Rumsfeld Commissions

(I and II)



Rumsfeld Commission I


aka: “Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to The United States”


The Executive Summary of the Commission can be downloaded from:


The presentation & findings of the report to Congress:





The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld






Dr. Barry M. Blechman


DFI International, Founder, President and CEO


Dr. Barry M. Blechman founded DFI International in 1984. Today, he drives the corporate strategy and vision for the DFI family of companies, including DFI International’s two operating units, DFI Corporate Services and DFI Government Services, and SwannStreet Ventures LLC, which provides a unique combination of early seed-stage capital and strategic planning for high-tech start-ups in the Washington, DC region.


Dr. Blechman has over thirty years experience in the defense, foreign policy, and advanced technology sectors. An expert in political-military affairs, defense planning, national security strategy, and high technology markets, Dr. Blechman has been providing expert advice and analyses to government and industry officials since the 1960s.


Dr. Blechman currently serves as a member of the Defense Policy Board, an organization within the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) that provides advice to the Secretary and other senior DoD officials. Recently, he chaired the Homeland Security Working Group of the (Hart-Rudman) Commission on National Security/21st Century. Over the past several years, he provided strategic guidance to OSD, the Services, and other Department of Defense offices during the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Reviews. In 1998, Dr. Blechman was a member of the congressionally- appointed Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (The Rumsfeld Commission). In addition, he chairs The Henry L. Stimson Center, a nonprofit, nonpartisan research institute devoted to enhancing international peace and security, which he co-founded in 1989.


During the 1960s, Dr. Blechman worked as an operations research analyst for both the US Army and the Center for Naval Analyses. In 1971, he became a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, where he headed the defense analyses staff and co- authored Brookings’ annual analysis of the federal budget, Setting National Priorities.


In 1977, Dr. Blechman was nominated by President Carter and confirmed by the Senate as Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Among other assignments, he served as deputy chairman of the US delegation for negotiations on arms transfers and as head of the Agency’s policy planning staff.


After leaving the government, Dr. Blechman was affiliated at various times with the Carnegie Endowment, the Roosevelt Center, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and the Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy Institute.


Dr. Blechman’s long list of published works includes the widely respected Key West Revisited: Roles and Missions of the United States Armed Forces in the 21st Century, a report that reassesses decisions made in 1947 and recommends new roles for the Services in the protecting of the homeland and US interests abroad. He also authored Force Without War: U.S. Armed Forces as a Political Instrument (with Stephen S. Kaplan), an empirical study of the use of military force short of war.


Dr. Blechman received his Ph.D. in political science from Georgetown University. He holds a master’s degree in political science from New York University and is a graduate of Queens College. Dr. Blechman has taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and the University of Michigan.




General Lee Butler, USAF (Ret.)


General Lee Butler retired from 33  years of military service on February 28, 1994. He remained in Nebraska and joined Peter Kiewit Sons, Inc., a privately held corporation headquartered in Omaha.


From 1961-1994 Butler was an officer in the United States Air Force, attaining the rank of General in 1991. In the latter capacity he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Air Command and subsequently Commander-in-Chief of the United States Strategic Command, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. In this capacity, he had the responsibility for all U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy strategic nuclear forces which support the national security objective of strategic defense.


Butler is a 1961 graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy. He attended the University of Paris, France, as an Olmsted scholar where he attained a master's degree in international affairs.


Butler's military career included a wide range of flying and staff positions. He served in numerous policy positions in the Pentagon, the last being the Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, Joint Chiefs of Staff.


Butler currently serves as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations as well as the Committee on International Security and Arms Control for the National Academy of Sciences and the Canberra Commission. He serves on numerous boards of Omaha civic organizations.




Dr. Richard L. Garwin


Richard L. Garwin is a physicist long employed at the IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY and now Philip D. Reed Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York. He began his work with nuclear weapons and national security technology at Los Alamos in 1950 and continues to this day. He has been particularly active in nuclear weapons and space technology, in ballistic missiles and ballistic missile defense, and in arms control and national security policy. He served two four-year terms on the President's Science Advisory Committee under Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, and four years on the Defense Science Board. He received from the U.S. government the Enrico Fermi Award and the R.V. Jones Award for Scientific Intelligence, and in 2000 was named one of ten Founders of National Reconnaissance."


Richard L. Garwin was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1928. He received the B.S. in Physics from Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, in 1947, and the Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Chicago in 1949.


He is now Philip D. Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York and IBM Fellow Emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York. After three years on the faculty of the University of Chicago, he joined IBM Corporation in 1952, and was until June 1993 IBM Fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NewYork; Adjunct Research Fellow in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; and Adjunct Professor of Physics at Columbia University.


In addition, he is a consultant to the U.S. government on matters of military technology, arms control, etc. He has been Director of the IBM Watson Laboratory, Director of Applied Research at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and a member of the IBM Corporate Technical Committee. He has also been Professor of Public Policy in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.


He has made contributions in the design of nuclear weapons, in instruments and electronics for research in nuclear and low-temperature physics, in the establishment of the nonconservation of parity and the demonstration of some of its striking consequences, in computer elements and systems, including superconducting devices, in communication systems, in the behavior of solid helium, in the detection of gravitational radiation, and in military technology. He has published more than 500 papers and been granted 44 U.S.patents. He has testified to many Congressional committees on matters involving national security, transportation, energy policy and technology, and the like.


He is coauthor of many books, among them Nuclear Weapons and World Politics(1977), Nuclear Power Issues and Choices (1977), Energy: The Next Twenty Years (1979), Science Advice to the President(1980), Managing the Plutonium Surplus: Applications and Technical Options (1994), and Feux Follets et Champignons Nucleaires (1997) (in French with Georges Charpak).



He was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee 1962-65 and 1969-72, and of the Defense Science Board 1966-69. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the American Philosophical Society.


The citation accompanying his 1978 election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering reads "Contributions applying the latest scientific discoveries to innovative practical engineering applications contributing to national security and economic growth." He received the 1983 Wright Prize for interdisciplinary scientific achievement, the 1988 AAAS Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award, the 1991 Erice "Science for Peace"Prize, and from the U.S. Government the 1996 R.V. Jones Foreign Intelligence Award and the 1996 Enrico Fermi Award.


From 1977 to 1985 he was on the Council of the Institute for Strategic Studies (London), and during 1978 was Chairman of the Panel on Public Affairs of the American Physical Society. He is a long-time member of Pugwash and has served on the Pugwash Council.


His work for the government has included studies on antisubmarine warfare, new technologies in health care, sensor systems, military and civil aircraft, and satellite and strategic systems, from the point of view of improving such systems as well as assessing existing capabilities. For example, he contributed to the first U.S. photographic reconnaissance satellite program, CORONA, that returned 3 million feet of film from almost 100 successful flights 1960-1972.


He has been a member of the Scientific Advisory Group to the Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff and was in 1998 a Commissioner on the 9-person "Rumsfeld" Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He Chairs the Arms Control and Nonproliferation Board of the Department of State. On the 40th anniversary of the founding of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) he was recognized as one of the ten Founders of National Reconnaissance.


IBM Fellow Emeritus, IBM Research Division (current); Adjunct Professor of Physics, Columbia University (current); Chair, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board, Department of State (1994-2001).!33




Dr. William R. Graham


Dr. William R. Graham, a founder and executive of R&D Associates, Marina Del Rey, California, became Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on November 25, 1985. Nominated for the post by President Reagan on September 12, he was confirmed by the Senate on November 18, 1985.


In 1980, Dr. Graham served as an advisor to candidate Ronald Reagan and was a member of the President-elect's transition team. He had served for the three years previous to his appointment as NASA Deputy Administrator as chair of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament, having been nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate in 1982.


Before the founding of R&D Associates in 1971, Dr. Graham had spent six years with the Rand Corp., Santa Monica, California. Prior to his employment at Rand, he served three years active duty as a project officer with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, directing a group conducting experimental and theoretical research on strategic system survivability.


Dr. Graham had also been a consultant to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and served on many international and national boards and advisory groups, including the National Academy of Science/National Research Council Committee on Undersea Warfare, the Air Force Science Advisory Board Task Force on Manned Strategic System Vulnerability, the U.S.-U.K. Joint Working Group on Atomic Weapons, the Defense Nuclear Agency Scientific Advisory Group on Effects, and the Defense Science Board System Vulnerability Task Force and Associated Task Forces.


Born on June 15, 1937, in San Antonio, Texas, Dr. Graham received his B.S. degree in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1959. In addition, he earned an M.S. degree in engineering science in 1961, and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1963, both from Stanford University.


Dr. Graham left NASA in October 1986 to become Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. On October 16, 1986, he was sworn in as Science Advisor to the President, a position he held until June 1989 when he left government service to join Jaycor, a high-technology company headquartered in San Diego, California.


He is also on the Board of Advisors to the National Institute for Public Policy (NIPP)




Dr. William Schneider, Jr.


William Schneider, Jr. is currently the Chairman of the Defense Science Board in the U.S. Department of Defense. He is also president of International Planning Services, Inc., an international trade and finance advisory firm, and an Adjunct Fellow of the Hudson Institute.


From 1982-1986, Dr. Schneider was Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science and Technology. He initially joined the Reagan Administration as the Associate Director for National Security and International Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget


In addition, Dr. Schneider served as Chairman of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament (1987-1993); as a member of the Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission; as a member of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (Rumsfeld Commission); and presently serves as a consultant to the Department of State, Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy.


Dr. Schneider received his Ph.D. from New York University in 1968.


He also serves on the Board of Directors of DFI International.





General Larry D. Welch, USAF (Ret.)


General Welch is President, Institute for Defense Analyses. Prior to retiring from the United States Air Force, he served as the 12th Chief of Staff. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in business administration from the University of Maryland and a Master of Science degree in international relations from The George Washington University. The general completed Armed Forces Staff College and National War College. He enlisted in the Kansas National Guard in 1951, serving with the 161st Armored Field Artillery until he enlisted in the U.S. Air Force. He entered the aviation cadet program and received his pilot wings and commission as a second lieutenant. He served initially as a flight instructor until his assignment to Headquarters Air Training Command, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. General Welch then served in tactical fighter units in Europe, the continental United States and Alaska before transferring to the Republic of Vietnam where he flew combat missions in F-4C's over North and South Vietnam, and Laos. After completing the Armed Forces Staff College, he was assigned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force. Upon graduation from the National War College, he was assigned to Tactical Air Command, where he served in wing deputy commander for operations, vice commander and wing commander positions. He transferred to Headquarters Tactical Air Command where he served as inspector general, deputy chief of staff for plans and deputy chief of staff for operations. He became commander of the 9th Air Force and Air Force component commander for the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force. The General was assigned as deputy chief of staff for programs and resources at Air Force headquarters and became vice chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. He then served as commander in chief, Strategic Air Command, and director, Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska.


He also sits on the “Role of American Military Power” (RAMP) advisory board:


and is a senior fellow of the “Joint Forces Staff College” (JFSC)




Dr. Paul D. Wolfowitz


On February 5, 2001, President Bush announced his intention to nominate Dr. Paul Wolfowitz to be Deputy Secretary of  Defense. He was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on Feb. 28th and sworn in March 2, 2001 as the 28th Deputy Secretary of Defense. This is Dr. Wolfowitz's third tour of duty in the Pentagon.


For the last seven years, Dr. Wolfowitz has served as Dean and Professor of International Relations at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of The Johns Hopkins University. SAIS is widely regarded as one of the world's leading graduate schools of international relations with 750 students, studying on campuses in Washington, D.C.; Nanjing, China; and Bologna, Italy. As Dean, he led a successful capital campaign that raised more than $75 million and doubled the school's endowment. Also under his leadership, the curriculum and facilities were modernized and new faculty and programs were added to shift the school's focus from the Cold War to the era of globalization.


From 1989 to 1993, Dr. Wolfowitz served as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in charge of the 700-person defense policy team that was responsible to Secretary Dick Cheney for matters concerning strategy, plans, and policy. During this period Secretary Wolfowitz and his staff had major responsibilities for the reshaping of strategy and force posture at the end of the Cold War.


Under his leadership, the Policy Staff played a major role in reviewing war plans for the Gulf War, and developing and executing plans that successfully raised more than $50 billion in Allied financial support for the war and prevented Iraq from opening a second front with Israel. Other key initiatives included the development of the Regional Defense Strategy, the Base Force, and two presidential nuclear initiatives that led to the elimination of tens of thousands of U.S. and Soviet nuclear weapons.


During the Reagan administration, Dr. Wolfowitz served for three years as U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia - the fourth largest country in the world and the largest in the Moslem world. There he earned a reputation as a highly popular and effective Ambassador, a tough negotiator on behalf of American intellectual property owners, and a public advocate of political openness and democratic values. During his tenure, Embassy Jakarta was cited as one of the four best-managed embassies inspected in 1988.


Prior to that posting, he served three and a half years as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, where he was in charge of U.S. relations with more than twenty countries. In addition to contributing to substantial improvements in U.S. relations with Japan and China, Assistant Secretary Wolfowitz played a central role in coordinating the U.S. policy toward the Philippines that supported a peaceful transition from the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos to democracy.


Dr. Wolfowitz's previous government service included:


Two years as head of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff (1981-82):

An earlier Pentagon tour as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs (1977-80), where he helped create the force that later became the United States Central Command and initiated the Maritime Pre-positioning Ships, the backbone of the initial U.S. deployment twelve years later in Operation Desert Shield;

Four years (1973-77) in the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, working on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and a number of nuclear nonproliferation issues; and

A year as a Management Intern at the Bureau of the Budget (1966-67).


Dr. Wolfowitz taught previously at Yale (1970-73) and Johns Hopkins (1981). In 1993, he was the George F. Kennan Professor of National Security Strategy at the National War College. He has written widely on the subject of national strategy and foreign policy and was a member of the advisory boards of the journals Foreign Affairs and National Interest .


Among his many awards for public service are:


The Presidential Citizen's Medal,

The Department of Defense's Distinguished Public Service Medal,

The Department of State's Distinguished Honor Award,

The Department of Defense's Distinguished Civilian Service Medal, and

The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency's Distinguished Honor Award.



Dr. Wolfowitz received a bachelor's degree from Cornell University (1965) in mathematics, and a doctorate in political science from the University of Chicago (1972).




The Honorable R. James Woolsey


Ex-Director of the CIA (1993-1995):


R. James Woolsey is, in 2001, a partner at the law firm of Shea & Gardner in Washington, D.C. He returned to the firm in January 1995 after serving two years as Director of Central Intelligence. He has practiced there for twenty-one years, on four occasions, since 1973.


Mr. Woolsey's law practice has been in the fields of civil litigation, alternative dispute resolution, and corporate transactions; increasingly his practice has been international. He has served recently as counsel for major American and overseas corporations in both commercial arbitrations and the negotiation of joint ventures and other agreements. He serves regularly as a neutral (both as an arbitrator and a mediator) in commercial disputes between major companies.


Mr. Woolsey is presently a member of the Board of Directors or Board of Managers of: Linsang Partners, LLC; BC International Corporation; Fibersense Technology Corporation; Invicta Networks, Inc.; DIANA, LLC; Agorics, Inc.; and Sun HealthCare Group, Inc. He is also a member of the Board of Governors of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. He has served in the past as a member of the Boards of: USF&G; Yurie Systems, Inc.; Martin Marietta; British Aerospace, Inc.; Fairchild Industries; Titan Corporation; and DynCorp.


Besides serving as Director of Central Intelligence, Mr. Woolsey has served in the U.S. government as: Ambassador to the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), Vienna, 1989-1991; Under Secretary of the Navy, 1977-1979; and General Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, 1970-73. He was also appointed by the President as Delegate at Large to the U.S.-Soviet Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and Nuclear and Space Arms Talks (NST), and served in that capacity on a part-time basis in Geneva, 1983- 1986. During military service in the U.S. Army he served as an adviser on the U.S. Delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I), Helsinki and Vienna, 1969-1970.


Mr. Woolsey has been a Director or Trustee of numerous civic organizations, including The Smithsonian Institution, where he was Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, The Goldwater Scholarship Foundation, The Aerospace Corporation, and Stanford University. He has been a member of: The National Commission on Terrorism, 1999-2000; The Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the U.S. (Rumsfeld Commission), 1998; The President's Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform, 1989; The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management (Packard Commission), 1985-1986; and The President's Commission on Strategic Forces (Scowcroft Commission), 1983. He is currently a Trustee of The Center for Strategic & International Studies and Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Clean Fuels Foundation.


Mr. Woolsey was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1941. He is married to Suzanne Haley Woolsey, the Chief Operating Officer of the National Academy of Sciences, and they have three sons: Robert, Daniel, and Benjamin. Mr. Woolsey attended Tulsa public schools, graduating from Tulsa Central High School in 1959. He received his B.A. Degree in 1963 from Stanford University (With Great Distinction, Phi Beta Kappa), an M.A. from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar 1963-65, and an LL.B from Yale Law School in 1968, where he was Managing Editor of the Yale Law Journal.


Mr. Woolsey is a frequent contributor to major publications, and from time to time gives public speeches, on the subjects of foreign affairs, defense, energy, and intelligence.


He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)!3725





Rumsfeld Commission II

aka: “Commission To Assess United States National  Security Space Management and Organization”



Download the entire report here:



Commission Members


The Honorable Duane P. Andrews

Mr. Andrews is Corporate Executive Vice President and Director, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) (1993 to present). He previously was an officer in the United States Air Force (1967-77), a professional staff member with the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (1977-89), and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (1989-93). Mr. Andrews was awarded the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service and the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal.



Mr. Robert V. Davis

Mr. Davis is President of R.V. Davis & Associates (1997 to present). He previously was a professional staff member of the House Appropriations Committee (1977-95) and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Space (1995-97). Mr. Davis was awarded the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service (1997).

Robert V. Davis is President of R.V. Davis and Associates, a management consulting firm that provides strategic-planning and government-relations support to senior executives in aerospace and information technology companies. He has served on the boards of several high-tech startup companies and is currently on the board of the Friends of the National Zoo. He was recently a Member of the U.S. Congressional ("Rumsfeld") Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization. From 1995 to 1997, Mr. Davis served as the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Space. In this position he was responsible for policy, strategy, and plans for DOD space and space- intelligence systems, their acquisition and employment, space control, and space cooperation with foreign governments. From 1977 to 1995, he was on the professional staff of the House Appropriations Committee. His awards include the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service and the National Guard Eagle Award. He is a member of Pi Alpha Alpha, the national honor society for public affairs and administration. Mr. Davis earned his B.S. degree at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his Master of Public Administration degree at The American University. He is a resident of Washington, D.C.



General Howell M. Estes, III, United States Air Force (Retired)

General Estes is President of Howell Estes & Associates, Inc. (1998 to present) and serves as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees, The Aerospace Corporation. He entered the United States Air Force in 1965 and served for 33 years. At the time of his retirement in 1998, General Estes was Commander in Chief, North American Aerospace Defense Command, Commander in Chief, United States Space Command, and Commander, Air Force Space Command. He previously served as a consultant to the Defense Science Board Task Force on Space Superiority (1999).



General Ronald R. Fogleman, United States Air Force (Retired)

General Fogleman is president and chief operating officer of the B Bar J Cattle and Consulting Company, Durango Aerospace Incorporated, and a partner in Laird and Company, LLC (1998 to present). He entered the United States Air Force in 1963 and served for 34 years. At the time of his retirement in 1997, General Fogleman was Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force. He previously served as the Commander in Chief of the U.S. Transportation Command (1992-94). He serves on the Boards of Directors for International Airline Service Group, DERCO Aerospace, EAST Inc., Mesa Air Group, MITRE Corporation, North American Airlines, Rolls-Royce North America, and World Airways. General Fogleman is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


General Ronald R. Fogleman, U.S. Air Force (Ret.), operates a cattle and consulting business and is on the board of trustees of several aviation organizations and airlines.

On his final tour of duty, General Fogleman served as the 15th chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council and the President. His staff experience and time as chief of staff saw a heavy emphasis on long-range programming and strategic planning. He retired in 1997, after 38 years of distinguished service.

General Fogleman graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1963, and subsequently earned a Master’s degree in military history and political Science from Duke University. During his career he acquired an extensive background in fighter and mobility aircraft, having flown more than 6,800 hours, including operational tours in five different fighter aircraft. He served two tours in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, flying 315 combat missions and logging 806 hours of combat fighter time. He has also flown seven different mobility aircraft in support of humanitarian and contingency operations.

General Fogleman has served as commander-in-chief, US Transportation Command; and as commander of Air Mobility Command; the 7th Air Force, and the Air Component Command of the US/ROK Combined Forces Command. He was also director, programs and evaluation, and chairman, Air Staff Board at Headquarters U.S. Air Force.

Among his numerous decorations are the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart, and awards from eight foreign countries.

General Fogleman is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Fort Lewis College Foundation, the Air Force Association, and the Order of Daedalians.

General Fogleman joined MITRE’s Board of Trustees in 1998.



Lieutenant General Jay M. Garner, United States Army (Retired)

General Garner is President of SY Technology (1997 to present). He entered the United States Army in 1962 and served for 35 years. Prior to leaving military service in 1997, he served as Assistant Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (1996-97). Previously he was the Commander of the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (1994-96).


SY Technology of Sherman Oaks, Calif., boasts "unique expertise in space and missile defense technologies, systems engineering and integration." The company is focused almost exclusively on National Missile Defense. In 1999, SY Technology received a Star Wars contract worth up to $365,934,442 to provide the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, the U.S. Army Space Command, the U.S. Space Command, the U.S. Navy Space Command, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and the Joint National Test Facility, with scientific, analytical, engineering and technical assistance expertise in any effort that involves space and/or missile defense. Work is expected to be completed by Sept. 30, 2004.





The Honorable William R. Graham

Dr. Graham is the Chairman of the Board and President of National Security Research, Inc. (1997 to present). He previously served as the Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1985-86), Science Advisor to President Reagan and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy (1986-89), and Member of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (1998). He has a Ph.D. in electrical engineering.



General Charles A. Horner, United States Air Force (Retired)

General Horner is a business consultant, author and national defense advisor (1994 to present). He entered the United States Air Force in 1958 and served for 36 years. He served as Commander in Chief, North American Aerospace Defense Command, Commander in Chief, United States Space Command, Commander, Air Force Space Command, and he commanded Allied Air Forces during the 1991 Gulf War.



Admiral David E. Jeremiah, United States Navy (Retired)

Admiral Jeremiah is President of Technology Strategies & Alliances Corporation (1994 to present). Prior to leaving military service in 1994, he served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (1990-94) for Generals Powell and Shalikashvili. He serves on the Boards of Directors for several firms, including Litton Industries, Alliant Techsystems Inc., Getronics Government Systems, LLC and Geobiotics, Inc. Admiral Jeremiah serves on various national security and intelligence panels, boards and commissions, including the Defense Policy Board, and a National Reconnaissance Office Advisory Panel.



General Thomas S. Moorman, Jr., United States Air Force (Retired)

General Moorman is a Partner in Booz-Allen Hamilton (1998 to present). He also serves as a member of the Board of Trustees for The Aerospace Corporation, is an Outside Director on the Board of Smiths Industries and is a member of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee. He entered the United States Air Force in 1962 and served for 35 years. General Moorman served as Commander of Air Force Space Command (1990-92). At the time of his retirement in 1997, General Moorman was Vice Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


Booz, Allen & Hamilton ranked as the DOD's 34th top contractor last year receiving close to $420 million in contracts for work on everything from missile defense to the Milstar program and numerous classified programs. Moorman's position is described as "vice president-Air Force programs," putting him in the thick of the Star Wars boodle. His judgment and expertise were sought by Lockheed Martin, which tapped him in 1999 as vice chairman of a review team "to assess program management, engineering and manufacturing processes, and quality control procedures" within that company's Space & Strategic Missiles Sector. The independent panel was formed when Lockheed Martin experienced four launch failures over an eight-month period costing more than $3 billion that year.

This is a "one strike and you're out business," Moorman said at the time. "Therefore, Lockheed Martin needs to demonstrate to its Department of Defense customers that it is putting in place rigorous quality control procedures, especially for Titan IV, perhaps equivalent to those that apply to human space flight."

The panel's harsh professional judgment: "excessive cost cutting" was to blame for the failures. It recommended raises for Lockheed engineers.

Moorman is also an expert on the space "industrial base," which he believes should be expanded, and he took part in the U.S. military's first (publicly announced) "space war games" conducted in January.



Mr. Douglas H. Necessary

Mr. Necessary is an independent management consultant. He has recently served on several government boards. He served on active duty in the U.S. Army from 1964-1984 and as a professional staff member of the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives (1984-2000).



General Glenn K. Otis, United States Army (Retired)

General Otis serves as a consultant for many defense firms and serves on the Defense Science Board and Ballistic Missile Defense Advisory Committee. Previously he was Senior Vice President of Coleman Research Corporation (1988-96) and Chairman of the Board on Army Science and Technology at the National Academy of Sciences. He entered the United States Army in 1946 and served for 42 years. Prior to leaving military service in 1988, he served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe and 7th Army, and Commander, NATO's Central Army Group (1983-88).

Previously he commanded the U.S. Army's Training and Doctrine Command (1981-83).




The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld*

Mr. Rumsfeld is currently in private business. He serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gilead Sciences, Inc., and on the Boards of Directors of a number of corporations and non-profit organizations. Previously he served as CEO of G.D. Searle & Co. and of General Instruments Corporation, and in a variety of U.S. government posts, including: Naval Aviator, Member of U.S. Congress, U.S. Ambassador to NATO, White House Chief of Staff, Secretary of Defense, Presidential Envoy to the Middle East and Chairman of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award, in 1977.

* The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld served as a member and chairman of the Commission from its inception until December 28, 2000, when he was nominated for the position of Secretary of Defense by President-elect George W. Bush.

- and now –

Until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense, Mr. Rumsfeld was in private business. Born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1932, he attended Princeton University on scholarship (AB, 1954) and served in the U.S. Navy (1954-57) as a Naval aviator.

He went to Washington, DC, in 1957, during the Eisenhower Administration, to serve as Administrative Assistant to a Congressman. After a stint with an investment banking firm, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois in 1962, at the age of 30, and was re-elected in 1964, 1966, and 1968.

Mr. Rumsfeld resigned from Congress in 1969 during his fourth term to serve in the Nixon Administration as:

Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity, Assistant to the President, and a member of the President's Cabinet (1969-1970); and, as

Counsellor to the President, Director of the Economic Stabilization Program, and a member of the President's Cabinet (1971-1972).

In 1973, he left Washington, DC, to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Brussels, Belgium (1973-1974).

In August 1974, he was called back to Washington, DC, to serve in the Ford Administration successively as:

Chairman of the transition to the Presidency of Gerald R. Ford (1974);

Chief of Staff of the White House and a member of the President's Cabinet (1974-1975); and, as

The 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense, the youngest in the country's history (1975-1977).

From 1977 to 1985 he served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and then Chairman of G.D. Searle & Co., a worldwide pharmaceutical company. The successful turnaround there earned him awards as the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). From 1985 to 1990 he was in private business.

Mr. Rumsfeld served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development of the first all- digital high definition television (HDTV) technology. After taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Mr. Rumsfeld returned to private business in late 1993. Until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense, Mr. Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences, Inc.

During his business career, Mr. Rumsfeld continued public service in a variety of posts, including:

Member of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control – Reagan Administration (1982 - 1986);

President Reagan's Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982 - 1983);

Senior Advisor to President Reagan's Panel on Strategic Systems (1983 - 1984);

Member of the U.S. Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan Relations – Reagan Administration (1983 - 1984);

President Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East (1983 - 1984);

Member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987 - 1990);

Member of the National Economic Commission (1988 - 1989);

Member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense University (1988 - 1992);

Member of the Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1989 - 1991);

FCC's High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992 - 1993);

Chairman, Commission on the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (1998 - 1999);

Member of the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999 - 2000); and

Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization (2000).

Mr. Rumsfeld's civic activities included service as a member of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the boards of trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation, the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, and the National Park Foundation. He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the Congressional Leadership's National Security Advisory Group.

In 1977, Mr. Rumsfeld was awarded the nation’s highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.



Senator Malcolm Wallop (Retired)

Senator Wallop is currently a Senior Fellow with the Heritage Foundation and chairs Frontiers of Freedom, a non-profit public policy organization he established in January 1995. Previously he served as a U.S. Senator from Wyoming (1977-95). In 1977 he was the first elected official to propose a space-based missile defense system. Prior to serving in the U.S. Senate, he was a rancher, a businessman, and a member of the Wyoming Legislature (1969-76).


Both in and out of public office, Senator Wallop has been an outspoken conservative commentator and activist, working on such issues as tax reform, federal deregulation, energy policy, private property rights, and national defense. In 1978, Senator Wallop was the first elected official to propose a space based missile defense system, a program that later became part of the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Elected to the Senate in 1976, Senator Wallop held his seat for eighteen years, retiring in 1994. During his tenure, Senator Wallop served on numerous committees, including Energy and Natural Resources, Finance, Small Business, Armed Services and the Select Committee on Intelligence. He was also the first non-lawyer in U.S. Senate history to serve on the Judiciary Committee. As the ranking Republican member of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee from 1990 to 1994, Senator Wallop was an outspoken advocate of the multiple economic uses of federal lands and development of domestic energy supplies of coal, oil and natural gas.



Also Acknowledged by the Committee

“The Commissioners wish to express their appreciation to the men and women of the U.S. Government national security space community who took time to discuss national security space organization and management with the Commissioners and the Commission Staff.

In particular, the Commissioners express their thanks to the Honorable Arthur L. Money, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Honorable Keith Hall, Director of the National Reconnaissance Office.

Special thanks are extended to Major General H. J. "Mitch" Mitchell, USAF, the Department of Defense Liaison to the Commission. His knowledge of the current organization and management of national security space and his persistence in obtaining information for the Commission made its task much easier than it might have been.

The Commissioners would also like to thank the organizations that detailed personnel to staff the Commission: National Defense University, United States Air Force, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Naval Research Laboratory, Federal Communications Commission, Goddard Space Flight Center and Central Intelligence Agency.

The National Reconnaissance Office and the Department of Defense's Washington Headquarters Services provided excellent administrative and logistical support under difficult time constraints. Thanks also are extended to the Central Intelligence Agency's Printing and Photography Group, which assisted in the design and publication of this report.”