History of Britain's First Opium Wars
This is the setting for what follows below: narcotics are pouring in
from abroad through a well-organized, efficient group of smugglers.
One-fifth of the population abuses drugs, an epidemic surpassing any
known since the Great Plagues. Not only the poor, but the wealthy
and the children of the wealthy have succumbed. Within the nation,
organized crime displays its drug profits without shame, ruling
local governments, and threatening the integrity even of national
government. None of their opponents is safe from assassins, not even
the chief of state. Law enforcement is in shambles. The moral fiber
of the nation has deteriorated past the danger point.
And one of the leading dope-traffickers writes to his superiors
abroad, "As long as this country maintains its drug traffic, there
is not the slightest possibility that it will ever become a military
threat, since the habit saps the vitality of the nation." (1)
The description is familiar, but we are not writing of America in
1978, but China in 1838, on the eve of the first Opium War, when
Great Britain landed troops to compel China to ingest the poison
distributed by British merchants.
An American President lies dead of an assassin's bullet.
Corrupt members of the Cabinet cover the tracks leading to a
conspiracy, including the leading narcotics mobs, ethnic-based
secret societies, and a foreign government. The public does not
believe that the assassin acted alone, but the weight of the
cover-up, the silence of the leading press, and the deaths of
witnesses blur the trail from the public’s view.
Was that the death of John F. Kennedy?
It was also the death of Abraham Lincoln.
During the last century, British finance protected by British guns
controlled the world narcotics traffic. The names of the families
and institutions are known to the history student: Matheson,
Keswick, Swire, Dent, Baring, and Rothschild; Jardine Matheson, the
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, the Chartered Bank, the Peninsular and
Orient Steam Navigation Company. Britain’s array of intelligence
fronts ran a worldwide assassination bureau, operating through
occult secret societies: the Order of Zion, Mazzini’s Mafia, the
“Triads” or Societies of Heaven in China.
Paging back over the records of the
narcotics traffic and its wake of corruption and murder, the most
uncanny feature of the opium-based Pax Britannica is how
shamelessly, how publicly the dope-runners operated.
for the British, was not a sordid backstreet business, but an
honored instrument of state policy, the mainstay of the Exchequer,
the subject of encomia from Britain’s leading apostles of “Free
Trade” - Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, James Mill, and
John Stuart Mill. The poisoning of China, and later the post-Civil
War United States, did not lead to prison but to peerages.
sectors of the Far East became devoted to the growing of the opium
poppy, to the exclusion of food crops, to the extent that scores of
millions of people depended utterly on the growing, distribution and
consumption of drugs.
The Keswicks, Dents, Swires and Barings still control the world flow
of opiates from their stronghold in the British Crown Colony of Hong
Kong. Jardine Matheson, the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking
Corporation, and the Peninsular and Orient Steam Navigation Company
still control the channels of production and distribution of the
drugs from the Far East, through the British dominion of Canada,
into the United States.
By an uninterrupted chain of succession,
the descendants of the Triads, the Mafia, and the Order of Zion
still promote drug traffic, dirty money transfers, political
corruption, and an Assassination Bureau even more awesome than the
conspiracy that claimed Abraham Lincoln's life. Of course, the drug
revenues of this machine are no longer tallied in the published
accounts of the British Exchequer.
But the leading installations of
the drug traffic are no more hidden than they were a hundred years
ago. From the Crown Colony of Hong Kong, the "HongShang"
Bank (a.k.a. Hong Kong & Shangai Bank) does
what the Keswicks set it up to do: provide centralized rediscounting
facilities for the financing of the drug trade. Even the surnames of
senior management are the same.
Even today, the grand old names of Prohibition liquor and
dope-running rouse the deep awareness of Americans: Bronfman,
Kennedy, Lansky. Are the denizens of the India opium trade, of the
Prohibition mob, imprisoned in the history books and behind the
Not infrequently, the observer feels a momentary lapse
in time, and sees not a history book, but the morning newspaper, not
the late-night movie, but the evening television newscast.
The story we have to tell happened twice. It first happened to
China, and now it is happening to the United States.
that neither the names nor the hangouts of the criminals have
changed, we begin by telling how it happened the first time.
From 1715, when the British East India Company opened up its first
Far East office in the Chinese port city of Canton, it has been
official British Crown policy to foster mass-scale drug addiction
against targeted foreign populations in order to impose a state of
enforced backwardness and degradation, thereby maintaining British
political control and looting rights.
While the methods through
which the British have conducted this Opium War policy have shifted
over the intervening 250 years, the commitment to the proliferation
of mind-destroying drugs has been unswerving.
It was the British Crown's categorical opposition to and hatred for
scientific and technological progress that led it to adopt an Opium
War policy during the last decade of the 18th century. Having
stifled the development of domestic manufacturing during the
previous century, the British Crown found its treasury rapidly being
drained of silver reserves - the only payment the Chinese Emperor
would accept in exchange for silk, tea, and other commodities
To reverse the silver exodus, which
threatened to collapse the financial underpinnings of the British
Empire, King George III mandated the East India Company to begin
shipping large quantities of opium from Bengal in the British Crown
Colony of India into China. The dual objective was to favorably
alter the balance-of-payments deficit and to foster drug addiction
among China's mandarin class.
By the time of the American
Revolution, East India Company opium trafficking into China was
officially reported to be at a scale 20 times the absolute limit of
opium required for medical and related use.
In a very direct sense, the Founding Fathers of the United States
fought the American Revolution against the British Crown's opium
East India Company intelligence
operative Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations spelled out the
colonial looting policy against which the Founding Fathers
rebelled. In that same document - as part of the same scheme to
defend the Empire - Smith advocated a massive increase of East
India Company opium exporting into China. (2)
The dirty money culled from that
opium trade made up a sizable portion of the war chest that
financed Britain's deployment of Hessian mercenaries into North
America to attempt to crush the rebellion.
The "Secret Committee" of the East
India Company - under the direction of Lord Shelburne and
company chairman George Baring - coordinated British secret
intelligence's campaign of subversion and economic warfare
against the newly constituted American republic even before the
ink had dried on the Treaty of Paris (1783). (3)
After the American Revolution, Smith's
call for a dramatic increase in opium exporting into China was
enacted with a vengeance.
From 1801 to 1820, official British
figures placed the opium trade at approximately 5,000 chests per
year. By the late 1820s, a network of trading companies operating
under overall East India Company "market control" was founded to
facilitate the trade. Some of these British opium houses, including
the biggest, Jardine Matheson & Co. Ltd., maintain an active hand in
Far East heroin trafficking to this day.
The establishment of these trading companies - the core of Britain's
Opium War infrastructure - fostered an epidemic- scale increase in
opium trafficking into China. By 1830-31, the number of chests of
opium brought into China increased fourfold to 18,956 chests. In
1836, the figure exceeded 30,000 chests. In financial terms, trade
figures made available by both the British and Chinese governments
showed that between 1829-1840, a total of 7 million silver dollars
entered China, while 56 million silver dollars were sucked out by
the soaring opium trade. (4)
When the Chinese Emperor, confronted by a galloping drug addiction
crisis, tried to crack down on the British trading companies and
their dope smugglers, the British Crown went to war.
In 1839, the Chinese Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsu Commissioner of
Canton to lead a campaign against opium. Lin launched a serious
crackdown against the Triad gangs sponsored by the British trading
companies to smuggle the drugs out of the "Factory" area into the
pores of the communities.
The Triad Society, also known as the
"Society of Heaven and Earth," was a century-old feudalist religious
cult that had been suppressed by the Manchu Dynasty for its often
violent opposition to the government's reform programs.
group in Canton was profiled and cultivated by Jesuit and Church of
England missionaries and recruited into the East India Company's
opium trade by the early 19th century. (5)
When Lin moved to arrest one of the British nationals employed
through the opium merchant houses, Crown Commissioner Capt. Charles
Elliot intervened to protect the drug smuggler with Her Majesty's
fleet. And when Lin responded by laying siege to the factory
warehouses holding the tea shipments about to sail for Britain until
the merchants turned over their opium stockpiles, Elliot assured the
British drug pushers that the Crown would take full responsibility
for covering their losses.
The British Crown had its "casus belli."
Matheson of the opium house
Jardine Matheson joyously wrote his partner Jardine - then in
London, conferring with Prime Minister Palmerston on how to pursue
the pending war with China:
. . . the Chinese have fallen into
the snare of rendering themselves directly liable to the Crown.
To a close observer, it would seem as if the whole of Elliot's
career was expressly designed to lead on the Chinese to commit
themselves, and produce a collision. Matheson concluded the
correspondence: "I suppose war with China will be the next
Indeed, on October 13, 1839, Palmerston
sent a secret dispatch to Elliot in Canton informing him that an
expeditionary force proceeding from India could be expected to reach
Canton by March, 1840. In a follow-up secret dispatch dated November
23, Palmerston provided detailed instructions on how Elliot was to
proceed with negotiations with the Chinese - once they had been
defeated by the British fleet.
Palmerston's second dispatch was, in fact, modeled on a memorandum
authored by Jardine dated October 26, 1839, in which the opium
pusher demanded: 1) full legalization of opium trade into China; 2)
compensation for the opium stockpiles confiscated by Lin to the tune
of £2 million; and 3) territorial sovereignty for the British Crown
over several designated off-shore islands. In a simultaneous
memorandum to the Prime Minister, Jardine placed J&M's entire opium
fleet at the disposal of the Crown to pursue war against China. (7)
The Chinese forces, decimated by ten years of rampant opium
addiction within the Imperial Army, proved no match for the British.
The British fleet arrived in force and laid siege in June of 1840.
While it encountered difficulties in Canton, its threat to the
northern cities, particularly Nanking, forced the Emperor to terms.
Painfully aware that any prolonged conflict would merely strengthen
Britain's bargaining position, he petitioned for a treaty ending the
When Elliot forwarded to Palmerston a draft Treaty of Chuenpi in
1841, the Prime Minister rejected it out of hand, replying, "After
all, our naval power is so strong that we can tell the Emperor what
we mean to hold, rather than what he should say he would cede."
Palmerston ordered Elliot to demand "admission of opium into China
as an article of lawful commerce," increased indemnity payment, and
British access to several additional Chinese ports. (8)
The Treaty of Nanking, signed in 1842, brought the British Crown an
incredible sum of $21 million in silver - as well as
extraterritorial control over the "free port" of Hong Kong
to this day is the capital of Britain's global drug-running.
The First Opium War defined the proliferation of and profiteering
from mind-destroying drugs as a cornerstone of British Imperial
policy. Anyone who doubts this fact need only consider this policy
statement issued by Lord Palmerston in a January 1841 communiqué to
Lord Auckland, then Governor General of India:
The rivalship of European
manufactures is fast excluding our productions from the markets
of Europe, and we must unremittingly endeavor to find in other
parts of the world new vents for our industry (i.e., opium - ed.). . . If we succeed in our China expedition, Abyssina,
Arabia, the countries of the Indus and the new markets of China
will at no distant period give us a most important extension to
the range of our foreign commerce. . . . (9)
It is appropriate to conclude this
summary profile of Britain's first Opium War by quoting from the
15th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 1977.
the brief biographical sketch of Lin Tse-hsu - the leader of the
Chinese Emperor's fight to defeat British drugging of the Chinese
population - makes clear to the intelligent reader is that British
policy to this day has not changed one degree:
... he (Lin—ed.) did not comprehend
the significance of the British demands for free trade and
international equality, which were based on their concept of a
commercial empire. This concept was a radical challenge to the
Chinese world order, which knew only an empire and subject
... In a famous letter to Queen
Victoria, written when he arrived in Canton, Lin asked if she
would allow the importation of such a poisonous substance into
her own country, and requested her to forbid her subjects to
bring it into his. Lin relied on aggressive moral tone;
meanwhile proceeding relentlessly against British erchants, in a
manner that could only insult their overnment.
Britain's opium diplomacy
Not a dozen years would pass from the signing of the Treaty of
Nanking before the British Crown would precipitate its second Opium
War offensive against China, with similar disastrous consequences
for the Chinese and with similar monumental profits for London's
Out of the second Opium War (1858-1860), the British
merchant banks and trading companies established the Hong Kong &
Shanghai Corporation, which to this day serves as the central
clearinghouse for all Far Eastern financial transactions relating to
the black market in opium and its heroin derivative.
Furthermore, with the joint British-French siege of Peking during
October 1860, the British completed the process of opening up all of
China. Lord Palmerston, the High Priest of the Scottish Rites, had
returned to the Prime Ministership in June 1859 to launch the second
war and thereby fulfill the "open China" policy he had outlined 20
Like the 1840 invasion of Canton, the second Opium War was an act of
British imperial aggression - launched on the basis of the first
flimsy pretext that occurred. Just prior to his ordering of a
northern campaign against Peking (which permitted the British to
maintain uninterrupted opium trafficking even while a state of war
was underway), Lord Palmerston wrote to his close collaborator
Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell (grandfather and guardian of the
evil Lord Bertrand Russell).
"We must in some way or other make the
Chinese repent of the outrage," wrote Palmerston, referring to the
defeat suffered by a joint British-French expeditionary force at
Taku Forts in June 1859. The expeditionary fleet, acting on orders
to seize the forts, had run aground in the mud-bogged harbor and
several hundred sailors attempting to wade to shore through the mud
were either killed or captured. "We might send a military-naval
force to attack and occupy Peking," Palmerston continued. (10)
Following Palmerston's lead, The Times
of London let loose a bloodcurdling propaganda campaign:
England, with France, or England
without France if necessary. . . shall teach such a lesson to
these perfidious hordes that the name of Europe will hereafter
be a pass- port of fear, if it cannot be of love throughout
their land. (11)
In October 1860 the joint British-French
expeditionary force laid siege to Peking. The city fell within a day
with almost no resistance. Despite French protests, British
commander Lord Elgin ordered the temples and other sacred shrines in
the city sacked and burned to the ground - as a show of Britain's
absolute contempt for the Chinese.
Within four years of the signing of the Treaty of Tientsin (October
25, 1860), Britain was in control of seven eighths of the vastly
expanded trade into China. This trade amounted to over £20 million
in 1864 alone. Over the next 20 years, the total opium export from
India - the overwhelming majority of which was still funneled into
China - skyrocketed from 58,681 chests in 1860 to 105,508 chests in
Furthermore, the opening of China prompted the British opium traders
to diversify into "legitimate business." The opium firms opened
cotton traffic into China - to the point that cotton cloth shipments
into China (like the opium shipments) quadrupled from 1856-1880 from
115 million yards of cloth to 448 million yards.
The London opium traffickers' diversification into the cotton trade
at the close of the second Opium War intersected with the same
London oligarchy's shifting of its principal strategic policy focus
to the destruction of the United States - beginning with the efforts
to wreck the republic via the British-sponsored Civil War.
The massive expansion of cotton exporting was undertaken with full
knowledge that U.S. cotton production - centered in the Deep South slavocracy
- would be severely disrupted with the pending "civil
war" destabilization in North America. (13)
The slave and cotton trade in the South was run to a significant
degree by the same Scottish-based families that also ran the opium
traffic in the orient. The Sutherland family, which was one of the
largest slave and cotton traders in the South, were first cousins of
the Matheson family of Jardine Matheson. The Barings, who founded
the Peninsular & Orient Steamship Line heavily involved in the opium
trade, had been the largest investors in U.S. clipper shipping from
the time of the American Revolution.
The Rothschild family as well
as their later "Our Crowd" New York Jewish banking cousins, the
Lehmans of Lehman Bros., all made their initial entry into the
United States through the pre-Civil War cotton and slave trade.
In the case of the U.S. Civil War, the British opium traffickers bet
on the loser. By the mid-1860s, cotton goods from the southern
United States were back on the international markets, triggering
waves of bankruptcies among London speculators who bet on dramatic
inflation in the prices of Indian and Egyptian cotton. As in the
period immediately following Britain's loss of its American colonies
during 1776-87, the oligarchy turned to an expanded opium traffic to
paste over the losses.
To facilitate the planned expansion of the opium trade, the British
banking and merchant circle founded the Hong Kong & Shanghai
Corporation in 1864. Almost simultaneously, the Matheson family
founded Rio Tinto (now Rio Tinto Zinc), a tin mining venture in
Spain which soon began shipping these ores as a method of payment
for the opium.
Who founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Corporation? The same circle
of merchant banking, trading, and shipping families - centered
around the British monarchy - who opened the East India Company's
opium trade as an instrument of British state policy during the
The following points summarize British Opium War policy against
China through the 19th century:
Open sponsorship of mass-scale opium
addiction of targeted colonial and neocolonial populations by
the British Crown
Willingness of Her Majesty's
government to deploy military force up to and including
full-scale conventional warfare in support of the opium trade
Build-up of an allied terrorist and
organized criminal infra- structure employing revenues gained
from opium trade and related black market activities
Protecting the opium market
Even through the early decades of the present century, Britain
retained an open diplomatic posture on behalf of unrestricted drug
In 1911, an international conference on the narcotics problem was
held at The Hague. The conference participants agreed to regulate
the narcotics trade, with the goal in mind of eventual total
suppression. The success of the Hague Convention, as it was called,
depended on strict enforcement of the earlier Anglo- Chinese
agreement of 1905. Under that agreement, the Chinese were to reduce
domestic opium production, while the British were to reduce their
exports to China from British India correspondingly.
The Chinese, who had subscribed enthusiastically to both the 1905
and 1911 protocols, soon discovered that the British were completely
evading both by sending their opium to their extra- territorial
bases, Hong Kong and Shanghai. Opium dens in the Shanghai
International Settlement jumped from 87 licensed dens in 1911 at the
time of the Hague Convention to 663 dens in 1914! (14) In addition
to the trafficking internal to Shanghai, the Triads and related
British sponsored organized crime networks within China redoubled
smuggling operations - conveniently based out of the warehouses of
If anything, British profiteering from the opium trade jumped as the
result of the reversion to a totally black-market
production-distribution cycle. Ironically, the legalization of the
opium trade into China forced upon the Emperor through the Opium
Wars had cut into British profits on the drug. Legalization had
brought with it the requirement that the British opium merchants pay
import duties, an overhead they did not have to absorb when the drug
trade was illegal.
In yet another act of contempt for the Hague Convention, Britain
issued a major new loan to Persia in 1911. The collateral on that
loan was Persia's opium revenues. (15)
Even with the post-Versailles creation of the League of Nations,
Britain flaunted its drug trafficking before the world community.
During this period, Her Majesty's opium trafficking was so widely
known that even the Anglophile U.S. newsweekly The Nation ran a
series of documentary reports highly critical of the British role.
At the Fifth Session of the League of Nations Opium Committee, one
delegate demanded that the British government account for the fact
that there were vast discrepancies between the official figures on
opium shipments into Japan released by the Japanese and British
governments. The British claimed only negligible shipments, all
earmarked for medical use, during the 1916-1920 period; while the
Japanese figures showed a thriving British traffic. When confronted
with this discrepancy as prima facie evidence of large-scale British
black market smuggling of opium into Japan, the British delegate
argued that such black marketeering merely proved the case for
creating a government owned opium monopoly.
As late as 1927, official British statistics showed that government
opium revenues - excluding the far more expansive black market
figures - accounted for significant percentages of total revenue in
all of the major Far East Crown colonies. (17)
British North Borneo
Federated Malay States
In India as well, official Crown policy
centered on protection for the opium market. According to one
recently published account, when Gandhi began agitating against
opium in 1921
. . . his followers were arrested on
charges of "undermining the revenue." So little concerned were
the British about the views of the League of Nations that after
a commission under Lord Inchcape had investigated India's
finances in 1923, its report, while recognizing that it might be
necessary to reduce opium production again if prices fell, went
on to warn against diminishing the cultivated area, because of
the need to safeguard "this most important source of revenue."
. . . while the British Government was professing to be taking
measures to reduce consumption of opium and hemp drugs, its
agents in India were in fact busy pushing sales in order to
increase the colony's revenues. (18)
Lord Inchcape - who chaired the India
Commission which endorsed continued opium production in British
India - was a direct descendant of the Lord Inchcape who during the
previous century founded the Peninsular & Orient Steamship Line and
subsequently helped found HongShang as the clearinghouse bank for
opium trade. Through to the present, a Lord Inchcape sits on the
boards of P & 0 and the HongShang.
In 1923, the British-run opium black market represented such a
seriously perceived international problem that Representative
Stephen Porter, Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives
Foreign Affairs Committee, introduced and passed a bill through
Congress calling for country-by-country production and import quotas
to be set on opium that would reduce consumption to approximately 10
percent of then-current levels. The 10 percent figure represented
generally accepted levels of necessary medical consumption.
Porter's proposal was brought before the League of Nations Opium
Committee - where it was publicly fought by the British
representative. The British delegate drafted an amendment to
Porter's plan which called for increased quotas to account for
"legitimate opium consumption" beyond the medical usage. This
referred to the massive addict population in British colonies and
spheres of influence (predominantly in Asia) where no regulations
restricted opium use.
The enraged U.S. and Chinese delegations
led a walkout of the plenipotentiary session; the British
rubberstamped the creation of a Central Narcotics Board designated
with authority to gather information and nothing more; and the
journalists stationed in Geneva henceforth referred to what remained
of the Committee as the "Smugglers Reunion." (19)
A chest of opium in 1820 sold for $2,075
on arrival at the port of Canton. While this figure tended to drop
marginally as the volume of traffic increased after 1830, any
calculation of cash valuation of the opium trade into China
establishes a figure that very nearly parallels "the present
$100-200 billion (when appropriate calculations are made to account
for differences in purchasing power of the dollar in ratio to total
volume of world production) in annual "black" revenues.
Back to Contents
Palmerston's Fifth Column,USA
The assassination bureau
Narcotics traffic was the business of organized crime during the
19th century no less than in the 20th, and Britain's Opium War
cabinet spun out a web of criminal connections that crisscrossed the
Prime Minister Palmerston conducted, the opium business
behind a screen of respectability, in full public view.
What remained hidden - until the report of the Military Commission
that heard evidence on the Lincoln Assassination - was the
importance of Palmerston's secret life, as Patriarch of the Scottish
Rite of Freemasonry.
It does not surprise the modern student that the perpetrators of the
narcotics traffic show up in every element of the dirty side of 19th
century politics, including presidential assassinations. But the
extent of the web of criminal networks put in place by Palmerston
could have come out of a Gothic horror story, American
counterintelligence specialists of the time, such as Edgar Allan Poe
and Samuel Morse (1), knew the problem well.
Palmerston's irregulars, employed in illegal dope trafficking,
assassinations, and "Fifth Column" subversions against the United
States in the period before and during the Civil War, are the linear
ancestors of what is now called organized crime.
"Triads," or Societies of Heaven;
the Order of Zion and its American spinoff, the B'nai B'rith;
"Young Italy," whose Sicilian law
enforcement arm became known as the Mafia;
the Jesuit Order based in
decaying Hapsburg Austria;
Mikhail Bakunin's bomb-throwing anarchist
nearly every other inhabitant of Britain's political
...followed a chain of command that led through the
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry directly to Lord Palmerston and his
The model for the Scottish Rite operation is the ethnic secret
society - Jewish, Italian, or Chinese. Closest to hand among Palmerston's agencies was the Order of Zion, a highly specialized
dirty tricks operation founded by London-based Hofjuden ("Court
Jew") families, whose close ties to the British oligarchy traced
back to the founding of the Bank of England, and before that to an
alliance with the piratical financiers of post-Renaissance Genoa.
The names of these families will appear
and re-appear throughout this report, including the Mocattas and
Goldsmids, gold dealers in London before even the Bank of England
was there, now the operators of one of the world's most
sophisticated money-laundering devices; the Montefiores, now central
figures in the modern Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem;
and the de Hirsch family, whose tightly controlled colonization
program for Jews in Canada brought the present leaders of organized
crime to the New World.
Control over the Order of Zion rested in the British Board of
Deputies, founded in 1763 and still in action. One of the board's
earliest presidents was Sir Moses Montefiore, described in
contemporary accounts as "Queen Victoria's favorite Jew." (2)
When Montefiore took command of the board in 1835, its dirty tricks
division, the Order of Zion, was on the verge of launching the
covert campaign that would lead to both the Lincoln assassination,
and the founding of organized crime, so-called, in the United
States. Through the efforts of Montefiore, later Prime Minister
Benjamin Disraeli (the Earl of Beaconsfield), and the then nouveau
riche Rothschilds, the Order of Zion nursed into being the
leadership of the Confederacy.
Their starting point was the 1843 founding of the B'nai B'rith, also
called the Constitutional Grand Lodge of the Order of the Sons of
the Covenant, as a recognized branch of the Scottish Rite for
American Jews. B'nai B'rith's first headquarters were at 450 Grand
Street in Manhattan, at the house of Joseph Seligman, the wealthy
"dry goods" merchant. (3) Seligman, whose name survives on Wall
Street along with such of his contemporaries as August Belmont,
Loeb, Schiff, and Lazard, was allied to the cotton-trading British
B'nai B'rith was a straightforward covert intelligence front for the
Montefiores and Rothschilds. Its American house organ, the Menorah,
could not disguise its relationship to the Rothschilds.
It chose to
"The name Rothschild, in all
countries is a synonym for honor and generosity, and no name in
Europe has a popularity so great and so well merited. The
Rothschilds in France occupy a social position even higher than
that of the English branch of the family." (4)
The Menorah was also frank on the
subject of the B'nai B'rith's relationship to the Scottish Rite
"Their reunions were frequent and
several of them being members of then existing secret benevolent
societies and especially of the Order of the Free Masons, and
Odd Fellows, they finally concluded that a somewhat similar
organization, but based upon the Jewish idea, would best obtain
their object." (5)
Once in operation, the B'nai B'rith
effectively merged its operations with another branch of the
Scottish Rite, based in the Midwest and South - the Knights of the
Golden Circle, the fore-runner of the Ku Klux Klan, the training
ground for the entire Confederate military and political leadership.
(6) Its most important American operative was Judah P. Benjamin, a
British subject and leader of the B'nai B'rith, whose amazing career
included a brief term as Confederate Secretary of War and then
Secretary of State, during the closing phases of the Civil War. (7)
Another British subversive agent later
worked together with Benjamin to found the Ku Klux Klan. He was Dr.
Kuttner Baruch, B'nai B'rith leader and grandfather of Bernard
Baruch, a leading Wall Street Anglophile. (8) Their colleagues in
that venture included Confederate General Albert Pike, a Grand
Commander of the Scottish Rite, and a Jesuit priest. (9) The same
group carried out the Lincoln assassination - which raises questions
concerning the Defense Department's refusal to release secret files
concerning that assassination. Are they afraid to embarrass the now
politically powerful B'nai B'rith?
The B'nai B'rith and its Confederate opposite numbers, the Knights
of the Golden Circle and the Ku Klux Klan, were only three of the
many parallel operations that Palmerston brought to life during the
1860s. In Britain, future Prime Minister Disraeli, the man who
evaded debtors' prison through the help of the House of Rothschild,
launched the "Young Englanders." (10)
In Italy, the local leader of the
Scottish Rite, Mazzini, organized and commanded "Young Italy." (11)
Scottish Rite member and Rothschild agent Alexander Herzen initiated
a similar group covertly, avoiding the watchful eyes of the Czarist
secret police; his best-known protégé took the name Bakunin. (12) In
China, as of the second Opium War, the long-established "Triad"
secret societies had already taken the retail distribution franchise
for the distribution of British opium imported from India, and had
become an uncontrollable, paramilitary arm of British "free trade."
What Palmerston and his colleagues had at their disposal was an
International Assassination Bureau, capable of eliminating any chief
of state who resisted British policy objectives. Not much different
from the Red Brigades of Italy or the Baader-Meinhof terrorists of
Germany today, the Scottish Rite's rainbow gathering of secret
societies took money from the narcotics traffic and orders from Lord
What must be judged, in the long run, as the most deadly of these
organizations was organized on an international footing at the same
time that B'nai B'rith appeared in the United States.
Disraeli, Moses Montefiore, and other leading British Hofjuden
founded a new masonic-style order called, in the original French,
the "Alliance Universelle Israelite." It became known
- and feared - under the name of its elite secret arm, the Order of Zion. (13) Most
of the Order of Zion's funding was provided through the London and
Paris banking houses of Rothschild, Montefiore, and de Hirsch. In
crucial respects, the Order of Zion and Palmerston's Scottish Rite
of Freemasonry were indistinguishable. In France, for example, the
head of both organizations was the same individual, Adolphe Isaac
Order of Zion leader Judah P. Benjamin was the individual who gave
the order for Lincoln's assassination, according to the one
authoritative historical document in the public domain, the report
of the Judge Advocate assigned to investigate the assassination and
report to the Military Commission responsible. (15) The report cites
the orders of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Judah
Benjamin. According to this document, Confederate secret
intelligence had raised a dirty tricks slush fund of $649,000
through the sale of Confederate bonds in Liverpool.
At the time, the headquarters of this
outfit, called the Secret Cabinet, were housed in St. Lawrence Hall
in Montreal - in the same building occupied by the Commander in
Chief of British forces in Canada, General Sir Fenwick Williams.
(16) The report names George N. Sandis as the group's money mover;
Sandis was an American citizen, formerly an advisor to Democratic
presidential candidate Stephen Douglas, and Consul of the United
States in Liverpool under the Pierce Administration.
Eight days before Lincoln's death, the chief of the Secret Cabinet - former Interior Secretary in the Buchanan Administration, Jacob
Thompson - withdrew $180,000 from the group's account at the Bank of
Montreal in Montreal, to set the murder plot in motion. (17) His
courier was one John Harrison Suratt, a British agent trained at
Jesuit Georgetown College. Neither Thompson nor Benjamin was ever
apprehended; both fled to England and remained there under the
Crown's protection. (18) This evidence, heard on June 25 and June
26, 1865, ran up against a cover-up effort under the direction of
Secretary of War Edward Stanton that compares in audacity with the
work of the 1963 Warren Commission.
The relevant raw documentary is not
available to researchers. The documents relating to the Lincoln
assassination are still locked up in the archives of the Defense
Department. Jefferson Davis, who lived comfortably in Montreal after
the collapse of the Confederacy, kept his papers in the Bank of
Montreal, the same bank that conduited the funds for the
assassination itself. If they are still in the vaults of the Bank of
Montreal, the bank has not acknowledged this. (19)
These facts concerning the death of President Lincoln are more than
a useful case history, illustrating the power of the dope trade's
criminal networks. If the leads developed in New Orleans District
Attorney Garrison's investigation of the Kennedy assassination were
accurate, the two murders were the work of the same operation. All
that is necessary is to cross out the names "Secret Cabinet" and
"Judah Benjamin," and write in: Permindex and Major Louis Bloomfield
(see Part III, Section 3).
From what remains of the official
record, there is no question that the death of Abraham Lincoln was
traced to British-controlled and British-funded networks by American
military intelligence. It must be underscored that much more than
the central figure of Lord Palmerston brought these networks into
the mainline of the narcotics traffic.
Southern cotton, for which
the British verged on invading the United States during the Civil
War (20), was not merely a facet of the same trading operation that
produced the dope trade; for all purposes, it was the dope trade.
Opium was the final stage in the demand cycle for British-financed
and slave-produced cotton. British firms brought cotton to
From there, it was spun and worked up
into cloth in mills in the north of England, employing unskilled
child and female labor at extremely low wages. The finished cotton
goods were then exported to India, in a process that destroyed the
existing cloth industry, causing widespread privation. India paid
for its imported cloth (and railway cars to carry the cloth, and
other British goods) with the proceeds of Bengali opium exports to
China. Without the "final demand" of Chinese opium sales, the entire
world structure of British trade would have collapsed.
Palmerston's above-cited remark concerning the future of British
trade in opium-consuming China and other parts of the East was, in
fact, a matter of hard contingency.
Britain's new instrument of subversion in the United States was
controlled elements of Italian and Chinese immigration, combined
with the Order of Zion entity that had been in place since 1843. By
the turn of the century, the different ethnic networks became so
intertwined that, for generic purposes, the name "organized crime"
applies to all of them.
The implantation of the ethnic secret societies into the United
States is a complex story, but may be centered accurately in a few
case histories. One is the way that the family of Sam Bronfman - the
man who shipped enough liquor to the United States to double the
size of Lake Erie, in the testimony of Lucky Luciano - got to North
America. Bronfman's story begins, in fact, in Romania, where the
Order of Zion secret organization achieved its first major victory,
a coup d'etat that brought King Charles of Romania to the throne in
In the years following the Civil War,
the Order of Zion merged with the much older Cult of Mizraem, a
centuries-old covert organization that dated back to the days of
Genoese and Hapsburg intrigue and assassination. (21) From the
British side, Sir Moses Montefiore, and on the Romanian front
itself, American Consul Benjamin Peixotto, aided the local secret
society in installing a new monarch. (22)
Peixotto held a leadership
position in the American B'nai B'rith and was a member of the Order
The Elders of Zion
Romania became, in consequence, a nesting place for the most lurid
form of Central European covert operations until the Second World
The character of the political machine the Order of Zion
installed in that country is perhaps best illustrated by the strong
support Order of Zion elements gave to the Romanian Green Shirt
Nazis, who seized power in Hitler's wake during the 1930s. (23)
Romanian Jews show up prominently in American organized crime, as
well as in the terrorist activities of the Israeli secret service,
The Order of Zion was simply the Jewish division of the Most
Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem, the London-centered
chivalric order and secret society, whose members swear - and act on
- a blood oath. A secret meeting in Paris in 1884 yielded the famous
minutes of the Order, published under the title,
Protocols of the
Elders of Zion. The minutes were intercepted and published by the
Russian counterintelligence service, the Okhrana. (24)
Probably, the decision to publish the
captured minutes involved retaliation against the Order of Zion's
role in fomenting a sweeping destabilization against the government
of Russian Prime Minister Count Witte, whose government fell during
the so-called 1905 Revolution. Witte had sought an alliance with
Germany and France against Britain on a program that included the
industrial development of Russia.
The question of the authenticity of the
Protocols has been a matter of fierce, even hysterical dispute.
question may be settled with dispatch by a textual comparison
between the oaths of the Order of Zion printed in the Protocols, and
the blood-curdling oaths sworn by initiates into the fourth Grade of
the Knights of Columbus of Mexico, which maintains close ties to the
Jesuits and to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, which reads in
part as follows: (25)
I, ________ , in the presence of
all-powerful God, the blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed St. John
the Baptist . . . by the belly of the Virgin Mary, the womb of
God and staff of Jesus Christ, I declare and swear that his
holiness the Pope is vice regent of Christ and sole and true
head of the universal Catholic Church on earth, and in virtue of
the keys to do and undo given to your holiness by my savior
Jesus Christ, (you) have the power to depose kings and heretics,
princes, states, communities and governments and dismiss them
from office without risk. . . .
I promise and declare that I will,
when the opportunity presents itself to me, wage war without
quarter, secretly or openly, against all the heretics,
Protestant and Mason, such as I may be ordered to do, in order
to extirpate them from the face of earth, and I will not take
into account either age, sex or station, and I will hang, burn,
strangle and bury alive those infamous heretics: I will cut open
the stomachs and wombs of their women and smash the heads of the
babies against the rocks and walls, in order to annihilate the
execrable race; that when this cannot be done openly, I will
secretly employ the poison cut, strangulation, the sword, dagger
or bullet, without consideration for the honor, rank, dignity or
authority of the persons, whatever their status in public or
private life may be, such as I may be ordered at any time. . . .
If I manifest falsity or weakness in my determination, I consent
that my brothers and comrade soldiers in the army of the Pope
may cut off my hands, my feet and slit my throat from ear to
ear. . . .
I promise to execute and fulfill this oath, in testimony
whereof, I take this sacred sacrament of the Eucharist and
affirm it even with my name written with the point of this
dagger, drenched in my own blood and sealed in the presence of
this holy sacrament. Amen. (26)
Romania's Order of Zion stronghold
produced, among other criminal elements, one Yechiel Bronfman, who
emigrated to Canada in 1889. The circumstances of Bronfman's
emigration are noteworthy. His passage was paid by the de Hirsch
family fund for settlements in Canada - which conferred benefits
with strings attached. De Hirsch political screening of new
immigrants was so precise that a significant number of new arrivals
were sent back without funds, for unreliability. (27).
The important features of the arrival of the Italian "Mafia" in the
United States are inseparable from the story of the Order of Zion.
Mazzini, the sponsor of the Mafia in Italy, reported directly to the
most prominent of Britain's Hofjuden, Prime Minister Benjamin
Disraeli, and received funding from the leading British Hofjuden
bankers, Rothschild and Montefiore. (28)
Correspondingly, when Mazzini sent his
lieutenants into the United States, the veterans of the "Young
Italy" movement moved into channels already carved out by the likes
of ex-General Pike and B'nai B'rith.
The combination of Hofjuden-controlled crime networks and the Mafia provided the framework for
organized crime on a big-business scale.
The first arrivals of the Italian-speaking mob followed the tracks
of the original "dry goods" merchants who figured so prominently in
the B'nai B'rith, the grandfathers and fathers of the Our Crowd
banking group in New York City.
New Orleans, the first base of the Lehmans and Lazards in the United States, also became the receiving
station for the Mazzini networks. Most important, the first recorded
evidence of organized Mafioso activity in the United States
identifies the Mazzini networks with General Pike's guerrilla war
against the "Reconstruction'' South.
Nothing depicts this arrangement better than the stories of the
first New Orleans godfathers, Joseph Macheca and Charles Matrenga.
Protégés of Mazzini, they took over the New Orleans franchise on
behalf of the Palermo mob, which reported to Mazzini and thence to
Disraeli. The chain of command was so well known that the joke made
the rounds that the word "mafia" was really an acronym for "Mazzini
autorizza furti, incendi, e attentati" - "Mazzini authorizes theft,
arson, and kidnapping." (29)
The first of the Mazzini networks
drifted in before and during the Civil War.
"The Mafias in New
Orleans, New York, and Palermo were separate societies," wrote one
leading historian of the period, "but they cooperated closely. A
member who was properly sponsored could be transferred from one city
to another, from one family to another." (30)
By the close of the Civil War, Disraeli's Mafia was in the hands of
one Joseph Macheca.
By contemporary accounts, the activities of the Macheca gang were indistinguishable from those of the Klan. In 1868,
Macheca organized the New Orleans side of Democratic candidate
Seymour's campaign against Ulysses S. Grant. Seymour's funding and
political direction came from August Belmont, the Rothschilds'
official business agent in the United States.
The campaign, such as
it was, was described as follows in the New Orleans Picayune:
This popular and pleasant-mannered gentleman (Macheca) organized and
commanded a company of Sicilians, 150 strong, known as the
Innocents. Their uniform was a white cape bearing a Maltese Cross
(the insignia of the British Royal Family's Order of St. John of
Jerusalem - ed.) on the left shoulder. They wore sidearms and when
they marched the streets they shot at every Negro that came in
sight. They left a trail of a dozen dead Negroes behind them.
General James E. Steadman, managing the (Seymour) campaign, forbade
them from making further parades and they were disbanded. (31)
One historian of the Mafia notes,
"This matter-of-fact account is
the first report of a formal Sicilian organization in New Orleans,
and it is likely that from the ranks of these armed Innocents came
the nucleus of Macheca's Mafia." (32)
Belmont's presidential candidate ran on a program drafted at the
Seligman and associated Our Crowd banking houses in New York: the
repeal of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
The same cousins of
the British Hofjuden controlled General Pike and his hooded goons,
the Ku Klux Klan, whom Macheca's gangsters took such great pains to
imitate - along with the conceit of the Maltese Cross. Pike, Macheca,
and their paramilitary irregulars unleashed a wave of violence
across the South that buried Lincoln's Reconstruction policy not
many years after the President himself.
The historical record shows that Macheca's group in New Orleans,
which started out by shooting blacks for the copperhead Our Crowd
banks in New York, had proved its mettle by the early 1870s. It
became the jumping-off point for the organization of the mob
throughout the United States. Macheca provided a base for Mazzini's
syndicate organizer of the first years of the Mafia, Giuseppe
Esposito. A close Mazzini associate, Esposito fled Sicily in the
early 1870s, arriving in New Orleans to make contact with Macheca.
Esposito traveled through the United
States, pulling together Italian-speaking secret societies and
establishing inter-city communications where none had existed
before. From Esposito's tour onwards, the Sicilian-speaking secret
societies became crime syndicates. Mazzini's representative on the
scene had absolute authority over the local godfathers, even over
the leader of the New Orleans base organization. Macheca's "Mafia
leadership was eclipsed briefly," according to one historian, "from
1879 to 1881, when he temporarily deferred to Giuseppi Esposito."
Macheca died at the hands of a New Orleans mob, which dragged him
from a prison cell and lynched him, after he had been arrested for
the murder of a policeman. (34) His old lieutenant Matrenga took
over the reins. Macheca's death left a deep impression on the
syndicates; possibly this is the point where the mob decided to "go
legit," its strategy ever since. In order to do so, the Matrenga
gang turned back to the Hofjuden.
The vehicle for the New Orleans mob's conversion to "legitimate
business" in 1900 was another Romanian Jew, an immigrant from the
Romanian province of Bessarabia, whence Yechiel Bronfman had
migrated to Canada some ten years earlier. The new immigrant, one
Samuel Zemurray, obtained financing from a group of Boston and New
York Our Crowd banks, and bought out a portion of the Macheca gang's
A historian comments, "Joe Macheca's
shipping line merged with four others to form the great United Fruit
Company, which remains one of the largest of all U.S. firms." (35)
United Fruit - re-chartered recently as United Brands Company - traditionally brought in Our Crowd bankers for its top management.
Nonetheless, the Sicilian mob was remembered with nostalgia. When
Charles Matrenga died in 1943, the entire board of United Fruit
turned out for the funeral. (36)
From these most prominent among the Jewish and Italian ethnic crime
stories of the formative years of the American syndicates, the roots
of the narcotics traffic and associated evils are already evident.
The Bronfmans, we will document later, founded and bankrolled the
modern-day Murder Incorporated, Permindex, the firm that police
agencies in the United States and Europe have suspected of
organizing the murders of John F. Kennedy, Italian oil magnate
Enrico Mattei, and former Italian premier Aldo Moro, as well as the
many attempts on the life of Charles de Gaulle. It was in New
Orleans that District Attorney Garrison linked the remnants of the
old Macheca mob to the events in Dallas in November 1963.
As old Charles Matrenga withdrew into a "legitimate" back-ground,
the day-to-day operations of the New Orleans mob fell into the hands
of Sylvestro Carolla, who, in turn, passed the godfather's mantel
onto Carlos Marcello in the early 1950s.
What had begun as a small
secret cult, receiving direction from the London center of the
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and Prime Minister Disraeli's Order of
Zion, had spread across the American South, the Caribbean, and
Central America. It maintained close ties with Meyer Lansky and the
British installations in the West Indies.
And, according to sources in the Drug Enforcement Administration, 20
percent of cocaine smuggled into the United States arrives on the
ships of United Brands.
The Chinese entry
Opium and morphine, in the early days of the mob, were not illegal
drugs; heroin only came into circulation at the turn of the century
and was not made illegal as a prescription drug until 1924. But the
British dope-runners had a direct hand in the infiltration of
narcotics into the United States, through the third wave of
crime-tainted immigration, from China.
Not coincidentally, the first large-scale importing of opium into
the United States commenced with the "coolie trade," referred to by
its British Hong Kong and Shanghai sponsors as the "pig trade." Even
before the Civil War, the same British trading companies behind the
slave trade into the South were running a fantastic market in
Chinese indentured servants into the West Coast. In 1846 alone,
117,000 coolies were brought into the country, feeding an opium
trade estimated at nearly 230,000 pounds of gum opium and over
53,000 pounds of prepared (smoking) opium. (37)
Although Lincoln outlawed the coolie
trade in 1862, the black marketeering in Chinese (the term
"Shanghaied" referred to the merchant company kidnapping - through
the Triad Society - of impoverished and often opium-addicted
Chinese) continued at an escalating rate through to the end of the
century. Often these Chinese "indentureds" would put their entire
earnings toward bringing their families over to the U.S. This
traffic in Chinese immigrants represented one of the earliest
channels of opium into the country, and laid the foundations for the
later mass-scale drug trade out of the Chinatowns developed in San
Francisco, Vancouver, and other West Coast cities during this
The amount of opium coming into the United States during the last
quarter of the 19th century is measured by the fact that in 1875,
official government statistics estimated that 120,000 Americans - over and above the Chinese immigrant population
- were addicted to
Adding to the opium addiction was the fact that British
pharmaceutical houses had begun commercial production of morphine in
the years leading up to the Civil War and made large quantities
available to both armies.
The British firms misrepresented the
morphine as a "non-addictive" pain killer and even had the audacity
to push it as a cure for opium addiction.
The British Brahmins in the U.S.
The nature of the London-centered cycle of international trade from
cotton to opium further cultivated a group of British financial
allies in the United States. Some of these allies are comprador
trading families whose activities span the entire period from the
inception of the opium traffic through to the Second World War.
Most important among these groups is the Astor family dynasty, whose
founder, John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) made his fortune in Chinese
One of his biographers reports,
"We see that
quicksilver and lead from Gibraltar and opium from Smyrna, as well
as some iron and steel from the North of Europe, began in 1816 to
take a conspicuous place in the list of Astor's imports into
China... Since according to Dr. Kenneth Scott Latourette,
quicksilver and opium did not become regular articles of import into
China by Americans till about 1816, Astor must have been one of the
pioneers of their introduction." (39)
Leveraged into investments in Manhattan real estate, John Jacob
Astor's opium earnings formed the basis of one of America's largest
Participation in the China opium trade, a de facto
monopoly of the East India Company at the time Astor took part in
the traffic, was a privilege extended only to Americans the East
India Company thought deserving.
Other American firms active in the
Canton trade did not touch opium. (40) Possibly, Astor's trading
privileges were a British pecuniary reward for services as a British
intelligence operative in the United States. Astor provided funds
for the escape of his attorney Aaron Burr after Burr murdered
Alexander Hamilton; at the time, Burr was a British intelligence
agent. Burr's control, and the man to whom he fled after the murder
of Hamilton, was East India Company employee Jeremy Bentham. (41)
Apart from the Astor group in New York City, the East India Company
developed similar networks in Philadelphia and Boston, among other
American cities. The leading British merchant bank Baring Brothers,
which remodeled the old East India Company as an instrument for the
opium traffic after William Pitt's installation as British Prime
Minister in 1783, acquired a group of business partners (and
brothers-in-law) in Quaker Philadelphia.
The family the Barings married into was
William Bingham's, reportedly the richest in the United States at
the turn of the nineteenth century. Barings were prominent
throughout the first years of the China traffic, founded the Hong
Kong and Shanghai Bank in 1864, and retained their family seat on
its directing "London Committee" as of the HongShang's 1977 annual
One historian describes how closely the Bingham group aped the
Bingham was a most enthusiastic
admirer of the British financial system which he desired to see
copied in America. . . . Immense wealth enabled the Binghams to
import fashions, and copy the Duke of Manchester's residence in
Philadelphia. . . they gave the first masquerade ball in the
city, encouraging what soon became a mania among the American
rich - a passion for dressing up as aristocrats.
The Binghams finally achieved their ambitions by uniting two
daughters to foreign aristocrats: one to Count de Tilly, and the
other to a member of the London banking house of the Barings,
who later became Lord Ashburton. (42)
Another Philadelphia family that united
itself with Baring Brothers was that of millionaire Stephen Girard,
(43) whose interests survived under the family name, in
Philadelphia's multibillion dollar Girard Bank and Trust.
Several of the old "Boston Brahmin" families, however, made it into
the mainstream of the 19th century opium traffic, alongside the
well-remembered British names of Jardine, Matheson, Sassoon,
and Dent. The Perkins and Forbes families achieved notoriety in the
traffic after the East India Company's monopoly expired in 1832, and
after the Astors had ceased to be an important factor. William
Hathaway Forbes became so prominent an associate of the British
trading companies that he joined the board of directors of the Hong
Kong and Shanghai Bank in 1866, two years after its founding.
Hathaways, Perkins, and Forbes operated through a joint outlet,
Russell and Company, formed around the Perkins family shipping
empire, a "business reaching from Rio to Canton." (44)
of these families, as with the Philadelphia group, began with the
slave trade - handed to them when the British dropped the slave
trade as unprofitable in 1833. The China clippers of Russell and
Company made not only Perkins's fortune, but most of the city of
A biographer reports,
"By merging and creating. Russell
and Company, he was responsible to a large degree in the
establishing of all of Boston's merchant families - Cabots,
Lodges, Forbes, Cunninghams, Appletons, Bacons, Russells,
Coolidges, Parkmans, Shaws, Codmans, Boystons and Runnewells."
Baring Brothers, the premier merchant
bank of the opium traffic from 1783 to the present day, also
maintained close contact with the Boston families. John Murray
Forbes (1813-98) was U.S. agent for Barings, a post occupied earlier
by Philadelphia's Stephen Girard; he was the father of the first
American on the HongShang board.
The group's leading banker became, at the close of the nineteenth
century, the House of Morgan - which also took its cut in the
Eastern opium traffic. Thomas Nelson Perkins, a descendant of the
opium-and-slaves shipping magnate who founded Russell and Company,
became the Morgan Bank's chief Boston agent, through Perkins's First
National Bank of Boston. Morgan and Perkins, among other things,
provided the major endowments for Harvard University. (46) Morgan's
Far Eastern operations were the officially conducted British opium
Exemplary is the case of Morgan partner
Willard Straight, who spent the years 1901-12 in China as assistant
to the notorious Sir Robert Hart, chief of the Imperial Chinese
Customs Service, and hence the leading British official in charge of
conducting opium traffic. Afterwards he became head of Morgan bank's
Far Eastern operations. (47)
The above facts are necessary to round out the historical back-
ground to the opium traffic today. What makes them especially
interesting is the intricate trail that leads investigators of
present-day drug financing back to the same American families and
American banks. In Part III, we will blow the cover of
Philadelphia's old "Main Line" Quaker families, whose present
generation controls not only the leading supply of illicit
amphetamines in the United States, but funds a whole array of
street-level drug- trafficking operations as well.
Morgan's case deserves special scrutiny from American police and
regulatory agencies, for the intimate associations of Morgan
Guaranty Trust with the identified leadership of the British dope
banks (see Part II, Section 7). Jardine Matheson's current chairman
David Newbigging, the most powerful man today in Hong Kong, is a
member of Morgan's international advisory board.
The chairman of
Morgan et Cie., the bank's international division, sits on the
Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The
chairman of Morgan Grenfell, in which Morgan Guaranty Trust has a 40
percent stake,- Lord Catto of Cairncatto, sits on the "London
Committee" of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank.
But perhaps the most devastating example of continuity among the
corrupted American families involves the descendants of old John
Jacob Astor. American citizen Waldorf Astor, his direct descendant,
was chairman of the Council of the Royal Institute of International
Affairs during the Second World War, while Harvard-trained American
citizens of the Institute for Pacific Relations smoothed the
transition to People's Republic of China opium production (see Part
II, Section 7).
The old Boston families who made their fortunes on the narcotics
traffic were the ones whom old Joseph Kennedy strove to imitate when
he obtained his British liquor delivery contacts during Prohibition,
and the same ones who staffed his son's Administration.
Back to Contents
3 - Britain's
In the years 1919 and 1920, two events of critical strategic
importance for Britain's opium war against the United States
occurred. First, the Royal Institute of International Affairs was
The purpose of this institution had been set forth over 40 years
before in the last will and testament of empire-builder Cecil
Rhodes. Rhodes had called for the formation of a "secret society"
that would oversee the reestablishment of a British empire that
would incorporate most of the developing world and recapture the
United States (see Part II, Section 7).
Toward this objective,
Rhodes's circle, including Rudyard Kipling, Lord Milner, and a group
of Oxford College graduates known as "Milner's Kindergarten,"
the Round Table at the turn of the 20th century. In
1919, the same grouping founded the Royal Institute of International
Affairs as the central planning and recruitment agency for Britain's
"one world empire."
On January 6 of the next year, Britain declared its opium war
against the United States. Americans knew it as Prohibition.
Prohibition brought the narcotics traffic, the narcotics
traffickers, and large-scale organized crime into the United States.
Illegal alcohol and illegal narcotics made up two different product
lines of the same multinational firm. The British, through their
distilleries in Scotland and Canada, and the British, from their
opium refineries in Shanghai and Hong Kong, were the suppliers.
British, through their banks in Canada and the Caribbean, were the
financiers. Through their political conduits in the United States,
the British created the set of political conditions under which the
United States might be won back by means other than the failed
Balkanization plan of the Civil War period.
Two tracks led to the drug epidemic in the United States, one in the
Far East, and the other in the United States and Canada. Against the
outcry of the League of Nations and virtually all the civilized
world, the British stubbornly fought to maintain opium production in
the Far East, expanding the illegal supply of heroin, just as the
drug went out of legal circulation in America in 1924. In North
America, Canada - which had had its own period of Prohibition - went
"wet" one month before the United States went dry.
In interviews with the authors, Drug Enforcement Administration
officials have emphasized the similarity of the alcohol and
narcotics modus operandi. When the agents of Arnold Rothstein and
Meyer Lansky made their first trips to the Far East in the 1920s,
they purchased heroin from the British with full legality. What the
American gangsters did with the drug was their own business; the
British opium merchants were merely engaging in "free enterprise."
When Britain's leading distilling
companies sold bulk quantities of liquor to Arnold Rothstein and
Joseph Kennedy - for delivery either to the Bahamas or to the
three-mile territorial limit of the United States coastal waters - they had no responsibility for what happened to the liquor once it
reached American shores. (The identical explanation was offered by
an official of the British Bank of the Middle East, which now
services the Far East drug traffic through a smugglers' market in
gold bullion in Dubai, on the Persian Gulf. "We only sell the gold,
old boy," the banker said. "What those fellows do with it once they
get it is up to them.")
Which of the American syndicates obtained this month's franchise for
drug or liquor distribution was immaterial to the British
traffickers. The greater the extent of intergang blood-shed, the
less obvious their role would be. In fact, the British distillers
could provoke such events at will by withholding needed inventory of
The "Noble Experiment" was aimed at degrading the American people
through popular "violation of the law" and association with the
crime syndicate controlled by the Our Crowd banks of Wall Street - the Zionist Lobby of its day (see Part III). New York's Our Crowd is
an extension of the London Rothschild banking network and British
Secret Intelligence into the United States.
For example, Sir William
Wiseman was the official head of British Secret Intelligence in the
United States throughout the World War I period. He became a senior
partner in the investment house of Kuhn Loeb immediately on
demobilization. Wiseman was a personal protégé of Canadian Round
Table founder Lord Beaverbrook and one of the most prominent public
figures in the Zionist movement. (1)
With this lower Manhattan-Canada-centered grouping acting as the
political control, the Prohibition project was launched during the
early 1910s under the shadow of the United States' entry into World
War I. It should shock no one that the creation and rapid growth of
an organized crime syndicate in the United States was the filthy
business of the Our Crowd banks - employing the cults of Lord
Palmerston and Disraeli that conducted the unsuccessful assault
against the American republic during the Civil War.
It is a fraud of the highest order that Prohibition represented a
mass social protest against the "evils" of alcohol. Like the
environmentalist movement and other present day anti-progress cults,
the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and its Anti-Saloon
League offshoots were a small, well-financed and highly organized
circle that enjoyed the financial backing of the Astors, the
Vanderbilts, the Warburgs, and the Rockefellers. (2)
Then as now, the funding conduits were principally the tax-exempt
foundations - specifically the Russell Sage Foundation and the
Rockefeller Foundation. John D. Rockefeller I was hood- winked by
Lord Beaverbrook colleague and former Canadian Prime Minister
MacKenzie King into not only bankrolling the WCTU, but providing it
with the services of the foundation's entire staff of private
Who made up the Temperance Movement? It was run by Jane Addams, who
studied the Fabian Society's London settlement house Toynbee Hall
experiment and came to the United States to launch a parallel
project which later produced the University of Chicago. (4)
"cadre" were drawn almost exclusively from three pools:
settlement house and suffragette networks run by Addams and the
Russell Sage Foundation
2) the pro-terrorist synthetic religious
cults operated out of Oberlin College in Ohio
3) the Ku Klux
Klan in the South
Oberlin College was founded by British "Christian missionaries" in
the decades leading up to the Civil War. Like the ancient
anti-Christian Manichean cult, Oberlin was organized around the
principle that the material world was wholly evil; all students
(i.e. initiates) were required to become vegetarians. From Oberlin's
student body some of the most violent radical abolitionist
terrorists were recruited, trained and deployed and safe housed
during the Civil War. (5)
Like its predecessor radical abolitionist movement, the Temperance
Movement was founded at Oberlin in the post-Civil War period as a
violent cult (known at the time as "Organized Motherlove"). At the
height of the Prohibition drive during the 1910s, bands of
ax-wielding lesbians - the Susan Saxes and Bernadine Dohrns of their
day - received banner headlines for their assaults against saloons
throughout the Ohio Valley. Many of these women were drawn from the
Manichean cult at Oberlin.
Once launched as a nationwide movement, WCTU founded a national
headquarters in Evanston, 111. Nearby Wilmette, 111. (along with
London and Tel Aviv) subsequently became the North American
headquarters of the British Intelligence- organized Ba'hai terrorist
In the South, parallel "fundamentalist Christian" cultists had been
drawn together from the turn of the century under the direction of
the Ku Klux Klan.
These three British cults agitated nationally for Prohibition. While
the WCTU and Anti-Saloon League staged well-publicized and
frequently violent raids against saloons, the more sophisticated
Fabian Settlement House social workers of Jane Addams used the
unique conjuncture of the recently passed Seventeenth Amendment
certifying women's voting rights in national elections and the
concentration of much of the adult male population on the war effort
to vote up the Eighteenth Amendment making Prohibition the law of
The Amendment was fully ratified by 1917; however, the
Volstead Act that defined the federal enforcement procedures was not
scheduled for implementation until January 6,1920.
The three-year lead time was critical for the establishment of a
tightly organized crime syndicate, which was being organized out of
Canada and Our Crowd banking circles in New York:
In Canada, a brief Prohibition
period (1915-1919) was principally enacted by order of Her
Majesty's Privy Council to create the financial reserves and
bootlegging circuit for the U.S. Prohibition. In this period
Canada's Hofjuden Bronfman family established the local mob
contacts in the U.S. and consolidated contractual agreements
with the Royal Liquor Commission in London.
Primarily out of Brooklyn, New York,
teams of field agents of the Russell Sage Foundation conducted a
reorganization and recruitment drive among local hoodlum
networks - already loosely organized through Tammany Hall's New
York City Democratic Party machine. "Legitimate" business fronts
were established, replacing neighborhood nickel-and-dime loan
sharking operations, and specially selected individuals - largely drawn from the Mazzini "Mafia" transplanted to the U.S.
during the late 1800s Italian migrations - were sent out of
Brooklyn into such major Midwest cities as Chicago, Detroit, and
St. Louis in the 12 months leading up to the Volstead
enforcement. One such Brooklyn recruit was Al Capone.
The British oligarchy did much more than
supply the gutter elements of the crime syndicates with their stock
To a surprising extent, the Anglophile portion of
America's upper crust joined the fun. The case of Joseph Kennedy,
who owed his British contracts for liquor wholesaling to the Duke of
Devonshire, and later married his daughter into the family, is
notorious (see Part III).
In some respects more revealing is the
strange case of Robert Maynard Hutchins, the President of the
University of Chicago from 1929 to 1950. Hutchins had American
citizen- ship, but was so close to the British aristocracy that he
became a Knight Commander of Her Majesty's Venerable Order of St.
John of Jerusalem, swearing an oath of chivalric fealty to the head
of the order, the British monarch.
Under the guise of "social studies research," several well-known
University of Chicago postgraduate students received their
apprenticeships in the service of the Capone gang:
In 1930, University of Chicago
graduate student Saul Alinsky, the godfather of the "New Left,"
entered the Capone Mob in Chicago. Alinsky for several years was
the accountant for the gang - at the height of the Prohibition
profiteering. (7) Alinsky went on to be one of the most
important British Fabian-modeled social engineers in the United
States for the next 30 years, specializing in the creation of
synthetic dionysian cults among the nation's youth and ghetto
Alinsky, in fact, used the organizational model of the Capone
Mob to build up a criminal youth gang infrastructure in Chicago
during the early 1960s that assumed street-level control over
drug trafficking and related criminal operations run 30 years
earlier through the Capone gang. When the Our Crowd sponsors of
Capone's initial deployment to Chicago determined at the close
of Prohibition that a more "civilized" cutout was desired,
Alinsky was the channel for bringing Frank Nitti into the Mob.
In the late 1940s, University of
Chicago professor Milton Friedman was installed as President of
the Gold Seal Liquor Company - the original Capone enterprise.
Friedman soon also assumed the presidency of the Illinois
Wholesale Liquor Dealers Association - a position from which he
no doubt carried out his first experiments in "free market
As late as the 1960s, retired
University of Chicago President Hutchins himself was under
investigation for his involvement with drug trafficking and
other black market enterprises. Through the late 1960s his
Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions was financed
principally through Bernie Cornfeld's Investments Overseas
Service (IOS) - an international pyramid swindle and drug money
laundering enterprise (see Part III, Section 3). Furthermore,
Hutchins was simultaneously the president of a little-known
Nevada foundation called the Albert Parvin Foundation which
several congressional committees investigating organized crime
cited as a front for Las Vegas gambling receipts. (9)
Mounting the drug invasion
The United States' fourteen-year experiment in Prohibition
accomplished precisely what its British framers had intended.
Salerno, an internationally recognized authority and historian on
organized crime, a law enforcement consultant and former member of
the New York City Police Department's intelligence division,
succinctly summarized the effect of Britain's Prohibition gameplan
in his book, The Crime Confederation:
The most crucial event in the
history of the confederation (organized crime - ed.) was a legal
assist called Prohibition. . . . Prohibition helped foster
organized crime in several ways. It was the first source of real
big money. Until that time, prostitution, gambling, extortion
and other activities had not generated much capital even on
their largest scale. But illegal liquor was a multibillion
dollar industry. It furnished the money that the organization
later used to expand into other illegal activities and to
penetrate legitimate business.
Prohibition also opened the way to
corruption of politicians and policemen on a large scale. It
began the syndicate connection with politics and it demoralized
some law enforcement groups to the point where they have never
really recovered. . . . The manufacture and distribution of
illegal liquor here and the importation of foreign-made liquor
gave the men who were organizing crime experience in the
administration and control of multibillion dollar world
businesses with thousands of employees and long payrolls.
Men who had never before managed
anything bigger than a family farm or a local gang got
on-the-job training that turned them into leaders developing
executive qualities. . . . Mass evasion of the Volstead Act also
put the average citizen in touch with criminals, resulting in
tolerance and eventually admiration and even romantic approval
of them. It permanently undermined respect for the law and for
the people enforcing it. Ever since Prohibition the man in the
street has accepted the idea that cops can be bought. (10)
The combined revenues of the illicit
whiskey and drug trade during Prohibition had constituted a
multibillion dollar black market booty.
While families like the Kennedys and Bronfmans "made out like bandits" in the early 1930s
transition to "legitimate" liquor trade, the overall financial
structure for maintaining an organized crime infrastructure demanded
diversification into other areas of black market activity only
marginally developed previously. The market for illicit drugs in the
United States - though significantly expanded as the result of the
Prohibition experience - was not to become the foundation of a
multibillion dollar traffic for several decades.
In the interim, the Our Crowd-British crime syndicate turned to
casino gambling and associated enterprises as the immediate area for
expansion. The Lansky syndicate took the opportunity of Nevada's
1933 passage of specific regulations legalizing casino operations to
turn that no-man's-land into a desert resort to house all the West
Coast criminal operations that had previously been run on pleasure
boats 12 miles off the coast of Hollywood. Lansky also moved into
the Caribbean, preparing the way for the British offshore complex of
Through the investment of the phenomenal profits derived from the
Prohibition into gambling casinos, professional sports stadiums and
racetracks, organized crime established the foundations during the
1930s and 1940s for the drug trafficking that would begin in the
mid-1950s - once a cultural climate had been created that was
conducive to fostering drug addiction.
Nixon's war on drugs
It is not widely known that President Nixon was a casualty in the
war against Britain's drug invasion of the United States.
not taken up the most basic interests of the nation in launching a
wholesale effort to shut down the drug trafficking - from the top
down - it is likely that he would not have been unceremoniously
forced out of office by Henry Kissinger, Ted Kennedy, and their
By 1970 Nixon became profoundly aware that the proliferation of drug
abuse among the nation's youth had become a problem of such
monumental significance that all his efforts to institute a
long-range program of peace-through-development would be meaningless
unless combined with a ruthless crackdown on the poison that
threatened to wreck the nation's future leadership and its
Documents are available in the public domain from
the Drug Enforcement Administration and other executive agencies
showing that Nixon's "War on Drugs" was directed at the top
- at the
banking institutions, the transportation grids, and only then at the
distribution channels delivering the volumes of drugs onto the
streets of the country.
At the same time that Nixon generically understood the top-down
nature of the problem, he and his assistants scarcely understood
that by going after the drug infrastructure they were taking on the
entire British oligarchy and the entire underpinnings of the
Eurodollar market and the People's Republic of China. Had Nixon
understood the drug problem as a London-Peking problem, he would
have perhaps been better prepared to deal with the "inside-outside"
attack against his Presidency.
In Part II of this report, we will reveal the inner workings of the
London-Peking Drug Empire the Nixon Administration ran up against
when it declared its War on Drugs.
Back to Contents
1. BRITAIN'S FIRST OPIUM WARS
1. As quoted in Jack Beeching, The Chinese Opium Wars (New York:
Harvest Books, 1975), p. 258.
2. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Representative Selections (New
York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961).
3. Richard Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and
American Independence (New York: Harper & Row).
4. Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars, p. 43.
5. In addition to the Chinese Hong merchants who collaborated
with the British opium houses and the run-of-the-mill pirates
and river rats that the British recruited into their service as
the "eyes and ears" in Canton and the interior, the Hakkas, a
people living in the southern province of Kwangsi who were under
the strong influence of the Heaven and Earth Society (Triads)
were particularly important to the British operations. The
Triads, devoted to the days of the Ming Dynasty - and who were
very similar to the Freemason organizations in Europe and North
America - wanted to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty. The Hakkas
were used by both the British and their Triad allies as a
grassroots bludgeon against the Emperor. The key figure in the
joint Anglo-Triad venture was a religious fanatic named Hung
Hung, having suffered public "loss of face" on four occasions
- he failed the examinations that would allow him to join the
mandarin class and become a government official - suffered a
nervous collapse. He was in a trance for 40 days in which he was
supposedly born again and then, using a translation of the King
James Bible, he created a new religion based on the notion of
"The Chosen People." The Hakkas were to be the Chosen People,
and the Triad identification of the Manchus as the enemy was
fully incorporated into Hung's quasi-Protestant religion.
Hung served as the "prophet," and a Hakkas Triad member, Yang
Hsin-Ch'ing, served as the recruiter and military commander of
the movement. Yang was in the employ of the British as an opium
runner on the Pearl River.
In 1851, Hung and Yang launched a full-scale assault against the
Manchu Dynasty - called the Taiping Revolt, or "The Triad War"
- which drained China's treasury, shook the government, and
demoralized China's pathetic army. The Taiping-Triad forces also
played a significant role in the 1911 overthrow of the Manchu
Dynasty that led to the republic of China under its president
Dr. Sun Yat-sen (also a member of the "Hung Society"), although
the organization was outlawed as treasonous and terrorist in
For further reading on the Hung-Triad Societies see: Lady
Queensborough, Occult Theocrasy, Volumes I and II (France: The
International League for Historical Research, 1931), pp. 441-42;
Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars, pp. 180-205.
6. Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars, p. 80.
7. Ibid., p. 98.
8. Ibid., p. 127.
9. Ibid., p. 95.
10. Ibid., p. 272.
11. Ibid., p. 272.
12. Ibid., p. 264.
13. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Civil War in the United
States (New York: International Publishing Co.).
14. Brian Ingles, The Forbidden Game: A Social History of Drugs
(New York: Charles Scribner's, 1975), chapter 11.
2. PALMERSTON'S FIFTH COLUMN IN
Samuel Morse, "The Present Attempt to Dissolve the American
Union: A British Aristocratic Plot" (New York: John F. Trow,
1862); Samuel Morse, "A Foreign Conspiracy against the Liberties
of the United States" (New York: originally published by the New
York Observer, 1835); see also the soon-to-be-published book,
The First American Intelligence Service (New York: Campaigner
Publications). Morse signed all his published articles under the
C. Bernant, The Cousinhood (New York: Macmillan Company, 1972).
Benjamin Peixotto, ed., The Menorah, official organ of the B'nai
B'rith, New York, 1 (Sept. 1886).
Official document recorded by Benn Pittman, The Indianapolis
Treason Trial, 1865; Official Report - A Western Conspiracy in
the Aid of the Southern Rebellion (Indianapolis: 1865); see also
An Authentic Exposition of the Knights of the Golden Circle or a
History of Secession (pamphlet), author unknown, believed to be
Union counterespionage agent named Jim Pumfrey (Indianapolis:
1861); Mayo Fesler, "Secret Political Societies in the North
during the Civil War," Indiana Historical Magazine 3 (Sept.
Burton Hendrick, Statesman of the Lost Cause, Jefferson Davis
and His Cabinet (New York: Literary Guild of America, 1939), pp.
153-181; Max Kohler, Judah Benjamin: Statesman and Jurist
Israel Joseph Benjamin, "Three Years in America, 1859-62" (New
York: 1863), Vol. I; contains a profile of B'nai B'rith and 44
Albert Pike, Lectures of Arya and Indo-Aryan Deities and
Worship, published by the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of
Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction of the U.S.A. on orders
of the Grand Command of the Supreme Council 33°; see also
Ibid.; see also Merle Curti, "Young America," American
Historical Review, 1929.
Menorah, Sept. 1886; see also Queensborough, Theocrasy.
John A. Bingham, Special Judge Advocate, "Trial of the
Conspiratorsfor the Assassination of President Lincoln Delivered
June 2-28, 1865, before the Military Commission of the Court
Martial of the Lincoln Con- spirators," War Department Records,
Section Monograph 2257, Official Transcript.
Clayton Gray, Conspiracy in Canada (L'Atelier Press, 1957);
David Balsiger and Charles Sellin, The Lincoln Conspiracy
(Albuquerque: Sun Publishing Co., 1977).
Gray, Conspiracy in Canada.
Ibid.; see also Susan Davis, Authentic History of the Ku Klux
Gray, Conspiracy in Canada.
A. R. Turner-Tyrnauer, Lincoln and the Emperors (New York:
Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1962).
Menorah, Sept., 1886.
The Green Shirts emerged from the networks that the Order of
Zion had put in place in Romania and consolidated with the coup
to install KingCharles in 1887; see also Paul Goldstein, "The
Rothschild Roots of the KKK,'' Executive Intelligence Review 39:
The political error the Okhrana made in its use of the Protocols
was to generalize the notion of a Zionist conspiracy to include
all of Jewry. The Protocols were then used by British
intelligence operatives within the Okhrana to unleash pogroms
against Russian Jews in conjunction with and following the "1905
Revolution" destabilization of the Witte government.
The Protocols have been published most recently in Herman
Bernstein, The Truth About the Protocols of Zion (New York: Ktav
Sources in Mexico made this oath available to the authors and
have confirmed that it is authentic. It should be noted,
however, that the Knights of Columbus in the United States is a
very different organization from this Mexican branch, and the
two should not be confused.
Canadian Jewish Congress report, 1967-68 (see Part III, Section
Edyth Hinkley, Mazzini: The Story of a Great Italian (Port
Washing-ton, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1924).
Charles William Heckethorn, The Secret Societies of All Ages and
Countries, Vol. I and II, 1875 (New York: University Books,
Inc., 1965); see also David Leon Chandler, Brothers in Blood
(New York: E.P. Dutton Co., Inc., 1975), p. 31.
Chandler, Brothers in Blood, p. 103.
Ibid., p. 75.
Ibid., p. 79.
Ibid., pp. 95, 97.
Ibid., p. 97.
Ibid., p. 98.
Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars, p. 178.
Kenneth Wiggins Porter, John Jacob Astor, Business Man (New
York: Russell and Russell, 1966).
Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars.
Porter, John Jacob Astor, p. 604.
Miriam Beard, History of Business, Vol. II (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1963), p. 162ff.; see also Joseph
Wechsberg, The Merchant Bankers (Boston: Little, Brown, and
Company, 1966), 104 ff.
Wechsberg, Merchant Bankers, p. 123.
Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars.
Brett Howard, Boston: A Social History (New York: Hawthorn
Books, Inc., 1976).
Ingles, The Forbidden Game.
3. BRITAIN'S NOBLE EXPERIMENT
Who's Who in America and Who's Who in World Jewry.
John Kobler, Ardent Spirits (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons,
Jeffrey Steinberg, "Robert M. Hutchins: Shaper of an American
oligarchy," The Campaigner, Vol. II, 3-4:73-77.
Queensborough, Occult Theocrasy.
Bruce Wood, "Cult and Terrorist Activities in the Detroit,
MichiganArea Since the 1960s," an unpublished manuscript,
Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals (New York: Random House.
John Kobler, Capone: The Legacy (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons,
Hank Messick, Lansky (New York: Berkley Medallion Books, 1971),
Ralph Salerno and John S. Tompkins, The Crime Confederation
(New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1969). pp. 275,278-79.
Back to Contents