God, the Extraterrestrial


So, who was Yahweh?

Was He one of them? Was He an extraterrestrial?

The question, with its implied answer, is not so outrageous. Unless we deem Yahweh - "God" to all whose religious beliefs are founded on the Bible - to have been one of us Earth-lings, then He could only be not of this Earth - which "extraterrestrial" ("outside of, not from Terra") means. And the story of Man’s Divine Encounters, the subject of this book, is so filled with parallels between the biblical experiences and those of encounters with the Anunnaki by other ancient peoples, that the possibility that Yahweh was one of "them" must be seriously considered.

The question and its implied answer, indeed, arise inevitably. That the biblical creation narrative with which the Book of Genesis begins draws upon the Mesopotamian Enuma elish is beyond dispute. That the biblical Eden is a rendering of the Sumerian E.DIN is almost self-evident. That the tale of the Deluge and Noah and the ark is based on the Akkadian Atra-Hasis texts and the earlier Sumerian Deluge tale in the Epic of Gilgamesh, is certain. That the plural "us" in the creation of The Adam segments reflects the Sumerian and Akkadian record of the discussions by the leaders of the Anunnaki that led to the genetic engineering that brought Homo sapiens about, should be obvious.

In the Mesopotamian versions it is Enki, the Chief Scientist, who suggests the genetic engineering to create the Earthling to serve as a Primitive Worker, and it had to be Enki whom the Bible quotes as saying " Let us make the Adam in our likeness and after our image." An Epithet of Enki was NU. DIM.MUD, "He who fashions;" the Egyptians likewise called Enki Ptah - "The Developer," "He who fashions things," and depicted him as fashioning Man out of clay, as a potter. "The Fashioner of the Adam," the Prophets repeatedly called Yahweh ("fashioner," not "creator"!); and comparing Yahweh to a potter fashioning Man of clay was a frequent biblical simile.

As the master biologist, Enki’s emblem was that of the Entwined Serpents, representing the double-helixed DNA - the genetic code that enabled Enki to perform the genetic mixing that brought about The Adam; and then (which is the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden) to again genetically manipulate the new hybrids and enable them to procreate. One of Enki’s Sumerian epithets was BUZUR; it meant both "He who solves secrets" and "He of the mines," for the knowledge of mineralogy was considered knowledge of Earth’s secrets, the secrets of its dark depths.

The biblical tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden - the tale of the second genetic manipulation - assigns to the serpent the role of triggering their acquisition of "knowing" (the biblical term for sexual procreation). The Hebrew term for serpent is Nahash; and interestingly, the same word also means soothsayer, "He who solves secrets" - the very same second meaning of Enki’s epithet.


Moreover, the term stems from the same root as the Hebrew word for the mineral copper, Nehoshet. It was a Nahash Nehoshet, a copper serpent, that Moses fashioned and held up to stop an epidemic that was afflicting the Israelites during the Exodus; and our analysis leaves no alternative but to conclude that what he had made to summon divine intervention was an emblem of Enki. A passage in II Kings 18:4 reveals that this copper serpent, whom the people nicknamed Nehushtan (a play on the triple meaning serpent-copper-solver of secrets) had been kept in the Temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem for almost seven centuries, until the time of King Hezekiah.

Pertinent to this aspect might have been the fact that when Yahweh turned the shepherd’s crook that Moses held into a magical staff, the first miracle performed with it was to turn it into a serpent. Was Yahweh, then, one and the same as Enki?
The combination of biology with mineralogy and with the ability to solve secrets reflected Enki’s status as the God of knowledge and sciences, of the Earth’s hidden metals; he was the one who set up the mining operations in southeastern Africa.


All these aspects were attributes of Yahweh.

"It is Yahweh who giveth wisdom, out of His mouth cometh knowledge and understanding," Proverbs asserted (2:6), and it was He who granted wisdom beyond comparison to Solomon, as Enki had given the Wise Adapa.

"The gold is mine and the silver is mine," Yahweh announced

(Haggai 2:8);

"I shall give thee the treasures of the darkness and the hidden riches of the secret places," Yahweh promised Cyrus

(Isaiah 45:3).

The clearest congruence between the Mesopotamian and biblical narratives is found in the story of the Deluge. In the Mesopotamian versions it is Enki who goes out of his way to warn his faithful follower Ziusudra/Utnapishtim of the coming catastrophe, instructs him to build the watertight ark, gives him its specifications and dimensions, and directs him to save the seed of animal life. In the Bible, all that is done by Yahweh.

The case for identifying Yahweh with Enki can be bolstered by examining the references to Enki’s domains. After Earth was divided between the Enlilites and the Enki’ites (according to the Mesopotamian texts), Enki was granted dominion over Africa. Its regions included the Apsu (stemming from AB.ZU in Sumerian), the gold-mining region, where Enki had his principal abode (in addition to his "cult center" Eridu in Sumer).


The term Apsu, we believe, explains the biblical term Apsei-eretz., usually translated "the ends of earth," the land at the continent’s edge - southern Africa, as we understand it. In the Bible, this distant place, Apsei-eretz, is where "Yahweh shall judge" (I Samuel 2:10), where He shall rule when Israel is restored (Micah 5:3). Yahweh has thus been equated with Enki in his role as ruler of the Apsu.

This aspect of the similarities between Enki and Yahweh becomes more emphatic - and in one respect perhaps even embarrassingly so for the monotheistic Bible - when we reach a passage in the Book of Proverbs in which the unsurpassed greatness of Yahweh is brought out by rhetorical questions:

Who hath ascended up to Heaven,
and descended too?
Who hath cupped the wind in his hands,
and hound the waters as in a cloak?
Who hath established the Apsei-eretz -
What is his name,
and what is his son’s name -
if thou can tell?

According to the Mesopotamian sources, when Enki divided the African continent among his sons, he granted the Apsu to his son Nergal. The polytheistic gloss (of asking the name of the Apsu’s ruler and that of his son) can be explained only by an editorial inadvertent retention of a passage from the Sumerian original texts - the same gloss as had occurred in the use of "us" in "let us make the Adam" and in "let us come down" in the story of the Tower of Babel. The gloss in Proverbs (30:4) obviously substitutes "Yahweh" for Enki.


Was Yahweh, then, Enki in a biblical-Hebrew garb?

Were it so simple ... If we examine closely the tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, we will find that while it is the Nahash - Enki’s serpent guise as knower of biological secrets - who triggers the acquisition by Adam and Eve of the sexual "knowing" that enables them to have offspring, he is not Yahweh but an antagonist of Yahweh (as Enki was of Enlil). In the Sumerian texts it was Enlil who forced Enki to transfer some of the newly fashioned Primitive Workers (created to work in the gold mines of the Apsu) to the E.DIN in Mesopotamia, to engage in farming and shepherding.


In the Bible, it is Yahweh who "took the Adam and placed him in the garden of Eden to tend it and to maintain it." It is Yahweh, not the serpent, who is depicted as the master of Eden who talks to Adam and Eve, discovers what they had done, and expels them. In all this, the Bible equates Yahweh not with Enki but with Enlil.

Indeed, in the very tale - the tale of the Deluge - where the identification of Yahweh with Enki appears the clearest, confusion in fact shows up. The roles are switched, and all of a sudden Yahweh plays the role not of Enki but of his rival Enlil. In the Mesopotamian original texts, it is Enlil who is unhappy with the way Mankind has turned out, who seeks its destruction by the approaching calamity, and who makes the other Anunnaki leaders swear to keep all that a secret from Mankind.


In the biblical version (chapter 6 of Genesis) it is Yahweh who voices his unhappiness with Mankind and makes the decision to wipe Mankind off the face of the Earth. In the tale’s conclusion, as Ziusudra/Utnapishtim offers sacrifices on Mount Ararat, it is Enlil who is attracted by the pleasant smell of roasting meat and (with some persuasion) accepts the survival of Mankind, forgives Enki, and blesses Ziusudra and his wife. In Genesis, it is to Yahweh that Noah builds an altar and sacrifices animals on it, and it was Yahweh "who smelted the pleasant aroma."


So was Yahweh Enlil, after all?

A strong case can be made for such an identification. If there had been a "first among equals" as far as the two half brothers, sons of Anu, were concerned, the first was Enlil. Though it was Enki who was first to come to Earth, it was EN.LIL ("Lord of the Command") who took over as chief of the Anunnaki on Earth. It was a situation that corresponds to the statement in Psalms 97:9: "For thou, O Yahweh, art supreme over the whole Earth; most supreme art Thou over all the Elohim."


The elevation of Enlil to this status is described in the Atra-Hasis Epic in the introductory verses, prior to the mutiny of the gold-mining Anunnaki:

Anu, their father, was the ruler;

Their commander was the hero Enlil.

Their warrior was Ninurta;

Their provider was Marduk.
They all clasped hands together,
cast lots and divided:
Anu ascended to heaven;
The Earth to Enlil was made subject.
The bounded realm of the sea
to princely Enki they had given.
After Anu had gone up to heaven,

Enki went down to the Apsu.

(Enki, interchangeably called in the Mesopotamian texts E.A. - "Whose home is water" - was thus the prototype of the sea God Poseidon of Greek mythology, the brother of Zeus who was head of the pantheon).

After Anu, the ruler on Nibiru, returned to Nibiru after visiting Earth, it was Enlil who summoned and presided over the council of the Great Anunnaki whenever major decisions had to be made. At various times of crucial decisions - such as to create The Adam, to divide the Earth into four regions, to institute Kingship as both buffer and liaison between the Anunnaki Gods and Mankind, as well as in times of crisis between the Anunnaki themselves, when their rivalries erupted into wars and even use of nuclear weapons - "The Anunnaki who decree the fates sat exchanging their counsels."


Typical was the manner in which one discussion is described in part: "Enki addressed to Enlil words of lauding: ‘O one who is foremost among the brothers, Bull of Heaven, who the fate of Mankind holds.’ " Except for the times when the debate got too heated and became a shouting match, the procedure was orderly, with Enlil turning to each member of the Council to let him or her have a say.

The monotheistic Bible lapses several times into describing Yahweh in like manner, chairing an assembly of lesser deities, usually called Bnei-elim - "sons of Gods." The Book of Job begins its tale of the suffering of a righteous man by describing how the test of his faith in God was the result of a suggestion made by Satan,

"one day, when the sons of the Elohim came to present themselves before Yahweh."

"the Lord stands in the assembly of the Gods, among the Elohim He judges," we read in Psalms 82:1.

"Give unto Yahweh, o sons of Gods, give unto Yahweh glory and might," Psalms 29:1 stated, "bow to Yahweh, majestic in holiness."

The requirement that even the "sons of the Gods" bow to the Lord paralleled the Sumerian description of the status of Enlil as the Commander in Chief: "The Anunnaki humble themselves before him, the Igigi bow down willingly before him; they stand by faithfully for the instructions."

It is an image of Enlil that matches the exaltation in the Song of Miriam after the miraculous crossing of the Sea of Reeds:

"Who is like thee among the Gods, Yahweh? Who is like thee mighty in holiness, awesome in praises, the maker of miracles?"

(Exodus 15:11).

As far as personal characters were concerned, Enki, the fashioner of Mankind, was more forebearing, less stringent with both Gods and mortals. Enlil was stricter, a "law and order" type, uncompromising, unhesitant to mete out punishments when punishment was due. Perhaps it was because while Enki managed to get away with sexual promiscuities, Enlil, transgressing just once (when he date-raped a young nurse, in what turned out to be his seduction by her), was sentenced to exile (his banishment was lifted when he married her as his consort Ninlil).


He viewed adversely the intermarriage between Nefilim and the "daughters of Man." When the evils of Mankind became overbearing, he was willing to see it perish by the Deluge. His strictness with other Anunnaki, even his own offspring, was illustrated when his son Nannar (the Moon God Sin) lamented the imminent desolation of his city Ur by the deathly nuclear cloud wafting from the Sinai. Harshly Enlil told him: "Ur was indeed granted Kingship; but an everlasting reign it was not granted."

Enlil’s character had at the same time another side, a rewarding one. When the people carried out their tasks, when they were forthright and God-fearing, Enlil on his part saw to the needs of all, assured the land’s and the people’s well-being and prosperity. The Sumerians lovingly called him "Father Enlil" and "Shepherd of the teeming multitudes." A Hymn to Enlil, the All-Beneficent stated that without him "no cities would be built, no settlements founded; no stalls would be built, no sheepfolds erected; no king would be raised, no high priest born." The last statement recalled the fact that it was Enlil who had to approve the choice of kings, and by whom the line of Priesthood extended from the sacred precinct of the "cult center" Nippur.

These two characteristics of Enlil - strictness and punishment for transgressions, benevolence and protection when merited - are similar to how Yahweh has been pictured in the Bible. Yahweh can bless and Yahweh can accurse, the Book of Deuteronomy explicitly states (11:26). If the divine commandments shall be followed, the people and their offspring shall be blessed, their crops shall be plentiful, their livestock shall multiply, their enemies shall be defeated, they shall be successful in whatever trade they choose; but if they forsake Yahweh and his commandments, they, their homes and their fields shall be accursed and shall suffer afflictions, losses, deprivations, and famines (Deuteronomy 28).

"Yahweh thy Elohim is a merciful God," Deuteronomy 4:31 stated; He is a vengeful God, the same Deuteronomy stated a chapter later (5:9) . . .

It was Yahweh who determined who shall be the priests; it was He who stated the rules for Kingship (Deuteronomy 17:16) and made clear that it will be He who chooses the king - as indeed was the case centuries after the Exodus, beginning with the selection of Saul and David. In all that, Yahweh and Enlil emulated each other.

Significant, too, for such a comparison was the importance of the numbers seven and fifty. They are not physiologically obvious numbers (we do not have seven fingers on a hand), nor does their combination fit natural phenomena (7 x 50 is 350, not the 365.25 days of a solar year). The "week" of seven days approximates the length of a lunar month (about 28.5 days) when multiplied by four, but where does the four come from? Yet the Bible introduced the count of seven, and the sanctity of the seventh day as the sacred Sabbath, from the very beginning of divine activity.


The accursation of Cain was to last through seven times seven generations; Jericho was to be circled seven times so that its walls would fall down; many of the priestly rites were required to be repeated seven times, or to last seven days. Of a more lasting commandment, the New Year Festival was deliberately shifted from the first month Nisan to the seventh month Tishrei and the principal holidays were to last seven days. The number fifty was the principal numerical feature in the construction and equipping of the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle and an important element in the future Temple envisioned by Ezekiel.


It was a calendrical count of days in priestly rites; Abraham persuaded the Lord to spare Sodom if fifty just men would be found there. More important, a major social and economic concept of a Jubilee Year in which slaves would be set free, real property would revert to its sellers and so on, was instituted. It was to be the fiftieth year: "Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year and proclaim freedom throughout the land," was the commandment in Leviticus chapter 25.

Both numbers, seven and fifty, were associated in Mesopotamia with Enlil. He was "the God who is seven" because, as the highest-ranking Anunnaki leader on Earth, he was in command of the planet which was the seventh planet. And in the numerical hierarchy of the Anunnaki, in which Anu held the highest numeral 60, Enlil (as his intended successor on Nibiru) held the numerical rank of fifty (Enki’s numerical rank was forty). Significantly, when Marduk took over the supremacy on Earth circa 2000 B.C., one of the measures taken to signify his ascendancy was to grant him fifty names, signifying his assumption of the Rank of Fifty.

The similarities between Yahweh and Enlil extend to other aspects. Though he might have been depicted on cylinder seals (which is not certain, since the representation might have been of his son Ninurta), he was by and large an unseen God, ensconced in the innermost chambers of his ziggurat or altogether away from Sumer.


In a telltale passage in the Hymn to Enlil, the All-Beneficent it is thus said of him:

When in his awesomeness he decrees the fates,
no God dares look at him;
Only to his exalted emissary, Nusku,
the command, the word that is in his heart,
does he make known.
No man can see me and live,

Yahweh told Moses in a similar vein;

and His words and commandments were known

through Emissaries and Prophets.
While all these reasons for equating Yahweh with Enlil

are fresh in the reader’s mind,

let us hasten to offer the contrary evidence

that points to other, different identifications.

One of the most powerful biblical epithets for Yahweh is El Shaddai. Of an uncertain etymology, it assumed an aura
of mystery and by medieval times became a code word for kabbalistic mysticism. Early Greek and Latin translators of the Hebrew Bible rendered Shaddai as "omnipotent," leading to the rendering of El Shaddai in the King James translation as "God Almighty" when the epithet appears in the tales of the Patriarchs (e.g. "And Yahweh appeared unto Abram and said to him: ‘I am El Shaddai; walk before me and be thou perfect’," in Genesis 17:1), or in Ezekiel, in Psalms, or several times in other books of the Bible.

Advances in the study of Akkadian in recent years suggest that the Hebrew word is related to shaddu, which means "mountain" in Akkadian; so that El Shaddai simply means "God of mountains." That this is a correct understanding of the biblical term is indicated by an incident reported in I Kings chapter 20. The Arameans, who were defeated in an attempt to invade Israel (Samaria), recouped their losses and a year later planned a second attack. To win this time, the Aramaean king’s generals suggested that a ruse be used to lure the Israelites out of their mountain strongholds to a battlefield in the coastal plains.

"Their God is a God of mountains," the generals told the king, "and that is why they prevailed over us; but if we shall fight them in a plain, we shall be the stronger ones."

Now, there is no way that Enlil could have been called, or reputed to be, a "God of mountains," for there are no mountains in the great plain that was (and still is) Mesopotamia. In the Enlilite domains the land that was called "Mountainland" was Asia Minor to the north, beginning with the Taurus ("Bull") mountains; and that was the region of Adad, Enlil’s youngest son. His Sumerian name was ISH.KUR (and his "cult animal" was the bull), which meant "He of the mountainland." The Sumerian ISH was rendered shaddu in Akkadian; so that Il Shaddu became the biblical El Shaddai.

Scholars speak of Adad, whom the Hittites called Teshub (see Fig. 80) as a "storm God," always depicted with a lightning, thundering, and windblowing, and thus the God of rains. The Bible credited Yahweh with similar attributes. "When Yahweh uttereth His voice," Jeremiah said (10:13), "there is a rumbling of waters in the skies and storms come from the ends of the earth; He maketh lightnings with the rain, and blows a wind from its sources." The Psalms (135:7), the Book of Job, and other Prophets reaffirmed Yahweh’s role as giver or withholder of rains, a role initially expounded to the Children of Israel during the Exodus.

While these attributes tarnish the similarities between Yahweh and Enlil, they should not carry us away to assume that, if so, Yahweh was the mirror image of Adad. The Bible recognized the existence of Hadad (as his name was spelled in Hebrew) as one of the "other Gods" of other nations, not of Israel, and mentions various kings and princes (in the Aramean Damascus and other neighboring capitals) who were called Ben-Hadad ("Son of Adad"). In Palmyra (the biblical Tadmor), capital of eastern Syria, Adad’s epithet was Ba’al Shamin, "Lord of Heaven," causing the Prophets to count him as just one of the Ba’al Gods of neighboring nations who were an abomination in the eyes of Yahweh. There is no way, therefore, that Yahweh could have been one and the same as Adad.

The comparability between Yahweh and Enlil is further diminished by another important attribute of Yahweh, that of a warrior. "Yahweh goes forth like a warrior, like a hero He whips up His rage; He shall roar and cry out and over His enemies He shall prevail," Isaiah (42:13) stated, echoing the verse in the Song of Miriam that stated, "A Warrior is Yahweh" (Numbers chapter 15). Continuously, the Bible refers to and describes Yahweh as the "Lord of hosts," "Yahweh, the Lord of hosts, a warring army commands," Isaiah (13:4) declared. And Numbers 21:14 refers to a Book of the Wars of Yahweh in which the divine wars were recorded.

There is nothing in the Mesopotamian records that would suggest such an image for Enlil. The warrior par excellence was his son, Ninurta, who fought and defeated Zu, engaged in the Pyramid Wars with the Enki’ites, and fought and imprisoned Marduk in the Great Pyramid. His frequent epithets were "the warrior" and "the hero" and hymns to him hailed him as "Ninurta, Foremost Son, possessor of divine powers . .. Hero who in his hand the divine brilliant weapon carries."


His feats as a warrior were described in an epic text whose Sumerian title was Lugal-e Ud Melam-bi that scholars have called The Book of The Feats and Exploits of Ninurta. Was it, one wonders, the enigmatic Book of the Wars of Yahweh of which the Bible spoke?


In other words, could Yahweh have been Ninurta?

As Foremost Son and heir apparent of Enlil, Ninurta too bore the numerical rank of fifty, and could thus qualify no less than Enlil to have been the Lord who decreed the fifty-year Jubilee and other fifty-related aspects mentioned in the Bible. He possessed a notorious Divine Black Bird that he used both for combat and on humanitarian missions; it could have been the Kahod flying vehicle that Yahweh possessed. He was active in the Zagros Mountains to the east of Mesopotamia, the lands of Elam, and was revered there as Ninshushi-nak, "Lord of Shushan city" (the Elamite capital).


At one time he performed great dyking works in the Zagros mountains; at another, he diked and diverted mountain rain channels in the Sinai peninsula to make its mountainous part cultivable for his mother Ninharsag; in a way he, too, was "God of mountains." His association with the Sinai peninsula and the channeling of its rainwaters, that come in winter bursts only, into an irrigation system is still recalled to this day: the largest Wadi (a river that fills up in winter and dries up in summer) in the peninsula is still called Wadi El-Arish, the wadi of the Urash - the Ploughman - a nickname of Ninurta from way back. An association with the Sinai peninsula, through his waterworks and his mother’s residence there, also offers links to a Yahweh identification.

Another interesting aspect of Ninurta that invokes a similarity to the Biblical Lord comes to light in an inscription by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, who at one time invaded Elam. In it the king called him, "The mysterious God who lingers in a secret place where no one can see what his divine being is about." An unseen God!

But Ninurta, as far as the earlier Sumerians were concerned, was not a God in hiding, and graphic depictions of him, as we have shown, were not even rare. Then, in conflict with a Yahweh-Ninurta identification, we come across a major ancient text, dealing with a major and unforgettable event, whose specifics seem to tell us that Ninurta was not Yahweh.

One of the most decisive actions attributed in the Bible to Yahweh, with lasting effects and indelible memories, was the upheavaling of Sodom and Gomorrah. The event, as we have shown in great detail in The Wars of Gods and Men, was described and recalled in Mesopotamian texts, making possible a comparison of the deities involved.

In the biblical version Sodom (where Abram’s nephew and his family lived) and Gomorrah, cities in the verdant plain south of the Sea of Salt, were sinful. Yahweh "comes down" and, accompanied by two Angels, visits Abram and his wife Sarai in their encampment near Hebron. After Yahweh predicts that the aged couple would have a son, the two Angels depart for Sodom to verify the extent of the cities’ "sinning." Yahweh then reveals to Abram that if the sins would be confirmed, the cities and their residents would be destroyed. Abram pleads with Yahweh to spare Sodom if fifty just men be found there, and Yahweh agrees (the number was bargained by Abram down to ten) and departs.


The Angels, having verified the cities’ evil, warn Lot to take his family and escape. He asks for time to reach the mountains, and they agree to delay the destruction. Finally, the cities’ doom begins as,

"Yahweh rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulfurous fire, coining from Yahweh from the skies; and He upheavaled those cities and the whole plain and all the inhabitants thereof, and all that which grew upon the ground... And Abraham went early in the morning to the place where he had stood before Yahweh, and gazed in the direction of Sodom and Gomorrah, toward the land of the Plain, and he beheld vapor arising from the earth as the smoke of a furnace"

(Genesis chapter 19).

The same event is well documented in Mesopotamian annals as the culmination of Marduk’s struggle to attain supremacy on Earth. Living in exile, Marduk gave his son Nabu the assignment of converting people in western Asia to become followers of Marduk. After a series of skirmishes, Nabu’s forces were strong enough to invade Mesopotamia and enable Marduk to return to Babylon, where he declared his intention to make it the Gateway of the Gods (what its name, Bab-lli, implied). Alarmed, the Council of the Anunnaki met in emergency sessions chaired by Enlil. Ninurta, and an alienated son of Enki called Nergal (from the south African domain), recommended drastic action to stop Marduk. Enki vehemently objected.


Ishtar pointed out that while they were debating, Marduk was seizing city after city. "Sheriffs" were sent to seize Nabu, but he escaped and was hiding among his followers in one of the "sinning cities." Finally, Ninurta and Nergal were authorized to retrieve from a hiding place awesome nuclear weapons, and to use them to destroy the Spaceport in the Sinai (lest it fall into Mardukian hands) as well as the area where Nabu was hiding.

The unfolding drama, the heated discussions, the accusations, and the final drastic action - the use of nuclear weapons in 2024 B.C. - are described in great detail in a text that scholars call the Erra Epic.

In this document Nergal is referred to as Erra ("Howler") and Ninurta is called Ishum ("Scorcher"). Once they were given the go-ahead they retrieved "the awesome seven weapons, without parallel" and went to the Spaceport near the "Mount Most Supreme." The destruction of the Spaceport was carried out by Ninurta/Ishum:

"He raised his hand; the Mount was smashed; the plain by the Mount Most Supreme he then obliterated; in its forests not a tree-stem was left standing."

Now it was the turn of the sinning cities to be upheavaled, and the task was carried out by Nergal/Erra.


He went there by following the King’s Highway that connected the Sinai and the Red Sea with Mesopotamia:

Then, emulating Ishum,
Erra the King’s Highway followed.
The cities he finished off,
to desolation he overturned them.

The use of nuclear weapons there broke open the sand barrier that still partly exists in the shape of a tongue (called El Lissan), and the waters of the Salt Sea poured south, inundating the low-lying plain. The ancient text records that Erra/Nergal "dug through the sea, its wholeness he divided." And the nuclear weapons turned the Salt Sea to the body of water now called the Dead Sea:

"That which lives in it he made wither," and what used to be a thriving and verdant plain, "as with fire he scorched the animals, burned its grains to become as dust."

As was the clear-cut case of the divine actors in the Deluge tale, so we find in this one concerning the upheavaling of Sodom, Gomorrah, and the other cities of that plain astride the Sinai peninsula, whom does and whom does not Yahweh match when the biblical and Sumerian texts are compared. The Mesopotamian text clearly associates Nergal and not Ninurta as the one who had upheavaled the sinning cities.


Since the Bible asserts that it was not the two Angels who had gone to verify the situation, but Yahweh himself who had rained destruction on the cities, Yahweh could not have been Ninurta.

(The reference in Genesis chapter 10 to Nimrod as the one credited with starting Kingship in Mesopotamia, which we have discussed earlier, is interpreted by some as a reference not to a human king but to a God, and thus to Ninurta to whom the task of setting up the first Kingships was assigned. If so, the biblical statement that Nimrod "was a mighty hunter before Yahweh" also nullifies the possibility that Ni-nurta/Nimrod could have been Yahweh).

But Nergal too was not Yahweh. He is mentioned by name as the deity of the Cutheans who were among the foreigners brought over by the Assyrians to replace the Israelites who were exiled. He is listed among the "other Gods" that the newcomers worshiped and for whom they set up idols. He could not have been "Yahweh" and Yahweh’s abomination at one and the same time.

If Enlil and two of his sons, Adad and Ninurta, are not finalists in the lineup to identify Yahweh, what about Enlil’s third son, Nannar/Sin (the "Moon God")?

His "cult center" (as scholars call it) in Sumer was Ur, the very city from which the migration of Terah and his family began. From Ur, where Terah performed priestly services, they went to Harran on the Upper Euphrates - a city that was a duplicate (even if on a smaller scale) of Ur as a cult center of Nannar. The migration at that particular time was connected, we believe, with religious and royal changes that might have affected the worship of Nannar. Was he then the deity who had instructed Abram the Sumerian to pick up and leave?

Having brought peace and prosperity to Sumer when Ur was its capital, he was venerated in Ur’s great ziggurat (whose remains rise awesomely to this day) with his beloved wife NIN.GAL ("Great Lady"). At the time of the new moon, the hymns sung to this divine couple expressed the people’s gratitude to them; and the dark of the moon was considered a time of,

"the mystery of the great Gods, a time of Nannar’s oracle," when he would send "Zaqar, the God of dreams during the night" to give commands as well as to forgive sins. He was described in the hymns as "decider of destinies in Heaven and on Earth, leader of living creatures ... who causes truth and justice to be."

It all sounds not unlike some of the praises of Yahweh sung by the Psalmist...

The Akkadian/Semitic name for Nannar was Sin, and there can be no doubt that it was in honor of Nannar as Sin that the part of the Sinai peninsula called in the Bible the "Wilderness of Sin" and, for that matter, the whole peninsula, were so named. It was in that part of the world that Yahweh appeared to Moses for the first time, where the "Mount of the Gods" was located, where the greatest Theophany ever had taken place. Furthermore, the principal habitat in the Sinai’s central plain, in the vicinity of what we believe is the true Mount Sinai, is still called Nakhl in Arabic after the Goddess Ningal whose Semitic name was pronounced Nikal.


Was it all indicative of a Yahweh = Nannar/Sin identification?

The discovery several decades ago of extensive Canaanite literature ("myths" to scholars) dealing with their pantheon revealed that while a God they called Ba’al (the generic word for "Lord" used as a personal name) was running things, he was in fact not entirely independent of his father El (a generic term meaning "God" used as a personal name). In these texts El is depicted as a retired God, living with his spouse Asherah away from the populated areas, at a quiet place where "the two waters meet" - a place that we have identified in The Stairway To Heaven as the southern tip of the Sinai peninsula, where the two gulfs extending from the Red Sea meet.

This fact and other considerations have led us to the conclusion that the Canaanite El was the retired Nannar/Sin; included in the reasons upon which we had expounded is the fact that a "cult center" to Nannar/Sin has existed at a vital crossroads in the ancient Near East and even nowadays, the city known to us as Jericho but whose biblical/Semitic name is Yeriho, meaning "City of the Moon God"; and the adoption by tribes to the south thereof of Allah - "El" in Arabic - as the God of Islam represented by the Moon’s crescent.

Described in the Canaanite texts as a retired deity, El as Nannar/Sin would indeed have been forced into retirement: Sumerian texts dealing with the effects of the nuclear cloud as it wafted eastward and reached Sumer and its capital Ur, reveal that Nannar/Sin - refusing to leave his beloved city - was afflicted by the deathly cloud and was partly paralyzed.

The image of Yahweh, especially in the period of the Exodus and the settlement of Canaan, i.e. after - not prior to - the demise of Ur, does not sound right for a retired, afflicted, and tired deity as Nannar/Sin had become by then. The Bible paints a picture of an active deity, insistent and persistent, fully in command, defying the Gods of Egypt, inflicting plagues, dispatching Angels, roaming the skies; omnipresent, performing wonders, a magical healer, a Divine Architect. We find none of that in the descriptions of Nannar/Sin.

Both his veneration and fear of him stemmed from his association with his celestial counterpart, the Moon; and this celestial aspect serves as a decisive argument against identifying him with Yahweh: In the biblical divine order, it was Yahweh who ordered the Sun and the Moon to serve as luminaries; "the Sun and the Moon praise Yahweh," the Psalmist (148:3) declared. And on Earth, the crumbling of the walls of Jericho before the trumpeters of Yahweh symbolized the supremacy of Yahweh over the Moon God Sin.

There was also the matter of Ba’al, the Canaanite deity whose worship was a constant thorn in the side of Yahweh’s faithful. The discovered texts reveal that Ba’al was a son of El. His abode in the mountains of Lebanon is still known as Baalbek, "The valley of Ba’al" - the place that was the first destination of Gilgamesh in his search for immortality. The biblical name for it was BeitShemesh - the "House/abode of Shamash;" and Shamash, we may recall, was a son of Nannar/Sin.


The Canaanite "myths" devote much clay tablet space to the shenanigans between Ba’al and his sister Anat; the Bible lists in the area of Beit-Shemesh a place called Beit Anat; and we are as good as certain that the Semitic name Anat was a rendering of Anunitu ("Ami’s beloved") - a nickname of Inanna/Ishtar, the twin sister of Utu/Shamash.

All that suggests that in the Canaanite trio El-Ba’al-Anat we see the Mesopotamian triad of Nannar/Sin-Utu/Shamash-Inanna/Ishtar - the Gods associated with the Moon, the Sun, and Venus. And none of them could have been Yahweh, for the Bible is replete with admonitions against the worship of these celestial bodies and their emblems.

If neither Enlil nor any one of his sons (or even grandchildren) fully qualify as Yahweh, the search must turn elsewhere, to the sons of Enki, where some of the qualifications also point.

The instructions given to Moses during the sojourn at Mount Sinai were, to a great extent, of a medical nature. Five whole chapters in Leviticus and many passages in Numbers are devoted to medical procedures, diagnosis and treatment. "Heal me, O Yahweh, and I shall be healed," Jeremiah (17:14) cried out:

"My soul blesses Yahweh . . . who heals all my ailments," the Psalmist sang (103:1-3).

Because of his piety, King Hezekiah was not only cured on Yahweh’s say-so of a fatal disease, but was also granted by Yahweh fifteen more years to live (II Kings chapter 19). Yahweh could not only heal and extend life, he could also (through his Angels and Prophets) revive the dead; an extreme example was provided by Ezekiel’s vision of the scattered dry bones that came back alive, their dead resurrected by Yahweh’s will.

The biological-medical knowledge underlying such capabilities was possessed by Enki, and he passed such knowledge to two of his sons: Marduk (known as Ra in Egypt), and Thoth (whom the Egyptians called Tehuti and the Sumerians NIN.GISH.ZIDDA - "Lord of the Tree of Life"). As for Marduk, many Babylonian texts refer to his healing abilities; but - as his own complaint to his father reveals - he was given knowledge of healing but not that of reviving the dead.


On the other hand, Thoth did possess such knowledge, employing it on one occasion to revive Horus, the son of the God Osiris and his sister-wife Isis. According to the hieroglyphic text dealing with this incident, Horus was bitten by a poisonous scorpion and died. As his mother appealed to the "God of magical things," Thoth, for help, he came down to Earth from the heavens in a sky boat, and restored the boy back to life.

When it came to the construction and equipping of the Tabernacle in the Sinai wilderness and later on of the Temple in Jerusalem, Yahweh displayed an impressive knowledge of architecture, sacred alignments, decorative details, use of materials, and construction procedures - even to the point of showing the Earthlings involved scale models of what He had designed or wanted.


Marduk has not been credited with such an all-embracing knowledge; but Thoth/Ningishzidda was. In Egypt he was deemed the keeper of the secrets of pyramid building, and as Ningishzidda he was invited to Lagash to help orientate, design, and choose materials for the temple that was built for Ninurta.

Another point of major congruence between Yahweh and Thoth was the matter of the calendar. It is to Thoth that the first Egyptian calendar was attributed, and when he was expelled from Egypt by Ra/Marduk and went (according to our findings) to Mesoamerica, where he was called "The Winged Serpent" (Quetzalcoatl), he devised the Aztec and Mayan calendars there. As the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers make clear, Yahweh not only shifted the New Year to the "seventh month," but also instituted the week, the Sabbath, and a series of holidays.

Healer; reviver of the dead who came down in a sky boat; a Divine Architect; a great astronomer and designer of calendars. The attributes common to Thoth and Yahweh seem overwhelming.


So was Thoth Yahweh?

Though known in Sumer, he was not considered there one of the Great Gods, and thus not fitting at all the epithet "the God Most High" that both Abraham and Melchizedek, priest of Jerusalem, used at their encounter. Above all, he was a God of Egypt, and (unless excluded by the argument that he was Yahweh), he was one of those upon whom Yahweh set out to make judgments.


Renowned in ancient Egypt, there could be no Pharaoh ignorant of this deity. Yet, when Moses and Aaron came before Pharaoh and told him, "So sayelh Yahweh, the God of Israel: Let My people go that they may worship Me in the desert," Pharaoh said: "Who is this Yahweh that I should obey his words? I know not Yahweh, and the Israelites I shall not let go."

If Yahweh where Thoth, not only would the Pharaoh not answer thus, but the task of Moses and Aaron would have been made easy and attainable were they just to say, Why - "Yahweh" is just another name for Thoth .. . And Moses, having been raised in the Egyptian court, would have had no difficulty knowing that - if that were so.

If Thoth was not Yahweh, the process of elimination alone appears to leave one more candidate: Marduk.

That he was a "God most high" is well established; the Firstborn of Enki who believed that his father was unjustly deprived of the supremacy on Earth - a supremacy to which he, Marduk, rather than Enlil’s son Ninurta, was the rightful successor. His attributes included a great many - almost all - the attributes of Yahweh. He possessed a Shem, a sky-chamber, as Yahweh did; when the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt the sacred precinct of Babylon, he built there an especially strengthened enclosure for the "chariot of Marduk, the Supreme Traveler between Heaven and Earth."

When Marduk finally attained the supremacy on Earth, he did not discredit the other Gods. On the contrary, he invited them all to reside in individual pavilions within the sacred precinct of Babylon. There was only one catch: their specific powers and attributes were to pass to him - just as the "Fifty Names" (i.e. rank) of Enlil had to.


A Babylonian text, in its legible portion, listed thus the functions of other great Gods that were transferred to Marduk:

Ninurta = Marduk of the hoe
Nergal = Marduk of the attack
Zababa = Marduk of the combat
Enlil = Marduk of lordship and counsel
Nabu = Marduk of numbers and counting
Sin = Marduk the illuminator of the night
Shamash = Marduk of justice
Adad = Marduk of rains

This was not the monotheism of the Prophets and the Psalms; it was what scholars term henotheism - a religion wherein the supreme power passes from one of several deities to another in succession. Even so, Marduk did not reign supreme for long; soon after the institution of Marduk as national God by the Babylonians, it was matched by their Assyrian rivals by the institution of Ashur as "lord of all the Gods."

Apart from the arguments that we have mentioned in the cases of Thoth that negate an identification with any major Egyptian deity (and Marduk was the great Egyptian God Ra after all), the Bible itself specifically rules out any equating of Yahweh with Marduk. Not only is Yahweh, in sections dealing with Babylon, portrayed as greater, mightier, and supreme over the Gods of the Babylonians - it explicitly foretells their demise by naming them. Both Isaiah (46:1) and Jeremiah (50:2) foresaw Marduk (also known as Bel by his Babylonian epitheht) and his son Nabu fallen and collapsed before Yahweh on the Day of Judgment.

Those prophetic words depict the two Babylonian Gods as antagonists and enemies of Yahweh; Marduk (and for that matter, Nabu) could not have been Yahweh.

(As far as Ashur is concerned, the God Lists and other evidence suggest that he was a resurgent Enlil renamed by the Assyrians "The All Seeing;" and as such, he could not have been Yahweh).

As we find so many similarities, and on the other hand crucial differences and contradicting aspects, in our search for a matching "Yahweh" in the ancient Near Eastern pantheons, we can continue only by doing what Yahweh had told Abraham: Lift thine eyes toward the heavens . . .

The Babylonian king Hammurabi recorded thus the legitimization of Marduk’s supremacy on Earth:

Lofty Anu,
Lord of the Anunnaki,
and Enlil,
Lord of Heaven and Earth
who determines the destinies of the land,
Determined for Marduk, the firstborn of Enki,
the Enlil-functions over alt mankind
and made him great among the Igigi.

As this makes clear, even Marduk as he assumed supremacy on Earth recognized that it was Anu, and not he, who was "Lord of the Anunnaki." Was he the "God Most High" by whom Abraham and Melchizedek greeted each other?

The cuneiform sign for Anu (AN in Sumerian) was a star; it had the multiple meanings of "God, divine," "heaven," and this God’s personal name. Anu, as we know from the Mesopotamian texts, stayed in "heaven"; and numerous biblical verses also described Yahweh as the One Who Is in Heaven.

It was "Yahweh, the God of Heaven," who commanded him to go to Canaan, Abraham stated (Genesis 24:7).

"I am a Hebrew and it is Yahweh, the God of Heaven that I venerate," the Prophet Jonah said (1:9).

"Yahweh, the God of Heaven commanded me to build for Him a House in Jerusalem, in Judaea," Cyrus stated in his edict regarding the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem (Ezra 1:2).

When Solomon completed the construction of the (first) Temple in Jerusalem, he prayed to Yahweh to hear him from the heavens to bless the Temple as His House, although, Solomon admitted, it was hardly possible that "Yahweh Elohim" would come to dwell on Earth, in this House, "when the heaven and the heaven-of-heavens cannot contain Thee" (I Kings 8:27); and the Psalms repeatedly stated,

"From the heaven did Yahweh look down upon the Children of Adam" (14:2)

"From Heaven did Yahweh behold the Earth" (102:20)

"In Heaven did Yahweh establish His throne" (103:19)

Though Anu did visit Earth several times, he was residing on Nibiru; and as the God whose abode was in Heaven, he was truly an unseen God: among the countless depictions of deities on cylinder seals, statues and statuettes, carvings, wall paintings, amulets - his image does not appear even once!

Since Yahweh, too, was unseen and unrepresented pictorially, residing in "Heaven," the inevitable question that arises is, Where was the abode of Yahweh? With so many parallels between Yahweh and Anu, did Yahweh, too, have a "Nibiru" to dwell on?

The question, and its relevance to Yahweh’s invisibility, does not originate with us. It was sarcastically posed by a heretic to a Jewish savant, Rabbi Gamliel, almost two thousand years ago; and the answer that was given is truly amazing!

The report of the conversation, as rendered into English by S.M. Lehrman in The World of the Midrash, goes thus:

When Rabbi Gamliel was asked by a heretic to cite the exact location of God, seeing that the world is so vast and there are seven oceans, his reply was simply, "This I cannot tell you."


Whereupon the other tauntingly retorted:


"And this you call Wisdom, praying to a God, daily, whose whereabouts you do not know?"

The Rabbi smiled:


"You ask me to put my finger on the exact spot of His Presence, albeit that tradition avers that the distance between heaven and earth would take a journey of 3,500 years to cover. So, may I ask you the exact whereabouts of something which is always with you, and without which you cannot live a moment?"
The pagan was intrigued. "What is this?" he eagerly queried.

The Rabbi replied: "The soul which God had planted within you; pray tell me where exactly is it?"
It was a chastened man that shook his head negatively.

It was now the Rabbi’s turn to be amazed and amused. "If you do not know where your own soul is located, how can you expect to know the precise habitation of One who fills the whole world with His glory?"

Let us note carefully what Rabbi Gamliel’s answer was: according to Jewish tradition, he said, the exact spot in the heavens where God has a dwelling is so distant that it would require a journey of 3,500 years ...


How much closer can one get to the 3,600 years that it takes Nibiru to complete one orbit around the Sun?

Although there are no specific texts dealing with or describing Anu’s abode on Nibiru, some idea thereof can be gained indirectly from such texts as the tale of Adapa, occasional references in various texts, and even from Assyrian depictions. It was a place - let us think of it as a royal palace - that was entered through imposing gates, flanked by towers. A pair of Gods (Ningishzidda and Dumuzi are mentioned in one instance) stood guard at the gates.


Inside, Anu was seated on a throne; when Enlil and Enki were on Nibiru, or when Anu had visited Earth, they flanked the throne, holding up celestial emblems.

(The Pyramid Texts of ancient Egypt, describing the Afterlife ascent of the Pharaoh to the celestial abode, carried aloft by an "Ascender," announced for the departing king: "The double gates of heaven are opened for thee, the double gates of the sky are opened for thee" and envisioned four scepter-holding Gods announcing his arrival on the "Imperishable Star").

In the Bible, too, Yahweh was described as seated on a throne, flanked by Angels. While Ezekiel described seeing the Lord’s image, shimmering like electrum, seated on a throne inside a Flying Vehicle, "the throne of Yahweh is in Heaven," the Psalms (11:4) asserted; and the Prophets described seeing Yahweh seated on a throne in the Heavens. The Prophet Michaiah ("Who is like Yahweh?"), a contemporary of Elijah, told the king of Judaea who had sought a divine oracle (I Kings chapter 22):

I saw Yahweh sitting on his throne,
and the host of heaven were standing by Him,
on His right and on His left.

The Prophet Isaiah recorded (chapter 6) a vision seen by him "in the year in which king Uzziah died" in which he saw God seated on His throne, attended by fiery Angels:

I beheld my Lord seated on a high and lofty throne,
and the train of His robe filled the great hall.
Seraphs stood in attendance on Him,
each one of them having six wings:
with twain each covered his face,
with twain each covered his legs,
and with twain each one would fly.
And one would call out to the other:
Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts!

Biblical references to Yahweh’s throne went farther: they actually stated its location, in a place called Olam. "Thy throne is established forever, from Olam art Thou," the Psalms (93:2) declared; "Thou, Yahweh, are enthroned in Olam, enduring through the ages," states the Book of Lamentations (5:19).

Now, this is not the way these verses, and others like them, have been usually translated. In the King James Version, for example, the quoted verse from Psalms is translated "Thy throne is established of old, thou art from everlasting," and the verse in Lamentations is rendered "Thou, O Lord, remainest for ever: thy throne from generation to generation." Modern translations likewise render Olam as "everlasting" and "forever" (The New American Bible) or as "eternity" and "for ever" (The New English Bible), revealing an indecision whether to treat the term as an adjective or as a noun.


Recognizing, however, that Olam is clearly a noun, the most recent translation by the Jewish Publication Society adopted "eternity," an abstract noun, as a solution.

The Hebrew Bible, strict in the precision of its terminology, has other terms for stating the state of "lasting forever." One is Netzah, as in Psalm 89:47 that asked, "How long, Yahweh, wilt Thou hide Thyself - forever?" Another term that means more precisely "perpetuity" is Ad, which is also usually translated "for ever," as in "his seed I will make endure for ever" in Psalm 89:30. There was no need for a third term to express the same thing.


Olam, often accompanied by the adjective Ad to denote its everlasting nature, was itself not an adjective but a noun derived from the root that means "disappearing, mysteriously hidden." The numerous biblical verses in which Olam appears indicate that it was deemed a physical place, not an abstraction. "Thou art from Olam," the Psalmist declared - God is from a place which is a hidden place (and therefore God has been unseen).

It was a place that was conceived as physically existing: Deuteronomy (33:15) and the Prophet Habakkuk (3:6) spoke of the "hills of Olam." Isaiah (33:14) referred to the "heat sources of Olam. " Jeremiah (6:16) mentioned the "pathways of Olam" and (18:5) "the lanes of Olam," and called Yah-weh "king of Olam" (10:10) as did Psalms 10:16.


The Psalms, in statements reminiscent of the references to the gates of Anu’s abode (in Sumerian texts) and to the Gates of Heaven (in ancient Egyptian texts), also spoke of the "Gates of Olam" that should open and welcome the Lord Yahweh as He arrives there upon His Kabod, His Celestial Boat (24:7-10):

Lift up your heads, O gates of Olam
so that the King of Kabod may come in!
Who is the King of Kabod?
Yahweh, strong and valiant, a mighty warrior/
Lift up your heads, O gates of Olam,

and the King of Kabod shall come in!

Who is the King of Kabod?

Yahweh lord of hosts is the King of Kabod.

"Yahweh is the God of Olam," declared Isaiah (40:28), echoing the biblical record in Genesis (21:33) of Abraham’s "calling in the name of Yahweh, the God of Olam." No wonder, then, that the Covenant symbolized by circumcision, "the celestial sign," was called by the Lord when he had imposed it on Abraham and his descendants "the Covenant of Olam:"
And my Covenant shall be in your flesh, the Covenant of Olam.
(Genesis 17:13)

In post-biblical rabbinic discussions, and so in modern Hebrew, Olam is the term that stands for "world." Indeed, the answer that Rabbi Gamliel gave to the question regarding the Divine Abode was based on rabbinic assertions that it is separated from Earth by seven heavens, in each of which there is a different world; and that the journey from one to the other requires five hundred years, so that the complete journey through seven heavens from the world called Earth to the world that is the Divine Abode lasts 3,500 years.


This, as we have pointed out, comes as close to the 3,600 (Earth) years’ orbit of Nibiru as one could expect; and while Earth to someone arriving from space would have been the seventh planet, Nibiru to someone on Earth would indeed be seven celestial spaces away when it disappears to its apogee.

Such a disappearing - the root meaning of Olam - creates of course the "year" of Nibiru - an awesomely long time in human terms. The Prophets similarly, in numerous passages, spoke of the "Years of Olam" as a measure of a very long time. A clear sense of periodicity, as would result from the periodic appearance and disappearance of a planet, was conveyed by the frequent use of "from Olam to Olam" as a definite (though extremely long) measure of time: "I had given you this land from Olam to Olam," the Lord was quoted as saying by Jeremiah (7:7 and 25:5).


And a possible clincher for identifying Olam with Nibiru was the statement in Genesis 6:4 that the Nefilim, the young Anunnaki who had come to Earth from Nibiru, were the "people of the Shem" (the people of the rocketships), "those who were from Olam."

With the obvious familiarity of the Bible’s editors, Prophets, and Psalmists with Mesopotamian "myths" and astronomy, it would have been peculiar not to find knowledge of the important planet Nibiru in the Bible. It is our suggestion that yes, the Bible was keenly aware of Nibiru - and called it Olam, the "disappearing planet."

Does all that mean that therefore Anu was Yahweh? Not necessarily ...

Though the Bible depicted Yahweh as reigning in His celestial abode, as Anu did, it also considered Him "king" over the Earth and all upon it - whereas Anu clearly gave the command on Earth to Enlil. Anu did visit Earth, but extant texts describe the occasions mostly as ceremonial state and inspection visits; there is nothing in them comparable to the active involvement of Yahweh in the affairs of nations and individuals.


Moreover, the Bible recognized a God, other than Yahweh, a "God of other nations" called An; his worship is noted in the listing (II Kings 17:31) of Gods of the foreigners whom the Assyrians had resettled in Samaria, where he is referred to as An-melekh ("Anu the king"). A personal name Anani, honoring Anu, and a place called Ana-tot, are also listed in the Bible. And the Bible had nothing for Yahweh that paralleled the genealogy of Anu (parents, spouse, children), his lifestyle (scores of concubines) or his fondness for his granddaughter Inanna (whose worship as the "Queen of Heaven"-Venus was deemed an abomination in the eyes of Yahweh).

And so, in spite of the similarities, there are also too many essential differences between Anu and Yahweh for the two to have been one and the same.

Moreover, in the biblical view Yahweh was more than "king, lord" of Olam, as Anu was king on Nibiru. He was more than once hailed as El Olam, the God of Olam (Genesis 21:33) and El Elohim, the God of the Elohim (Joshua 22:22, Psalms 50:1 and Psalms 136:2).


The biblical suggestion that the Elohim - the "Gods," the Anunnaki - had a God, seems totally incredible at first, but quite logical on reflection.

At the very conclusion of our first book in The Earth Chronicles series (The 12th Planet), having told the story of the planet Nibiru and how the Anunnaki (the biblical Nefilim) who had come to Earth from it "created" Mankind, we posed the following question:

And if the Nefilim were the "Gods" who "created" Man on Earth, did evolution alone, on the Twelfth Planet, create the Nefilim?

Technologically advanced, capable hundreds of thousands of years before us to travel in space, arriving at a cosmological explanation for the creation of the Solar System and, as we begin to do, to contemplate and understand the universe - the Anunnaki must have pondered their origins, and arrived at what we call Religion - their religion, their concept of God.


Who created the Nefilim, the Anunnaki, on their planet?


The Bible itself provides the answer. Yahweh, it states, was not just "a great God, a great king over all of the Elohim" (Psalms 95:3); He was there, on Nibiru, before they had come to be on it: "Before the Elohim upon Olam He sat," Psalm 61:8 explained. Just as the Anunnaki had been on Earth before The Adam, so was Yahweh on Nibiru/Olam before the Anunnaki. The creator preceded the created.

We have already explained that the seeming immortality of the Anunnaki "Gods" was merely their extreme longevity, resulting from the fact that one Nibiru-year equaled 3,600 Earth-years; and that in fact they were born, grew old, and could (and did) die. A time measure applicable to Olam ("days of Olam" and "years of Olam") was recognized by the Prophets and Psalmist; what is more impressive is their realization that the various Elohim (the Sumerian DIN.GIR, the Akkadian Ilu) were in fact not immortal - but Yahweh, God, was.


Thus, Psalm 82 envisions God passing judgment on the Elohim and reminding them that they - the Elohim! - are also mortal: "God stands in the divine assembly, among the Elohim He judges," and tells them thus:

I have said, ye are Elohim, all of you sons of the Most High; But ye shall the as men do, like any prince ye shall fall.

We believe that such statements, suggesting that the Lord Yahweh created not only the Heaven and the Earth but also the Elohim, the Anunnaki "Gods," have a bearing on a puzzle that has baffled generations of biblical scholars. It is the question why the Bible’s very first verse that deals with the very Beginning, does not begin with the first letter of the alphabet, but rather with the second one. The significance and symbolism of beginning the Beginning with the proper beginning must have been obvious to the Bible’s compilers; yet, this is what they chose to transmit to us:

Breshit bara Elohim
et Ha’Shamaim v’et Ha’Aretz


...which is commonly translated, "In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth."

Since the Hebrew letters have numerical values, the first letter, Aleph (from which the Greek alpha comes) has the numerical value "one, the first" - the beginning. Why then, scholars and theologians have wondered, does the Creation start with the second letter, Beth, whose value is "two, second"?

While the reason remains unknown, the result of starting the first verse in the first book of the Bible with an Aleph would be astounding, for it would make the sentence read thus:

Ab-reshit bara Elohim,
et Ha’Shamaim v’et Ha’Aretz

The Father-of-Beginning created the Elohim, the Heavens, and the Earth.

By this slight change, by just starting the beginning with the letter that begins it all, an omnipotent, omnipresent Creator of All emerges from the primeval chaos: Ab-Reshit, "the Father of Beginning." The best modern scientific minds have come up with the Big Bang theory of the beginning of the universe - but have yet to explain who caused the Big Bang to happen. Were Genesis to begin as it should have, the Bible - which offers a precise tale of Evolution and adheres to the most sensible cosmogony - would have also given us the answer: the Creator who was there to create it all.


And all at once Science and Religion, Physics and Metaphysics, converge into one single answer that conforms to the credo of Jewish monotheism: "I am Yahweh, there is none beside me!" It is a credo that carried the Prophets, and us with them, from the arena of Gods to the God who embraces the universe.

One can only speculate why the Bible’s editors, who scholars believe canonized the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) during the Babylonian exile, omitted the Aleph. Was it in order to avoid offending their Babylonian exilers (because a claim that Yahweh had created the Anunnaki-Gods would have not excluded Marduk)? But what is, we believe, not to be doubted is that at one time the first word in the first verse in the Bible did begin with the first letter of the alphabet. This certainty is based on the statements in the Book of Revelation ("The Apocalypse of St. John" in the New Testament), in which God announces thus:

I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.

The statement, repeated three times (1:8, 21:6, 22:13), applies the first letter of the alphabet (by its Greek name) to the Beginning, to the divine First, and the last letter of the (Greek) alphabet to the End, to God being the Last of all as He has been the First of All.

That this had been the case at the beginning of Genesis is confirmed, we believe, by the certainty that the statements in Revelation harken back to the Hebrew scriptures from which the parallel verses in Isaiah (41:6, 42:8, 44:6) were taken, the verses in which Yahweh proclaims His absoluteness and uniqueness:

I, Yahweh, was the First And the Last I will also be!
I am the First
and I am the Last;
There are no Elohim without Me!
I am He,
I am the First,
I am the Last as well.

It is these statements that help identify the biblical God by the answer that He himself gave when asked: Who, O God, are you? It was when He called Moses out of the Burning Bush, identifying Himself only as "the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob."


Having been given his mission, Moses pointed out that when he would come to the Children of Israel and say, "the God of your forefathers has sent me to you, and they will say to me: What is His name? - what shall I tell them?"

And God said to Moses:

Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh -
this is what thou shall say
unto the Children of Israel:
Ehyeh sent me.
And God said further to Moses:
Thus shalt say unto the Children of Israel:
Yah wen, the God of your fathers,
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac,
and the God of Jacob,
hath sent me unto you;
This is my name unto Olam,
this is my appellation unto all generations.
(Exodus 3:13-15)

The statement, Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, has been the subject of discussion, analysis, and interpretation by generations of theologians, biblical scholars, and linguists. The King James Version translates it "I am that I am ... I am hath sent me to you." Other more modern translations adopt "I am, that is who I am ... I am has sent you."


The most recent translation by the Jewish Publication Society prefers to leave the Hebrew intact, providing the footnote, "meaning of the Hebrew uncertain."

The key to understanding the answer given during this Divine Encounter are the grammatical tenses employed here. Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh is not given in the present but in the future tense. In simple parlance it states: "Whoever I shall be, I shall be."


And the Divine Name that is revealed to a mortal for the first time (in the conversation Moses is told that the sacred name, the Tetragrammaton YHWH, had not been revealed even to Abraham) combines the three tenses from the root meaning "To Be" - the One who was, who is, and who shall be. It is an answer and a name that befit the biblical concept of Yahweh as eternally existing - One who was, who is, and who shall continue to be.

A frequent form of stating this everlasting nature of the biblical God is the expression "Thou art from Olam to Olam." It is usually translated, "Thou art everlasting;" this conveys undoubtedly the sense of the statement, but not its precise meaning. Literally taken it suggests that the existence and reign of Yahweh extended from one Olam to another - that He was "king, lord" not only of the one Olam that was the equivalent of the Mesopotamian Nibiru - but of other Olams, of other worlds!

No less than eleven times, the Bible refers to Yahweh’s abode, domain, and "kingdom" using the term Olamim, the plural of Olam - a domain, an abode, a kingdom that encompasses many worlds. It is an expansion of Yahweh’s Lordship beyond the notion of a "national God" to that of a Judge of all the nations; beyond the Earth and beyond Nibiru, to the "Heavens of Heaven" (Deuteronomy 10:14, I Kings 8:27, II Chronicles 2:5 and 6:18) that encompass not only the Solar System but even the distant stars (Deuteronomy 4:19, Ecclesi-astes 12:2).



All else - the celestial planetary "Gods," Nibiru that remade our Solar System and remakes the Earth on its near passages, the Anunnaki "Elohim," Mankind, nations, kings - all are His manifestations and His instruments, carrying out a divine and universal everlasting plan. In a way we are all His Angels, and when the time comes for Earthlings to travel in space and emulate the Anunnaki, on some other world, we too shall only be carrying out a destined future.

It is an image of a universal Lord that is best summed up in the hymnal prayer Adon Olam that is recited as a majestic song in Jewish synagogue services on festivals, on the Sabbath, and on each and every day of the year:

Lord of the universe, who has reigned Ere all that exists had yet been created. When by His will all things were wrought, "Sovereign" was His name was then pronounced.

And when, in time, all things shall cease, He shall still reign in majesty. He was, He is, He shall remain, He shall continue gloriously.

Incomparable, unique He is, No other can His Oneness share. Without beginning, without end. Dominion’s might is His to bear.

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