STUDIES OF THE "EPIC OF CREATION" and parallel texts (for example,
S. Langdon's The Babylonian Epic of Creation) show that sometime
after 2000 B.C., Marduk, son of Enki, was the successful winner of a
contest with Ninurta, son of Enlil, for supremacy among the gods.
The Babylonians then revised the original Sumerian "Epic of
Creation," expunged from it all references to Ninurta and most
references to Enlil, and renamed the invading planet Marduk.
The actual elevation of Marduk to the status of "King of the Gods"
upon Earth was thus accompanied by assigning to him, as his
celestial counterpart, the planet of the Nefilim, the Twelfth
Planet. As "Lord of the Celestial Gods [the planets]" Marduk was
thus also "King of the Heavens."
Some scholars at first believed that "Marduk" was either the North
Star or some other bright star seen in the Mesopotamian skies at the
time of the spring equinox because the celestial Marduk was
described as a "bright heavenly body." But Albert Schott (Marduk und
sein Stern) and others have shown conclusively that all the ancient
astronomical texts spoke of Marduk as a member of the solar system.
Since other epithets described Marduk as the "Great Heavenly Body"
and the "One Who Illumines," the theory was advanced that Marduk was
a Babylonian Sun God, parallel to the Egyptian god Ra, whom the
scholars also considered a Sun God. Texts describing Marduk as he
"who scans the heights of the distant heavens... wearing a halo
whose brilliance is awe-inspiring" appeared to support this theoiy.
But the same text continued to say that "he
surveys the lands like Shamash [the Sun]."
If Marduk was in some
respects akin to the Sun, he could not, of course, be the Sun.
If Marduk was not the Sun, which one of the planets was he? The
ancient astronomical texts failed to fit any one planet. Basing
their theories on certain epithets (such as Son of the Sun), some
scholars pointed at Saturn. The description of Marduk as a reddish
planet made Mars, too, a candidate.
But the texts placed Marduk in
markas shame ("in the center of Heaven"), and this convinced most
scholars that the proper identification should be Jupiter, which is
located in the center of the line of planets:
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
This theory suffers from a contradiction.
The same scholars who put
it forward were the ones who held the view that the Chaldeans were
unaware of the planets beyond Saturn. These scholars list Earth as a
planet, while contending that the Chaldeans thought of Earth as a
flat center of the planetary system. And they omit the Moon, which
the Mesopotamians most definitely counted among the "celestial
gods." The equating-of the Twelfth Planet with Jupiter simply does
not work out.
The "Epic of Creation" clearly states that Marduk was an invader
from outside the solar system, passing by the outer planets
(including Saturn and Jupiter) before colliding with Tiamat.
Sumerians called the planet
NIBIRU, the "planet of crossing," and
the Babylonian version of the epic retained the following
The Crossroads of Heaven and Earth he shall occupy.
Above and below, they shall not go across;
They must await him.
Planet which is brilliant in the heavens.
He holds the central position;
To him they shall pay homage.
It is he who without tiring
The midst of Tiamat keeps crossing.
Let "CROSSING" be his name -
The one who occupies the midst.
These lines provide the additional and conclusive information that
in dividing the other planets into two equal groups, the Twelfth
Planet in "the midst of Tiamat keeps crossing": Its orbit takes it
again and again to the site of the celestial battle, where Tiamat
used to be.
We find that astronomical texts that dealt in a highly sophisticated
manner with the planetary periods, as well as lists of planets in
their celestial order, also suggested that Marduk appeared somewhere
between Jupiter and Mars.
Since the Sumerians did know of all the
planets, the appearance of the Twelfth Planet in "the central
position" confirms our conclusions:
Mercury Venus Moon Earth Mars
Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
If Marduk's orbit takes it to where Tiamat once was, relatively near
us (between Mars and Jupiter), why have we not yet seen this planet,
which is supposedly large and bright?
The Mesopotamian texts spoke of Marduk as reaching unknown regions
of the skies and the far reaches of the universe. "He scans the
hidden knowledge ... he sees all the quarters of the universe." He
was described as the "monitor" of all the planets, one whose orbit
enables him to encircle all the others. "He keeps hold on their
bands [orbits]," makes a "hoop" around them. His orbit was "loftier"
and "grander" than that of any other planet.
It thus occurred to
Franz Kugler (Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babylon) that Marduk was
a fast-moving celestial body, orbiting in a great elliptical path
just like a comet.
Such an elliptical path, focused on the Sun as a center of gravity,
has an apogee - the point farthest from the Sun, where the return
flight begins - and a perigee - the point nearest the Sun, where the
return to outer space begins. We find that two such "bases" are
indeed associated with Marduk in the Mesopotamian texts. The
Sumerian texts described the planet as going from AN.UR ("Heaven's
base") to E.NUN ("lordly abode").
The Creation epic said of Marduk:
He crossed the Heaven and
surveyed the regions....
The structure of the Deep the Lord then measured.
E-Shara he established as his outstanding abode;
E-Shara as a great abode in the Heaven he established.
One "abode" was thus "outstanding" - far in the deep regions of
The other was established in the "Heaven," within the
asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter.
Following the teachings of their Sumerian forefather, Abraham of Ur,
the ancient Hebrews also associated their supreme deity with the
Like the Mesopotamian texts, many books of the Old
Testament describe the "Lord" as having his abode in the "heights of
Heaven," where he "beheld the foremost planets as they were arisen";
a celestial Lord who, unseen, "in the heavens moves about in a
The Book of Job, having described the celestial collision,
contains these significant verses telling us where the lordly planet
Upon the Deep he marked out an orbit;
Where light and darkness
[merge] Is his farthest limit.
No less explicitly, the Psalms outlined the planet's majestic
The Heavens bespeak the glory of the Lord;
Hammered Bracelet proclaims his handiwork....
He comes forth as a groom from the canopy;
Like an athlete he rejoices to run the course.
From the end of heavens he emanates,
And his circuit is to their end.
Recognized as a great traveler in the heavens, soaring to immense
heights at its apogee and then "coming down, bowing unto the Heaven"
at its perigee, the planet was depicted as a Winged Globe.
Wherever archaeologists uncovered the remains of Near Eastern
peoples, the symbol of the Winged Globe was conspicuous, dominating
temples and palaces, carved on rocks, etched on cylinder seals,
painted on walls.
It accompanied kings and priests, stood above
their thrones, "hovered" above them in battle scenes, was etched
into their chariots. Clay, metal, stone, and wood objects were
adorned with the symbol. The rulers of Sumer and Akkad, Babylon and
Assyria, Elam and Urartu, Mari and Nuzi, Mitanni and Canaan - all
revered the symbol. Hittite kings, Egyptian pharaohs, Persian shar's
- all proclaimed the symbol (and what it stood for) supreme.
remained so for millennia.
Central to the religious beliefs and astronomy of the ancient world
was the conviction that the Twelfth Planet, the "Planet of the
Gods," remained within the solar system and that its grand orbit
returned it periodically to Earth's vicinity. The pictographic sign
for the Twelfth Planet, the "Planet of Crossing," was a cross.
, also meant "Ami" and "divine," evolved in the
Semitic languages to the letter tav
, which meant "the sign."
Indeed, all the peoples of the ancient world considered the periodic
nearing of the Twelfth Planet as a sign of upheavals, great changes,
and new eras.
The Mesopotamian texts spoke of the planet's periodic
appearance as an anticipated, predictable, and observable event:
The great planet;
appearance, dark red.
The Heaven he divides in half and stands as Nibiru.
Many of the texts dealing with the planet's arrival were omen texts
prophesying the effect the event would have upon Earth and Mankind.
R. Campbell Thompson (Reports of the Magicians and Astronomers of
Nineveh and Babylon) reproduced several such texts, which trace the
progress of the planet as it "ringed the station of Jupiter" and
arrived at the point of crossing, Nibiru:
When from the station of Jupiter
the Planet passes towards the west,
there will be a time of dwelling in security.
Kindly peace will descend on the land.
When from the station of Jupiter
the Planet increases in brilliance c
and in the Zodiac of Cancer will become Nibiru, ;
Akkad will overflow with plenty,
the king of Akkad will grow powerful.
The lands will dwell securely,
Hostile kings will be at peace,
The gods will receive prayers and hear supplications.
The nearing planet, however, was expected to cause rains and
flooding, as its strong gravitational effects have been known to do:
When the Planet of the Throne of Heaven
will grow brighter,
there will be floods and rains.
When Nibiru attains its perigee,
the gods will give peace;
troubles will be cleared up,
complications will be unravelled.
and floods will come.
Like the Mesopotamian savants, the Hebrew prophets considered the
time of the planet's approaching Earth and becoming visible to
Mankind as ushering in a new era.
The similarities between the
Mesopotamian omens of peace and prosperity that would accompany the
Planet of the Throne of Heaven, and the biblical prophesies of the
peace and justice that would settle upon Earth after the Day of the
Lord, can best be expressed in the words of Isaiah:
And it shall come to pass at the End of Days:... the Lord shall
judge among the nations and shall rebuke many peoples. They shall
beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning
hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation.
In contrast with the blessings of the new era following the Day of
the Lord, the day itself was described by the Old Testament as a
time of rains, inundations, and earthquakes.
If we think of the
biblical passages as referring, like their Mesopotamian
counterparts, to the passage in Earth's vicinity of a large planet
with a strong gravitational pull, the words of Isaiah can be plainly
Like the noise of a multitude in the mountains,
a tumultuous noise like of a great many people,
of kingdoms of nations gathered together;
it is the Lord of Hosts,
commanding a Host to battle.
From a far away land they come,
from the end-point of the Heaven
do the Lord and his Weapons of wrath
come to destroy the whole Earth....
Therefore will I agitate the Heaven
and Earth shall be shaken out of its place
when the Lord of Hosts shall be crossing,
the day of his burning wrath.
While on Earth "mountains shall melt... valleys shall be cleft,"
Earth's axial spin would also be affected.
The prophet Amos
It shall come to pass on that Day,
sayeth the Lord God,
that I will cause the Sun to go down at noon
and I will darken the Earth in the midst of daytime.
Announcing, "Behold, the Day of the Lord is come!" the prophet
Zechariah informed the people that this phenomenon of an arrest in
Earth's spin around its own axis would last only one day:
And it shall come to pass on that Day
there shall be no light - uncommonly shall it freeze.
And there shall be one day, known to the Lord,
which shall be neither day nor night,
when at eve-time there shall be light.
On the Day of the Lord, the prophet Joel said, "the Sun and Moon
shall be darkened, the stars shall withdraw their radiance"; "the
Sun shall be turned into darkness, and the Moon shall be as red
Mesopotamian texts exalted the planet's radiance and suggested that
it could be seen even at daytime: "visible at sunrise, disappearing
from view at sunset." A cylinder seal, found at Nippur, depicts a
group of plowmen looking up with awe as the Twelfth Planet (depicted
with its cross symbol) is visible in the skies.
The ancient peoples
not only expected the periodic arrival of the Twelfth Planet but
also charted its advancing course.
Various biblical passages - especially in Isaiah, Amos, and Job -
relate the movement of the celestial Lord to various constellations.
"Alone he stretches out the heavens and treads upon the highest
Deep; he arrives at the Great Hoar, Orion and Sirius, and the
constellations of the south." Or, "He smiles his face upon Taurus
and Aries; from Taurus to Sagittarius he shall go."
describe a planet that not only spans the highest heavens but also
comes in from the south and moves in a clockwise direction - just as
we have deduced from the Mesopotamian data. Quite explicitly, the
prophet Habakkuk stated:
"The Lord from the south shall come...
his glory shall fill the Earth... and Venus shall be as light,
its rays of the Lord given."
Among the many Mesopotamian texts that dealt with the subject, one
is quite clear:
Planet of the god Marduk:
Upon its appearance: Mercury.
Rising thirty degrees of the celestial arc: Jupiter.
When standing in the place of the celestial battle: Nibiru.
As the accompanying schematic chart illustrates, the above texts do
not simply call the Twelfth Planet by different names (as scholars
They deal ml her with the movements of the planet and
the three crucial points at which its appearance can be observed and
charted from Earth.
The first opportunity to observe the Twelfth Planet as its orbit
brings it back to Earth's vicinity, then, was when it aligned with
Mercury (point A) - by our calculations, at an angle of 30 degrees
to the imaginary celestial axis of Sun - Earth - perigee.
closer to Earth and thus appearing to "rise" farther in Earth's
skies (another 30 degrees, to be exact), the planet crossed the
orbit of Jupiter ul point B. Finally, arriving at the place where
the celestial I tattle had taken place, the perigee, or the Place of
the Crossing, the planet is Nibiru, point C.
Drawing an imaginary
axis between Sun, Earth and the perigee of Marduk's orbit, observers
on Earth first saw Marduk aligned with Mercury, at a 30° angle
(point A). Progressing another 30°, Marduk crossed the orbital path
of Jupiter at point B.
Then, at its perigee (point C) Marduk reached The Crossing: back at
the site of the Celestial Battle, it was closest to Earth, and began
its orbit back to distant space.
The anticipation of the Day of the Lord in the ancient Mesopotamian
and Hebrew wrings (which were echoed in the New Testament's
expectations of the coming of the Kingship of Heaven) was thus based
on the actual experiences of Earth's people: their witnessing the
periodic return of the Planet of Kingship to Earth's vicinity.
The planet's periodic appearance and disappearance from Earth's view
confirms the assumption of its permanence in solar orbit. In this it
acts like many comets. Some of the known comets - like Halley's
comet, which nears Earth every seventy-five years - disappeared from
view for such long times that astronomers were hard-pressed to
realize that they were seeing the same comet.
Other comets have been
seen only once in human memory, and are assumed to have orbital
periods running into thousands of years. The comet Kohoutek, for
example, first discovered in March 1973, came within 75,000,000
miles of Earth in January 1974, and disappeared behind the Sun soon
thereafter. Astronomers calculate it will reappear anywhere from
7,500 to 75,000 years in the future.
Human familiarity with the Twelfth Planet's periodic appearances and
disappearances from view suggests that its orbital period is shorter
than that calculated for Kohoutek. If so, why are our astronomers
not aware of the existence of this planet?
The fact is that even an
orbit half as long as the lower figure for Kohoutek would take the
Twelfth Planet about six times farther away from us than Pluto - a
distance at which such a planet would not be visible from Earth,
since it would barely (if at all) reflect the Sun's light toward
Earth. In fact, the known planets beyond Saturn were first
discovered not visually but mathematically. The orbits of known
planets, astronomers found, were apparently being affected by other
This may also be the way in which astronomers will "discover" the
Twelfth Planet. There has already been speculation that a "Planet X"
exists, which, though unseen, may be "sensed" through its effects on
the orbits of certain comets. In 1972, Joseph L. Brady of the
Lawrence Liver-more Laboratory of the University of California
discovered that discrepancies in the orbit of Halley's comet could
be caused by a planet the size of Jupiter orbiting the Sun every
At its estimated distance of 6,000,000,-000 miles, its
presence could be detected only mathematically.
While such an orbital period cannot be ruled out, the Mesopotamian
and biblical sources present strong evidence that the orbital period
of the Twelfth Planet is 3,600 years. The number 3,600 was written
in Sumerian as a large circle. The epithet for the planet - shar
("supreme ruler") also meant "a perfect circle," a "completed
cycle." It also meant the number 3,600. And the identity of the
three terms - planet/orbit/3,600 - could not be a mere coincidence.
Berossus, the Babylonian priest-astronomer-scholar, spoke of ten
rulers who reigned upon Earth before the Deluge.
writings of Berossus, Alexander Polyhistor wrote:
"In the second
book was the history of the ten kings of the Chaldeans, and the
periods of each reign, which consisted collectively of an hundred
and twenty shar's, or four hundred and thirty-two thousand years;
reaching to the time of the Deluge."
Abydenus, a disciple of Aristotle, also quoted Berossus in terms of
ten pre-Diluvial rulers whose total reign numbered 120 shar's.
made clear that these rulers and their cities were located in
It is said that the first king of the land was Alorus....
reigned ten skat's.
Now, a shar is esteemed to be three thousand six hundred years. ...
After him Alaprus reigned three shar's;
to him succeeded Amillarus
from the city of panti-Biblon,
who reigned thirteen shar's. ...
After him Ammenon reigned twelve shar's;
he was of the city of panti-Biblon.
Then Megalurus of the same place, eighteen shar's.
Then Daos, the Shepherd,
governed for the space of ten shar's. ...
There were afterwards other Rulers, and the last of all Sisithrus;
so that in the whole, the number amounted to ten kings, and the term
of their reigns to an hundred and twenty shar's.
Apollodorus of Athens also reported on the prehistorical disclosures
of Berossus in similar terms: Ten rulers reigned a total of 120
shar's (432,000 years), and the reign of each one of them was also
measured in the 3,600-year shar units.
With the advent of Sumerology, the "olden texts" to which Berossus
referred were found and deciphered; these were Sumerian king lists,
which apparently laid down tradition of ten pre-Diluvial rulers who
ruled Earth from the time when "Kingship was lowered from Heaven"
until the "Deluge swept over the Earth."
One Sumerian king list, known as text W-B/144, records the divine
reigns in five settled places or "cities." In the first city, Eridu,
there were two rulers.
The text prefixes both names with the
title-syllable "A," meaning "progenitor."
When kingship was lowered from Heaven,
kingship was first in Eridu.
A.LU.LIM became king; he ruled 28,800 years.
A.LAL.GAR ruled 36,000 years.
Two kings ruled it 64,800 years.
Kingship then transferred to other seats of government, where the
rulers were called en, or "lord" (and in one instance by the divine
I drop Eridu;
its kingship was carried to Bad-Tibira.
EN.MEN.LU.AN.NA ruled 43,200 years;
'EN.MEN.GAL.AN.NA ruled 28,800
Divine DU.MU.ZI, Shepherd, ruled 36,000 years.
ruled it for 108,000 years.
The list then names the cities that followed, Larak and Sippar, and
their divine rulers; and last, the city of Shuruppak, where a human
of divine parentage was king. The striking fact about the fantastic
lengths of these rules is that, without exception, they are
multiples of 3,600.
Another Sumerian text (W-B/62) added Larsa and its two divine rulers
to the king list, and the reign periods it gives are also perfect
multiples of the 3,600-year shar. With the aid of other texts, the
conclusion is that there were indeed ten rulers in Sumer before the
Deluge; each rule lasted so many shar's; and altogether their reign
lasted 120 shar's - as reported by Berossus.
The conclusion that suggests itself is that these shar's of
rulership were related to the orbital period shar (3,600 years) of
the planet "Shar," the "Planet of Kingship"; that Alulim reigned
during eight orbits of the Twelfth Planet, Alalgar during ten
orbits, and so on.
If these pre-Diluvial rulers were, as we suggest, Nefilim who came
to Earth from the Twelfth Planet, then it should not be surprising
that their periods of "reign" on Earth should be related to the
orbital period of the Twelfth Planet. The periods of such tenure or
Kingship would last from the time of a landing to the time of a
takeoff; as one commander arrived from the Twelfth Planet, the
other's time came up. Since the landings and takeoffs must have been
related to the Twelfth Planet's approach to Earth, the command
tenures could only have been measured in these orbital periods, of
One may ask, of course, whether any one of the Nefilim, having
landed on Earth, could remain in command here for the purported
28,800 or 36,000 years. No wonder scholars speak of the length of
these reigns as "legendary."
But what is a year?
Our "year" is simply the time it takes Earth to
complete one orbit around the Sun. Because life developed on Earth
when it was already orbiting the Sun, life on Earth is patterned by
this length of orbit. (Even a more minor orbit time, like that of
the Moon, or the day-night cycle is powerful enough to affect almost
all life on Earth.) We live so many years because our biological
clocks are geared to so many Earth orbits around the Sun.
There can be little doubt that life on another planet would be
"timed" to the cycles of that planet. If the trajectory of the
Twelfth Planet around the Sun were so extended that one orbit was
completed in the same time it takes Earth to complete 100 orbits,
then one year of the Nefilim would equal 100 of our years. If their
orbit took 1,000 times longer than ours, then 1,000 Earth years
would equal only one Nefilim year.
And what if, as we believe, their orbit around the sun lasted 3,600
Earth years? Then 3,600 of our years would amount to only one year
in their calendar, and also only one year in their lifetime. The
tenures of Kingship reported by the Sumerians and Berossus would
thus be neither "legendary" nor fantastic: They would have lasted
five or eight or ten Nefilim years.
We have noted, in earlier chapters, that Mankind's march to
civilization - through the intervention of the Nefilim - passed
through three stages, which were separated by periods of 3,600
years: the Mesolithic period (circa 11,000 B.C.), the pottery phase
(circa 7400 B.C.), and the sudden Sumerian civilization (circa 3800
It is not unlikely, then, that the Nefilim periodically
reviewed (and resolved to continue) Mankind's progress, since they
could meet in assembly each time the Twelfth Planet neared Earth.
Many scholars (for example, Heinrich Zimmern in The Babylonian and
Hebrew Genesis) have pointed out that the Old Testament also carried
traditions of pre-Diluvial chieftains, or forefathers, and that the
line from Adam to Noah (the hero of the Deluge) listen ten such
Putting the situation prior to the Deluge in perspective,
the Book of Genesis (Chapter 6) described the divine disenchantment
"And it repented the Lord that he had made Man on
Earth... and the Lord said: I will destroy Man whom I had
And the Lord said:
My spirit shall not shield Man forever;
having erred, he is but flesh.
And his days were one hundred and twenty years.
Generations of scholars have read the verse "And his days shall be a
hundred and twenty years" as God's granting a life span of 120 years
But this just does not make sense. If the text dealt with
God's intent to destroy Mankind, why would he in the same breath
offer Man long life? And we find that no sooner had the Deluge
subsided than Noah lived far longer than the supposed limit of 120
years, as did his descendants Shem (600), Arpakhshad (438), Shelah
(433), and so on.
In seeking to apply the span of 120 years to Man, the scholars
ignore the fact that the biblical language employs not the future
tense - "His days shall be" - but the past tense -
"And his days
were one hundred and twenty years."
The obvious question, then, is:
Whose time span is referred to here?
Our conclusion is that the count of 120 years was meant to apply to
Setting a momentous event in its proper time perspective is a common
feature of the Sumerian and Babylonian epic texts. The "Epic of
Creation" opens with the words Enuma elish ("when on high"). The
story of the encounter of the god Enlil and the goddess Ninlil is
placed at the time "when man had not yet been created," and so on.
The language and purpose of Chapter 6 of Genesis were geared to the
same purpose - to put the momentous events of the great Flood in
their proper time perspective.
The very first word of the very first
verse of Chapter 6 is when:
When the Earthlings
began to increase in number
upon the face of the Earth,
and daughters were born unto them.
This, the narrative continues, was the time when
The sons of the gods saw the daughters of the Earthling that they
and they took unto themselves wives of whichever
It was the time when
The Nefilim were upon the land
in those days, and thereafter too;
when the sons of the gods
cohabited with the Earthling's daughters
and they conceived.
They were the Mighty Ones who are of Olam,
the People of the Shem.
It was then, in those days,
at that time that Man was about to be
wiped off the face of the Earth by the Flood.
When exactly was that?
Verse 3 tells us unequivocally: when his, the Deity's count, was 120
years. One hundred twenty "years," not of Man and not of Earth, but
as counted by the mighty ones, the "People of the Rockets," the
Nefilim. And their year was the shar - 3,600 Earth years.
This interpretation not only clarifies the perplexing verses of
Genesis 6, it also shows how the verses match the Sumerian
information: 120 shar's, 432,000 Earth years, had passed between the
Nefilim's first landing on Earth and the Deluge.
Based on our estimates of when the Deluge occurred, we place the
first landing of the Nefilim on Earth circa 450,000 years ago.
Before we turn to the ancient records regarding the voyages of the
Nefilim to Earth and their settlement on Earth, two basic questions
need to be answered: Could beings obviously not much different from
us evolve on another planet? Could such beings have had the
capability, half a million years ago, for interplanetary travel?
The first question touches upon a more fundamental question: Is
there life as we know it anywhere besides the planet Earth?
Scientists now know that there are innumerable galaxies like ours,
containing countless stars like our Sun, with astronomical numbers
of planets providing every imaginable combination of temperature and
atmosphere and chemicals, offering billions of chances for Life.
They have also found that our own interplanetary space is not void.
For example, there are water molecules in space, the remnants of
what are believed to have been clouds of ice crystals that
apparently envelop stars in their early stages of development. This
discovery lends support to persistent Mesopotamian references to the
waters of the Sun, which mingled with the waters of Tiamat.
The basic molecules of living matter have also been found "floating"
in interplanetary space, and the belief that life can exist only
within certain atmospheres or temperature ranges has also been
Furthermore, the notion that the only source of energy
and heat available to living organisms is the Sun's emissions has
been discarded. Thus, the spacecraft Pioneer 10 discovered that
Jupiter, though much farther away from the Sun than Earth, was so
hot that it must have its own sources of energy and heat.
A planet with an abundance of radioactive elements in its depths
would not only generate its own heat; it would also experience
substantial volcanic activity. Such volcanic activity provides an
atmosphere. If the planet is large enough to exert a strong
gravitational pull, it will keep its atmosphere almost indefinitely.
Such an atmosphere, in turn, creates a hothouse effect: it shields
the planet from the cold of outer space, and keeps the planet's own
heat from dissipating into space - much as clothing keeps us warm by
not letting the body's heat dissipate. With this in mind, the
ancient texts' descriptions of the Twelfth Planet as "clothed with a
halo" assume more than poetic significance. It was always referred
to as a radiant planet - "most radiant of the gods he is" - and
depictions of it showed it as a ray-emitting body.
Planet could generate its own heat and retain the heat because of
its atmospheric mantle.
Scientists have also come to the unexpected conclusion that not only
could life have evolved upon the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune) but it probably did evolve there.
These planets are
made up of the lighter elements of the solar system, have a
composition more akin to that of the universe in general, and offer
a profusion of hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, and probably neon
and water vapor in their atmospheres - all the elements required for
the production of organic molecules.
For life as we know it to develop, water is essential. The
Mesopotamian texts left no doubt that the Twelfth Planet was a
watery planet. In the "Epic of Creation," the planet's list of fifty
names included a group exalting its watery aspects.
Based on the
epithet A.SAR ("watery king"), "who established water levels," the
names described the planet as A.SAR.U ('lofty, bright watery king"),
A.SAR. U.LU.DU ("lofty, bright watery king whose deep is
plentiful"), and so on.
The Sumerians had no doubt that the Twelfth Planet was a verdant
planet of We; indeed, they called it NAM.TIL.LA.KU, "the god who
He was also "bestower of cultivation,"
grain and herbs who causes vegetation to sprout... who opened the
wells, apportioning waters of abundance" - the "irrigator of Heaven
Life, scientists have concluded, evolved not upon the terrestrial
planets, with their heavy chemical components, but in the outer
fringes of the solar system.
From these fringes of the solar system,
the Twelfth Planet came into our midst, a reddish, glowing planet,
generating and radiating its own heat, providing from its own
atmosphere the ingredients needed for the chemistry of life.
If a puzzle exists, it is the appearance of life on Earth. Earth was
formed some 4,500,000,000 years ago, and scientists believe that the
simpler forms of life were already present on Earth within a few
hundred million years thereafter. This is simply much too soon for
There are also several indications that the oldest and
simplest forms of life, more than 3,000,000,000 years old, had
molecules of a biological, not a non-biological, origin. Stated
differently, this means that the life that was on Earth so soon
after Earth was born was itself a descendant of some previous life
form, and not the result of the combination of lifeless chemicals
What all this suggests to the baffled scientists is that life, which
could not easily evolve on Earth, did not, in fact, evolve on Earth.
Writing in the scientific magazine Icarus (September 1973), Nobel
Prize winner Francis Crick and
Dr. Leslie Orgel advanced the theory that,
"life on Earth may have
sprung from tiny organisms from a distant planet."
They launched their studies out of the known uneasiness among
scientists over current theories of the origins of life on Earth.
Why is there only one genetic code for all terrestrial life? If life
started in a primeval "soup," as most biologists believe, organisms
with a variety of genetic codes should have developed.
does the element molybdenum play a key role in enzymatic reactions
that are essential to life, when molybdenum is a very rare element?
Why are elements that are more abundant on Earth, such as chromium
or nickel, so unimportant in biochemical reactions?
The bizarre theory offered by Crick and Orgel was not only that all
life on Earth may have sprung from an organism from another planet
but that such "seeding" was deliberate - that intelligent beings
from another planet launched the "seed of life" from their planet to
Earth in a spaceship, for the express purpose of starting the life
chain on Earth.
Without benefit of the data provided by this book, these two eminent
scientists came close to the real fact. There was no premeditated
"seeding"; instead, there was a celestial collision. A life-bearing
planet, the Twelfth Planet and its satellites, collided with Tiamat
and split it in two, "creating" Earth of its half.
During that collision the life-bearing soil and air of the Twelfth
Planet "seeded" Earth, giving it the biological and complex early
forms of life for whose early appearance there is no other
If life on the Twelfth Planet started even 1 percent sooner than on
Earth, then it began there some 45,000,000 years earlier.
this minute margin, beings as developed as Man would already have
been living upon the Twelfth Planet when the first small mammals had
just begun to appear on Earth.
Given this earlier start for life on the Twelfth Planet, it was
possible for its people to be capable of space travel a mere 500,000
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