Non-solstice Lines, the Grand Chakra System, and the Hopi Winter Solstice
In addition to the solstice alignments, a number of intriguing non-solstice
lines exists to corroborate the pattern as a whole.
As heretofore stated, an
extension of the solstice line between Oraibi and Wupatki (the Belt and left
shoulder of the terrestrial Orion respectively) would ultimately end on the
Colorado River at the point where a major trail east toward Anasazi
territory began. Similarly, if the non-solstice line between Walpi and
Homol’ovi (the Belt and the right shoulder respectively) were extended, it
would intersect the wrist of the constellation and terminate within five
miles of the important Hohokam ruin site and astronomical observatory of
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, near the Gila River one hundred and
fifty miles away.
We have also already discussed the extension of the Walpi-Canyon
de Chelly solstice line (Orion’s right leg) ending up at the Salmon-Aztec
An extension of the Oraibi-Betatakin non-solstice line (Orion’s
left leg) would bring us to Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Ruefully,
hundreds or perhaps even thousands of small Anasazi ruins were submerged by
the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, and the few that remain can
only be reached by boat.
Another alignment of ancient pueblo sites forms the grand chakra system of
Orion and indicates the direction of the flow of spiritual energy.
line southwest from Shungopovi/Alnilam, we pass less than five miles
southeast of Roden Crater and Grand Falls, both mentioned above. Continuing
southwest the line runs by Ridge Ruin
12., through Winona Village
into the forehead of Orion, viz., Walnut Canyon National Monument, a
significant mid-twelfth century Sinagua ruin located in the foothills of the
San Francisco Peaks.
If the line is extended farther still, it intersects
the red rock country of Sedona with its electromagnetic vortices, passing
the small but gorgeously located ruin and pictograph site of Palatki, “Red
House,” as well as the larger Honanki, “Bear House.”
In the Verde Valley the
newly energized vector directly transits Tuzigoot National Monument, a major
thirteenth century Sinagua ruin of over one hundred rooms perched on a
hilltop for the probable purpose of stellar observation.
Aries, Taurus, Orion, and
Canis Major correlations in the American Southwest
The line traverses
the Black Hills of Arizona, goes by the newly excavated Emilienne Ruin
in Lonesome Valley, intersects the Fitzmaurice Ruin
Located upon a ridge
on the south bank of Lynx Creek in Prescott Valley, continues through the
small Lynx Creek Ruin at the northern base of the Bradshaw Mountains, treks
across the northern limits of the Sonoran desert, and passes near the geoglyphs
16. in Arizona and California to ultimately reach a point just
north of the mouth of the Colorado River, perhaps the place where the
ancients migrating on reed rafts from the Third World to the Fourth entered
If we were to extend this line in the other direction from Shungopovi, it would travel northeast across Black Mesa, passing just
southeast of Four Corners to finally end up at the major
Anasazi sites of
Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado.
In this series of villages we have eleven both major and minor Anasazi or
Sinagua ruins and one Hopi pueblo perfectly aligned over a distance of over
275 miles within the framework of the tellurian Orion. The probability that
these are randomly distributed is highly unlikely and increases the
possibility that Masau’u (or some other agent perceived as being divine)
directed their positioning. This “ley line” forms a
grand chakra system
which provides an inseparable link and a conduit of flowing pranic earth
energy from the Hopi Mesas to the evergreens forests of the
More specifically, Walnut Canyon symbolizes the Third Eye, or
gland (etymologically derived from the Latin word pinus, or “pine cone”), of Orion.
At this point one might ask:
Why is the template of Orion placed upon the
earth at the specific angle relative to longitude that we find it?
“chakra” line mentioned above, which runs in part from Shungopovi/Alnilam
(the Belt of Orion) to Walnut Canyon/Meissa (the head of
Orion) is 231
degrees azimuth in relation to Shungopovi.
The azimuthal direction of
southwest is 225 degrees.
Thus, the axis for the terrestrial Orion is within
six degrees of northeast/southwest. If we stood at Shungopovi shortly after
midnight nine centuries ago on the winter solstice and looked southwest, we
would find the middle star of Orion’s Belt hovering directly above the
southwest horizon at an altitude of about 38 degrees. Specifically, at 1:15
a.m. on December 22, A.D. 1100, Alnilam is at 231 degrees azimuth.17.
other words, gazing from the central star of the earthbound belt of Orion
toward its head located in the foothills of the San Francisco Peaks where
the katsinam live, we would see the celestial constellation precisely mirror
the angle of the terrestrial configuration.
One might also question the significance of this precise time when the
middle star in Orion’s Belt is at 231 degrees. At the very moment we are
watching this sidereal spectacle, “one of the most sacred ceremonies”
the Hopi known as the Soyal is taking place in the subterranean chamber
called a kiva. Just past its meridian Orion can be clearly seen through the
This is the time “when Hotomkam [Orion’s Belt] begins to hang down
in the sky.” Now a powerful, barefooted figure descends the kiva ladder.
is painted with white dots which resemble stars on his arms, legs, chest,
and back. He carries a crook on which is tied an ear of black corn,
Masau’u’s corn signifying the Above. One account identifies him as
the deity of germination related to the aforementioned Masau’u.19. Another
calls him “Star man,” ostensibly because of his headdress made of four white
corn leaves representing a four-pointed star, perhaps Aldebaran in the
At any rate, this person takes a hoop covered with buckskin and
begins to dance.
His “sun shield” fringed with red horsehair is about a foot
across with a dozen or so eagle feathers tied to its circumference. Its
lower hemisphere is painted blue, its upper right quadrant is red, and its
upper left quadrant is yellow. Two horizontal black lines for the eyes and a
small downward pointing triangle for the mouth are painted on the lower half
of this striking face of Tawa. Alexander Stephen, who witnessed the ritual
at Walpi in 1891, remarked that the Star Priest stamps upon the
hole in the floor of the kiva that links it to the Underworld) as a signal
to start the most important portion of the ceremony.
This occurs just
after 1:00 a.m., the time on this date in the year A.D. 1100 (the
approximate onset of settlement on the Hopi Mesas) when Orion was at 231
As the dance rhythm crescendos, the “Star man” begins to twirl the sun hoop
very fast in clockwise rotation around the intercardinal points between two
lines of Singers, one at the north and the other at the south.
oscillations” (to quote A.M. Stephen) he is attempting to turn back the sun
from its southward journey.
“All these dances, songs, and spinning of the
sun are timed by the changing positions of the three stars, Hotomkam,
overhead. Now is the time this must be done, before the sun rises and takes
up his journey.”
If this were merely a solar ritual, one would assume
that it would take place at sunrise. On the contrary, the sidereal position
of Orion must reflect the terrestrial positioning of the constellation,
which only occurs after the former has passed its meridian, i.e., “...when
Hotomkam begins to hang down in the sky.”
Prior to dawn runners are sent out
to the shrines of both Masau’u (Orion) and
Tawa (the sun) in order to
deposit pahos (prayer feathers), offerings to the two gods whose complex
interaction helps to assure the seasons’ cyclic return, keeping the world in
balance for yet another year.
Egyptian Parallels to the Arizona Orion
In their bestseller The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids
Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert have propounded what is known as the
Star Correlation Theory. (Their book, incidentally, provided the initial
impetus for writing the present article and book-in-progress.)
co-authors have discovered an ancient “unified ground plan” in which the pyramids at Giza form the pattern of Orion's Belt. According to their entire
configuration described very briefly here, the
Great Pyramid (Khufu)
represents Alnitak, the middle pyramid (Khafra) represents
Alnilam, and the
slightly offset smaller pyramid (Menkaura) represents Mintaka. In addition,
two ruined pyramids - one at Abu Ruwash to the north and another at Zawyat
Al Aryan to the south - correlate to Saiph and Bellatrix respectively, while
three pyramids at Abusir farther south correspond to the head of Orion.
Bauval and Gilbert also believe that the pyramids at Dashour, viz., the Red
Pyramid and the Bent Pyramid, represent the Hyades stars of Aldebaran and
Epsilon Tauris respectively. Furthermore, this schema correlates
located due west across the Nile from Heliopolis, with
Sirius, the brightest
star in the sky. As co-author Gilbert states in a later book:
It was Bauval’s contention that the part of the Milky Way which interested
the Egyptians most was the region that runs from the star Sirius along the
constellation of Orion on up towards Taurus.
This region of the sky seemed
to correspond, in the Egyptian mind at least, to the area of the Memphite
necropolis, that is to say the span of Old Kingdom burial grounds stretching
along the west bank of the Nile from Dashur to Giza and down to
At the centre of this area was Giza; this, he determined, was the
equivalent of Rostau (Mead’s Rusta), the gateway to the Duat or
The region in Hopi cosmology corresponding to the Rostau is called
Tuuwanasavi (literally, “center of the earth”), located at the three
Mesas. Similar to the ground-sky dualism of the three primary structures at
the Giza necropolis, these natural "pyramids" closely reflect the Belt stars
of Orion. In addition, the portal to the nether realms is known in
the Sipapuni, located in the Grand Canyon.
This culturally sacrosanct area
mirrors the left hand of Orion. Whereas the Egyptian Rostau is coextensive
with the axis mundi of the Belt stars formed by the triad of pyramids, the Hopi gateway to the Underworld in the Grand Canyon is adjacent to the center
place but still close enough to be archetypally resonant in that regard.
In a later book entitled The Message of the Sphinx, Robert Bauval and
co-author Graham Hancock describe, among many other things, the cosmic
journey of the Horus-King, or the son of the Sun, to the Underworld:
now at the Gateway to Rostau and about to enter the Fifth Division [Hour] of
the Duat - the holy of holies of the Osirian afterworld Kingdom. Moreover,
he is presented with a choice of ‘two ways’ or ‘roads’ to reach Rostau: one
which is on ‘land’ and the other in ‘water’.”
We have been blessed with a
wealth of hieroglyphic texts, both on stone and on papyrus, with which we
can reconstruct the Egyptian cosmology.
Unless we consider petroglyphs more
as a form of linguistic communication than as rock “art,” the Hopi and their
ancestors, on the other hand, had no written language; hence we must rely on
their recently transcribed oral tradition. In this regard the Oraibi
tawa-mongwi (“sun watcher”) Don Talayesva describes an intriguing parallel
As a young man attending the Sherman School for Indians in
Riverside, California during the early years of the twentieth century, he
became deathly ill and, in true shamanistic fashion, made an inner journey
to the spirit world. After a long ordeal with many bizarre, hallucinatory
visions, he reached the top of a high mesa and paused to look.
(Is it simply
another coincidence that the Hopi word tu’at, also spelled
"hallucination" or "mystical vision," sounds so close to the Egyptian Duat
- indeed spelled by E.A. Wallis Budge, former director of antiquities at the
British Museum, as Tuat, that seemingly illusory realm of the afterlife?)
“Before me were two trails passing westward through the gap of the
mountains. On the right was the rough narrow path, with the cactus and the
coiled snakes, and filled with miserable Two-Hearts making very slow and
On the left was the fine, smooth highway with no person in
sight, since everyone had sped along so swiftly. I took it, passed many
ruins and deserted houses, reached the mountain, entered a narrow valley,
and crossed through the gap to the other side.
Soon I came to a great canyon
where my journey seemed to end; and I stood there on the rim wondering what
to do. Peering deep into the canyon, I saw something shiny winding its way
like a silver thread on the bottom; and I thought that it must be the Little
On the walls across the canyon were the houses of our
ancestors with smoke rising from the chimneys and people sitting out on the
In this narrative the narrow, dry road filled with cacti and rattlesnakes,
where progress is measured by just one step per year, is contrasted with the
broad, easy road quickly leading to the canyon of the Little Colorado River.
A few miles east of the confluence of this river and the Colorado River is
the actual location of the Hopi “Place of Emergence” from the
World to the present Fourth World. Physically, it is a large travertine dome
in the Grand Canyon to which annual pilgrimages are made in order to gather
ritualistic salt. In correlative terms the Milky Way is conceptualized as
the “watery road” of the Colorado River at the bottom of the Grand Canyon
- that sacred source to which spirits of the dead return in order to exist in
a universe parallel to the pueblo world they once knew.
This stellar highway
is alternately seen as traversing the evergreen forests of the San Francisco
Peaks, upon whose summit is a mythical kiva leading to the Underworld. Talayesva’s account also includes traditional otherworldly motifs such as
“the Judgment Seat” on Mount Beautiful, which supports a great red stairway,
at least in his vision. (This peak is actually located about eight miles
west of Oraibi.)
Furthermore, we hear of a confrontation with the Lord of
Death, in this case a threatening version of Masau’u (the
Hopi equivalent of Osiris), who chases after him. Thus, like the Egyptian journey to the
the Hopi journey to Maski (literally, “House of Death”) has two roads
on land and one on water. In this context we must decide whether or not the
latter is really a code word for the sky.
In the “double-speak” of the
astral-terrestrial correlation theory, are these spirits in actuality
ascending to the celestial river of the Milky Way? Is this, then, the
purpose of the grand Orion schema? - to draw a map on earth which points the
way to the stars?
Returning to the subject of Orion projected upon the deserts of both
and Arizona, we find both discrepancies and parallels. In terms of
distinction the Egyptian plan is on a much smaller scale than the one
incorporating the Arizona stellar cities, using tens of kilometers rather
than hundreds of miles. Furthermore, the bright stars of Betelgeuse and
Rigel are perplexingly unaccounted for in the Egyptian schema.
independent Egyptologists, Larry Dean Hunter and Michael Arbuthnot, claimed
to have found all the stars of Orion represented by constructions on the
Egyptian landscape. However, their terrestrial correlations are somewhat
different than those originally put forth by Bauval and Gilbert. See “The
Orion Pyramid Theory” in the Research/Articles section of the Team Atlantis
In addition, from head to foot the Giza terrestrial
oriented southeast to northwest, while the Arizona Orion is oriented
southwest to northeast. Of course, the pyramids are located west of the Nile
River, while the Hopi Mesas are located east of the “Nile of Arizona,”
i.e., the Colorado River. We should also point out that Abusir is not in the
correct location to match Orion’s head on the constellatory template.
and Gilbert state that Abusir is,
“...a kilometer or so south-east of Zawyat
28. (Bellatrix, or
Orion’s left shoulder)
It is in fact about six
kilometers southeast. In other words, Abusir is nearly four miles
south-southeast of where it should be according to the Star Correlation
Theory. Unlike Bauval, Gilbert, and Hancock, the present author has not yet
traveled to Egypt, but the consultation of any scale map will verify this
Despite these few differences, the basic orientation of the Egyptian Orion
is similar to that of the Arizona Orion, i.e., south, the reverse of the
celestial Orion. According to Dr. E.C. Krupp, Director of the
Observatory, this is one of the factors that invalidates the Orion
This critique, however, is the result of a specific
cultural bias in which an observer is looking down upon a map with north at
the top and south at the bottom. Imagine instead that the observer is
standing on top of the Great Pyramid (or for that matter, at the southern
First Mesa) and gazing southward just after midnight on the winter
The other two pyramids (or Mesas) would be stretching off to the
southwest in a pattern that reflects the Belt of Orion now achieving
culmination in the southern sky. We can further imagine that if the upper
portion of the terrestrial Orion were simply lifted perpendicular to the
apparent plane of the earth while his feet were still planted in the same
position (Abu Ruwash and an undetermined site in the case of Egypt;
de Chelly and Betatakin in the case of Arizona), then this positioning would
perfectly mirror Orion as we see him in the sky.
When the Anasazi gazed into the heavens, they were not looking at an
extension of the physical world as we perceive it today but were instead
witnessing a manifestation of the spirit world. Much like the Egyptian
the Hopi Underworld encompasses the skies as well as the region beneath the
surface of the earth.
This fact is validated by the dichotomous existence of
ancestor spirits who live in the subterranean realm but periodically return
to their earthly villages in the form of storm clouds bringing the blessing
of rain. Even though the eastern and western domains ruled by Tawa remain
constant, the polar directions of north and south, controlled by the Elder
and Younger Warrior Twins (sons of the Sun) respectively, are reversed.
the right hand holding the nodule club is in the east and the left hand
holding the shield is in the west, similar to the star chart. However, the
head is pointed roughly southward rather than northward. This inversion is
completely consistent with Hopi cosmology because the terrestrial
configuration is seen as a reversal of the spirit world, of which the sky is
merely another dimension.
An alternate explanation for the change of
directions is the possibility that the pole shift which destroyed the Hopis’
Second World reversed the position of the constellation's mundane aspect.
At any rate, when looking up at Orion on a midwinter night, we can imagine
that our perspectives have switched and that we are suspended high above the
land, gazing to the southwest toward the sacred katsina peaks and the head
of the celestial Masau’u suffused in the evergreen forests of the
Ironically, it is here on the high desert of Arizona that we also intuit the
truth of the hermetic maxim attributed to the Egyptian god
“As above, so below.”
1. Grigsby cited in Graham Hancock, Santha Faiia, Heaven’s Mirror: Quest For
the Lost Civilization (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 127.
2. J. McKim Malville, Claudia Putnam, Prehistoric Astronomy in the Southwest
(Boulder Colorado: Johnson Books, 1993, 1989), p. 23.
3. Inhabited from A.D. 1026 (or possibly earlier in light of the underlying
pit house) through 1300, King’s Ruin has a thirteen room foundation, twelve
of which could have been two stories high. The five hundred pieces of unworked shells found at the site indicate substantial trade with the
Pacific. Necklaces of turquoise, black shale and argillite were also found,
one of the former material consisting of 2,031 beads that stretched
sixty-six inches long. Fifty-five graves were also discovered, containing
sixty-six individuals, most of which were buried in the extended posture
with heads oriented toward the east, awaiting Pahana’s return. Ginger
Johnson, A View of Prehistory in the Prescott Region (Prescott, Arizona:
privately published,1995) pp. 8-9.
4. Occupied for a few generations after A.D. 1088, abandoned and then
reoccupied between 1225 and the late 1200s, Salmon Ruin near the San Juan
River contained from between 600 and 750 rooms. It also had a tower kiva
built on a platform twenty feet high which was made of rock imported from
thirty miles away. Ten miles north of Salmon is Aztec Ruin (an obvious
misnomer) located on the Animas River. At its peak development it contained
about 500 rooms. Like the former, this latter site was originally inhabited
in the early twelfth century by people of Chaco Canyon and then re-inhabited
from 1225 to 1300 by people of Mesa Verde. In addition, it has a restored
5. Inhabited from A.D. 1226-1276, Wide Ruin, or Kin Tiel, about fifty miles
due south of Canyon de Chelly, is an oval shaped pueblo of 150 to 200 rooms
with a number of kivas. Atsinna pueblo, located atop a high mesa at El Morro
National Monument, was a mid-thirteenth century rectangular structure, part
of which was three stories in height. It had 500-1000 rooms and two kivas,
one circular and the other square.
--a. David Grant Noble, Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: An Archaeological
Guide (Flagstaff, Arizona: Northland
Publishing, 1989, reprint 1981).
--b. Norman T Oppelt, Guide to Prehistoric Ruins of the Southwest (Boulder,
Colorado: Pruett Publishing Company, 1989, reprint 1981).
6. Constructed in the mid-eleventh century, Casamero Ruin was a small thirty
room pueblo. However, its Great Kiva, one of the largest in the Southwest,
was seventy feet in diameter-- even slightly more spacious than the better
known Casa Rinconada at Chaco Canyon about forty-five miles to the north.
Noble, Ancient Ruins, pp. 89-90; and Oppelt, Guide To Prehistoric Ruins, p.
7. Robert H. Lister and Florence C. Lister, Those Who Came Before:
Southwestern Archeology in the National Park System (Tucson, Arizona:
Southwestern Parks & Monuments Association, 1994, reprint 1993), p. 224.
8. Located in the Mogollon Mountains of west-central New Mexico, Gila Cliff
Dwellings National Monument is a ruin comprised of forty rooms in five
separate caves located 150 feet above the canyon floor. The timbers of these
structures have been tree-ring dated in the 1280s. The late Mogollon, or
Mimbres, people are known for their exquisite black on white pottery, using
realistic though stylized designs. The site was abandoned by 1400. Noble,
Ancient Ruins, pp. 7-8.
9. Casa Malpais is a thirteenth century Mogollon site of a hundred rooms
with a square Great Kiva (one of the largest in the Southwest), catacombs,
ceremonial rooms, three winding stone stairways and an astronomical
observatory. Because of the nature of the artifacts found, such as crystals,
ceremonial pipes, and soapstone fetish stands, it is thought to have been
primarily a religious center. Stan Smith, “House of the Badlands,” Arizona
Highways, August, 1993, pp. 39-44.
10. Located nearly ninety miles southeast of Homol’ovi and about twelve
miles north of the Casa Malpais, the Raven Site (privately owned by the
White Mountain Archeological Center) was occupied as early as A.D. 800
through A.D. 1450 and had more than eight hundred rooms and two kivas. James
R. Cunkle, Raven Site Ruin: Interpretive Guide (St. Johns, Arizona: White
Mountain Archaeological Center, no publication date).
11. Jefferson Reid and Stephanie Whittlesey, The Archaeology of Ancient
Arizona (Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1997), p. 220.
12. Occupied from A.D. 1085-1207, Ridge Ruin was a thirty room pueblo with
three kivas and a Maya-style ball court. It was also the site of the
so-called Magician’s Burial. Thought by Hopi elders to be of the Motswimi,
or Warrior society, this apparently important man was interred with
twenty-five whole pottery vessels and over six hundred other
artifacts,including shell and stone jewelry, turquoise mosaics, woven
baskets, wooden wands, arrow points, and a bead cap.
--a. Rose Houk, Sinagua: Prehistoric Cultures of the Southwest (Tucson,
Arizona: Southwest Parks & Monuments Association, 1992), p. 7.
--b. Oppelt, Guide to Prehistoric Ruins, pp. 99-100.
--c. Reid and Whittlesey, Archaeology of Ancient Arizona, pp. 219-220.
13. The eponymous Winona Village, which was occupied at the end of the 11th
century, contained about twenty pit houses and five surface storage rooms. Oppelt, Guide To Prehistoric Ruins, p. 99.
14. The Emilienne Ruin had a foundation of twelve rooms, most of which could
have been two stories high, plus eleven outlying one-room units.
15. The Fitzmaurice Ruin, occupied from A.D. 1140-1300, had twenty seven
rooms in which were found beads, pendants, bracelets, and eighty one
amulets, including crystals, animal fetishes, obsidian nodules (so-called
“Apache Tears”) and a curious six-faceted, truncated pyramid carved from
jadeite and measuring 1.5 centimeters wide.
--a. Franklin Barnett, Excavation of Main Pueblo At Fitzmaurice Ruin:
Prescott Culture in Yavapai County, Arizona (Flagstaff, Arizona: Museum of
Northern Arizona, 1974), p. 95.
--b. Johnson, Prehistory in the Prescott Region, p. 16.
16. Similar to the Nazca lines of Peru, these intaglios of human, animal,
and star figures, some over a hundred of feet long, were made by removal of
the darker, “desert varnished” pebbles, exposing the lighter soil beneath.
Reid and Whittlesey, Archaeology of Ancient Arizona, pp. 127-129.
--According to the Mohave and Quechan tribes of the lower Colorado River
region, the human figures represent the deity Mastamho, the Creator of the
Earth and all life. Notice the similarity between the name of this god and
that of the Hopi earth god Masau’u. These figures are thought to be between
450 and 2000 years old.
Also at 1:15 a.m. on this date Bellatrix is at 240 degrees azimuth and
Meissa is at 242 degrees azimuth. Forty minutes later Alnilam is at 240
degrees, the azimuthal degree at which the sun will set on this same day at
5:15 p.m. Incidentally, at this winter solstice sunset time Orion is just
rising on the opposite horizon, thus emphasizing the pivotal relationship of
Orion/Masau’u and the Sun/Tawa. All astronomical computations performed with
Skyglobe. Mark A. Haney, Skyglobe 2.04 for Windows [floppy disk] (Ann Arbor,
Michigan: KlassM Software, 1997).
18. Edmund Nequatewea cited by John D. Loftin, Religion and Hopi Life In the
Twentieth Century (Bloomington, Indiana:Indiana University Press, 1994,
reprint 1991), p. 33.
19. Frank Waters and Oswald White Bear Fredericks, Book of the Hopi (New
York: Penguins Books, 1987, reprint,
1963), pp. 158-161.
20. Richard Maitland Bradfield, An Interpretation of Hopi Culture (Derby,
England: published by author, 1995), pp. 134-135.
21. Stephen cited by Ray A. Williamson, Living the Sky: The Cosmos of the
American Indian (Norman, Oklahoma:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1989, reprint 1984), pp. 79-82.
22. Waters and Fredericks, Book of the Hopi, pp. 161-162.
23. Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert, The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the
Secrets of the Pyramids (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1994), p. 125 ff.
24. Adrian Gilbert, Signs in the Sky (London: Bantam Press, 2000), p. 65.
25. Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, The Message of the Sphinx: A Quest For
the Hidden Legacy of Mankind (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1996), p. 175.
--The discussion by Bauval, Gilbert, and Hancock of the Egyptian master plan
is a great deal more complex than what is merely sketched out in this
article. Their opus involves various facets such as precession of the
equinoxes, star-targeted shafts in the Great Pyramid, and other topics which
are not directly relevant to our discussion. However, this compelling work
overall has challenged many orthodox ideas in Egyptology and has spawned
heated debates both on the amateur and the professional levels.
26. Don Talayesva, Leo W. Simmons, editor, Sun Chief: An Autobiography of a
Hopi Indian (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974, 1942) pp. 121-128.
27. Reid and Whittlesey, The Archaeology of Ancient Arizona, p. 112.
28. Bauval and Gilbert, The Orion Mystery, p. 139.
29. T.G.H. James, Ancient Egypt: The Land and Its Legacy (Austin: University
of Texas Press, 1989, 1988), p. 41.
30. E.C. Krupp, Skywatchers, Shamans, & Kings: Astronomy and the Archaeology
of Power (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), pp. 290-291.