourage all countries to refrain from resorting to protectionist measures. We welcome the outcomes of the meeting of BRICS Trade Ministers held in Sanya on April 13, 2011.


    Brazil, China, India and South Africa remain committed and call upon other members to support a strong, open, rule-based multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organization and a successful, comprehensive and balanced conclusion of the Doha Development Round, built on the progress already made and consistent with its development mandate.


    Brazil, India, China and South Africa extend full support to an early accession of Russia to the World Trade Organization.


  27. We reviewed the progress of the BRICS cooperation in various fields and share the view that such cooperation has been enriching and mutually beneficial and that there is a great scope for closer cooperation among the BRICS.


    We are focused on the consolidation of BRICS cooperation and the further development of its own agenda.


    We are determined to translate our political vision into concrete actions and endorse the (below) attached Action Plan, which will serve as the foundation for future cooperation. We will review the implementation of the Action Plan during our next Leaders Meeting.


  28. We intend to explore cooperation in the sphere of science, technology and innovation, including the peaceful use of space. We congratulate the Russian people and government upon the 50th anniversary of the flight of Yury Gagarin into the space, which ushered in a new era in development of science and technology.


  29. We express our confidence in the success of,

    • the 2011 Universiade in Shenzhen

    • the 2013 Universiade in Kazan

    • the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing

    • the 2014 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in Sochi

    • the FIFA 2014 World Cup in Brazil

    • the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro

    • the FIFA 2018 World Cup in Russia

  30. We extend our deepest condolences to the people of Japan with the great loss of life following the disasters that struck the country. We will continue our practical support to Japan in overcoming consequences of these catastrophes.


  31. The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa extend our warm appreciation to China for hosting the BRICS Leaders Meeting and the Hainan Provincial Government and Sanya Municipal Government and their people for their support to the Meeting.


  32. Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa thank India for hosting the BRICS Leaders Meeting in 2012 and offer their full support.



Action Plan

We formulated the Action Plan, laying the foundation for the BRICS cooperation, with the purpose to strengthen BRICS cooperation and benefit our peoples.

  1. Enhance existing cooperation programs

    1. Hold the third Meeting of High Representatives for Security Issues in the latter half of 2011 in China.

    2. Hold the meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs during the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.

    3. Hold sherpas/sous-sherpas meeting in due time.

    4. Representatives to international organizations based in New York and Geneva meet periodically in an informal manner.

    5. Ministers of Finance and Governors of Central Banks meet under the G20 framework and during the annual meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

    6. Hold the Meeting of Agriculture Expert Working Group and the second Meeting of Ministers of Agriculture in 2011 in China, and cooperate in issues including establishment of BRICS System of Agricultural Information and holding a seminar on food security.

    7. Hold the Meeting of the heads of the National Statistical Institutions in September 2011 in China.

    8. Hold the second BRICS International Competition Conference in September 2011 in China, and explore the possibility of signing an Agreement on Cooperation between Antimonopoly Agencies.

    9. Continue to hold the BRICS Think-Tank Symposiums, and consider establishing a network of research centers of all BRICS countries.

    10. Hold another Business Forum prior to the next BRICS Leaders Meeting.

    11. Strengthen financial cooperation among the BRICS Development Banks.

    12. Implement the Protocol of Intent among the BRIC countries’ Supreme Courts.

    13. Release the Joint Statistical Publication by BRICS countries.

    14. Continue to hold the Meeting of Cooperatives.


  2. New areas of cooperation

    1. Host the first BRICS Friendship Cities and Local Governments Cooperation Forum in 2011 in China.

    2. Host the Meeting of Ministers of Health in 2011 in China.

    3. Engage in joint research on economic and trade issues.

    4. Update, as appropriate, the Bibliography on the BRICS countries.


  3. New proposals to explore

    1. Cooperate in the cultural field according to the agreement of the BRICS leaders.

    2. Encourage cooperation in sports.

    3. Explore the feasibility to cooperate in the field of green economy.

    4. Hold a meeting of Senior Officials for discussing ways of promoting scientific, technological and innovation cooperation in BRICS format including by establishment a working group on cooperation in pharmaceutical industry.

    5. Establish, at UNESCO, a BRICS-UNESCO Group, aiming at developing common strategies within the mandate of the Organization.