Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments



The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) is an independent, nonprofit public policy research institute established to promote innovative thinking about defense planning and investment strategies for the 21st century.


CSBA is known for its scholarship, experience, and credibility.


CSBA brings databased analyses and cutting-edge assessment techniques to its research on:


Military Strategy and Policy

Defense Budgets and Programs

Weapon Systems and Critical Technologies

Military Personnel and Readiness

Military Revolutions and Future Warfare

Transformation of the Military

Defense Industry



Key quote from CSBA’s President to a Congressional panel in 1999:


"While there is growing support in Congress for transformation, the “critical mass” needed to effect it has not yet been achieved. One may conclude that, in the absence of a strong external shock to the United States—a latter-day “Pearl Harbor” of sorts —surmounting the barriers to transformation will likely prove a long, arduous process. Providing support and oversight for this endeavor is a challenge worthy of this new committee."





Executive Director


Andrew F. Krepinevich



Dr. Andrew F. Krepinevich, Jr. is Executive Director of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, an independent policy research institute established to promote innovative thinking about defense planning and investment strategies for the 21st century. Dr. Krepinevich also served as a member of the Department of Defense’s National Defense Panel.


An accomplished author and lecturer, Dr. Krepinevich has written extensively on a variety of security related issues, to include articles published in The National Interest, Issues in Science and Technology, Armed Forces Journal, Joint Forces Quarterly and Strategic Review, among others. He is also the author of a number of monographs, including The Air Force of 2016, A New Navy for a New Era, Missed Opportunities: An Assessment of the Roles and Missions Commission Report, and The Bottom-Up Review: An Assessment. Dr. Krepinevich has testified on numerous occasions before the Senate Budget Committee, the House National Security Committee, and the Senate Armed Services Committee. He frequently contributes to both national and local print and broadcast media, including The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Los Angeles Times, and U.S. News & World Report, and has appeared on each of the major networks and National Public Radio. Dr. Krepinevich has lectured before a wide range of professional and academic audiences, including those at Harvard University, Princeton University, Stanford University, the U.S. Military Academy, the Naval War College, the George Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University, Europe’s Marshall Center, and the Defense Department’s "Summer Study," among many others.


Dr. Krepinevich received the 1987 Furniss Award for his book The Army and Vietnam, a critical assessment of the service’s performance during the war. He gained extensive strategic planning experience in national security and technology policy through his work in the Department of Defense’s Office of Net Assessment, and by serving on the personal staff of three secretaries of defense. During this period, Dr. Krepinevich wrote the Defense Department's seminal assessment of the emerging revolution in military affairs. He has taught a wide variety of national security and defense policymaking courses while on the faculties of West Point and George Mason University, and currently lectures at The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, and Georgetown University. In 1993, following an Army career that spanned twenty-one years, Dr. Krepinevich retired from military service to assume the directorship of what is now CSBA.


A graduate of West Point, Dr. Krepinevich holds MPA and PhD degrees from Harvard University. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is married to the former Julia Ellen Milians. They have three children, Jennifer, Andrew, and Michael.





Director of Budget Studies


Steven Kosiak


Steven Kosiak is the at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, an independent policy research institute established to promote innovative thinking about defense planning and investment strategies for the 21st century.


Mr. Kosiak performs research and analysis of defense spending trends, force structure and weapons systems costs and the budgetary consequences of arms control measures, among other related defense budget issues. He is the author of CSBA's annual budget analysis and contributes significantly to other publications on defense and security issues. His most recent publications include Analysis of the FY 2000 Budget Request, Changing Military Pay and Retirement: Congress Needs to Look Before it Leaps, Options for U.S. Fighter Modernization, and a cost series on the Kosovo War. He is frequently cited in major national news articles and has appeared on network television and radio news programs. Mr. Kosiak contributes editorial perspectives in such professional and public policy journals as The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Armed Forces Journal, and Defense News.


Prior to joining CSBA in 1991, Mr. Kosiak was senior analyst at the Center for Defense Information, with responsibility for researching and writing on a wide variety of defense issues. He has worked on Capitol Hill and in the Office of the Defense Advisor at the U.S. Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Mr. Kosiak received his JD from Georgetown University Law Center, and holds a Masters degree in Public Affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University, and a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Minnesota.





Director of Strategic Studies


Michael Vickers


Mike Vickers is Director of Strategic Studies at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, an independent policy research institute established to promote innovative thinking about defense planning and investment strategies for the 21st century.


Mr. Vickers has lectured on transformational change in the conduct of war at Harvard University, Princeton University, Johns Hopkins University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the California Institute of Technology, the United States Air Force, Military and Naval Academies, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College and the Air, Army, National, and Naval War Colleges. For the 1996-1997 academic year he was Co- Director of the Strategic Studies Program at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies where he taught graduate courses in strategy and policy and transformations of war. He is the author of CSBA monographs, Warfare in 2020: A Primer, The Military Revolution and Intrastate Conflict and The Quadrennial Defense Review: An Assessment. He also wrote the keynote chapter on the revolution in military affairs in Robert Pfaltzgraff and Richard Shultz, eds., War in the Information Age.


Mr. Vickers served as an advisor to the Defense Science Board Summer Study for three years. In 1997, he chaired a major Under Secretary of Defense for Policy study on strategies for transforming the US military to exploit the emerging military revolution. He is also the designer and developer of OSD’s "Future Warfare 20XX" game series and Transformation Strategy game series.


A former Special Forces Officer and CIA Operations Officer with extensive operational experience, Mr. Vickers holds advanced degrees in strategic studies and economics from Johns Hopkins University and in business administration from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. He is in the final stages of completing a doctoral dissertation and book manuscript on the structure of military revolutions.





Board of Directors


Richard Danzig, Chair


Richard J. Danzig served in two posts in the Clinton Administration as Secretary of the Navy from November 1998 until early 2001, and prior to that as Under Secretary of the Navy from November 1993 to May 1997. From 1981 to 1993, Danzig was a partner in the law firm of Latham & Watkins in Washington, DC. Between 1972 and 1977, Danzig served in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, first as a Deputy Assistant Secretary, and then as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower, Reserve Affairs and Logistics. In additional, he has taught contracts at Georgetown Law School, was a Trustee of Reed College, and has served as litigation director and vice chair of the International Human Rights Group. Danzig received a B.A. degree from Reed College, a J.D. degree from Yale Law School, and Bachelor of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. Upon graduation from Yale, he served as a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Byron White.




Devon Gaffney Cross, Director


Devon Cross is currently Executive Director of the The Donors Forum. She has extensive experience in public policy program development, having held positions with the Gilder Foundation, Donner Canadian Foundation and The Smith Richardson Foundation. Ms. Cross was senior associate editor of The Washington Quarterly and has worked at Foreign Policy Magazine and the International Security Studies Program, Woodrow Wilson Center. She holds an MA from Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and BA from Bryn Mawr College. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and serves on advisory boards of other civic organizations.




Philip Merrill, Director


Philip Merrill is Chairman of the Board of Capital-Gazette Communications, Inc., which publishes the Washingtonian Magazine, The Annapolis Capital, and four other Maryland newspapers. Mr. Merrill’s distinguished public service includes appointments as Assistant Secretary-General of NATO in Brussels, member of the Department of Defense Policy Board, and Counselor to the Under-Secretary of Defense for Policy. Having served in five Administrations, Mr. Merrill has represented the United States in negotiations on the Law of the Sea Conference, the International Telecommunications Union, and various disarmament and exchange agreements with the former Soviet Union. He is a former Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of State and has worked in the White House on national security affairs. Mr. Merrill serves on the board of several civic and academic institutions and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a graduate of Cornell University and Harvard Business School.




Elihu Rose, Director


Elihu Rose is the author of several articles on military history and serves as Chairman of the Board of American Historical Publications, publishers of MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History and TIME MACHINE: The American History Magazine for kids. Dr. Rose teaches military history at New York University and has been a visiting lecturer at Yale University and the University of Maryland. He serves on boards of several civic organizations and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Rose is a partner of Rose Associates, Inc, a New York real estate investment and management firm. He holds a Ph.D. and MA from New York University and BS from Yale University. He served in the US Air Force (active and reserve) from 1954-1965 and received the Superior Public Service Medal from the Navy in 1993.




Cindy Williams


Cindy Williams is a Senior Research Fellow of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her work includes a study of future US spending for defense and an examination of the US military’s experiments on advanced warfighting concepts. Formerly, Dr. Williams served as Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office, where she led the National Security Division in studies of budgetary and policy choices related to defense and international security. She has served as a director and in other capacities at The MITRE Corporation and was a member of the Pentagon’s Senior Executive Service and Division Director of the Strategic Offensive Force Division in the Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. She holds her Ph.D. from the University of California and BS from the University of Oklahoma.


(source: http://www.csbaonline.org/6About_Us/3Board_of_Directors/Board_of_Directors.htm )