President Wilson delivers his "Fourteen Points" speech on
January 8th, naming 14 points to be used as a guide for a peace
settlement. The speech will do much to undermine German morale
during the final months of the war.
William B. Thompson, who was in Petrograd from July until
November last, has made a personal contribution of $1,000,000 to
the Bolsheviki for the purpose of spreading their doctrine in
Germany and Austria. (Washington Post, February 2, 1918)
World War I Ends. The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapses. Germany
faces long-term financial ruin under the treaty of Versailles.
Wilson is the first president to travel outside the U.S. office,
leaving for the Versailles Peace Conference on December 4th.
Enormous crowds gather wherever he goes, sobbing, cheering, and
shouting his name.
"Dear Mr. President: I am in sympathy with the Soviet form of
government as that best suited for the Russian people..."
(Letter to President Woodrow Wilson (October 17, 1918) from
William Lawrence Saunders, chairman, Ingersoll-Rand Corp.;
director, American International Corp.; and deputy chairman,
Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
Abram Givatovzo, cousin of Leon Trotsky, who was a private
banker in Kiev before the Russian Revolution and in Stockholm
after the revolution, represents the Soviets in currency
transactions even though he is a professed antibolshevik.
Michael Gruzenberg, the chief Bolshevik agent in Scandinavia who
under the alias of Alexander Gumberg is also a confidential
adviser to the Chase National Bank in New York and later to
Floyd Odium of Atlas Corporation. This dual role was known to
and accepted by both the Soviets and his American employers. The
Gruzenberg story is a case history of international revolution
allied with international capitalism.
Despite many complaints of corruption and scandal in the U.S.
Food Administration, no one was ever indicted. After the war,
the partners of J. Henry Schroder Company found that they now
owned most of Cuba’s sugar industry. One partner, M.E. Rionda,
was president of Cuba Cane Corporation, and director of Manati
Sugar Company, American British and Continental Corporation, and
other firms. Baron Bruno von Schroder, senior partner of the
firm, was a director of North British and Mercantile Insurance
Company. His father, Baron Rudolph von Schroder of Hamburg, was
a director of Sao Paulo Coffee Ltd., one of the largest
Brazilian coffee companies, with F.C. Tiarks, also of the
A group from 120 Broadway formed the American-Russian Industrial
Syndicate Inc. to exploit Russian markets and the earlier
support given the Bolsheviks. The financial backing for the new
firm came from the Guggenheim Brothers, 120 Broadway, previously
associated with William Boyce Thompson (Guggenheim controlled
American Smelting and Refining, and the Kennecott and Utah
copper companies); from Harry F. Sinclair, president of Sinclair
Gulf Corp., also 120 Broadway; and from James G. White of J. G.
White Engineering Corp. of 43 Exchange Place - the address of
the American-Russian Industrial Syndicate.
RCA founded. Within a year of its foundation, engineers began
publishing papers and organizing the study of long-range radio
The Rockefeller Foundation’s work in the natural sciences
begins, with support to the National Research Council to
establish fellowships in physics and chemistry. More than $4.5
million is expended over 33 years to train more than 1,000
During a strenuous speaking tour through the Midwest and the Far
West to promote the League of Nations to the American people,
Wilson collapses from fatigue and nervous tension. After
returning to Washington, he suffers a paralytic stroke. But he
doesn’t give up the presidency. Only his wife and his doctor are
allowed to see him. When Secretary of State Robert Lansing
presumes to call Cabinet meetings, Wilson promptly dismisses
him. He refuses to allow his vice president, Thomas R. Marshall,
to take charge.
Franklin Roosevelt is a strong believer in the League of
Nations. He and Ohio governor James M. Cox as vice presidential
and presidential nominees, go on nationwide tours, speaking for
the full entry of the U.S. into the organization. Roosevelt
makes more than a thousand speeches.
The Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
Harding votes against it.
Governor Coolidge gains to national prominence when he summons
the state guard to keep order in Boston during the police
strike. He says: "There is no right to strike against the public
safety by anybody, anywhere, any time."
The U.S. embassy in London cabled Washington in the fall, about
Messrs. Lubovitch and Rossi "representing American-Russian
Industrial Syndicate Incorporated - What is the reputation and
the attitude of the Department toward the syndicate and the
individuals?" To this cable State Department officer Basil Miles
replied: . . . Gentlemen mentioned together with their
corporation are of good standing being backed financially by the
White, Sinclair and Guggenheim interests for the purpose of
opening up business relations with Russia."
A business decline will bring unemployment and the collapse of
farm prosperity. People will blame Wilson and the Democrats.
Warren Harding with his plea for a "return to normalcy" after
the war is elected president on November 2nd. Calvin Coolidge of
Massachusetts is elected vice president.
President Wilson is unable to participate in the campaign.
Harding and Coolidge defeat James M. Cox of Ohio and Franklin D.
Roosevelt of New York in a landslide.
Woodrow Wilson is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10th
for his work in founding the League of Nations and seeking a
fair peace agreement.
Rockefeller Foundation endows a second and third school of
public health in the U.S.- Harvard University and the
of Michigan -and launches an ambitious plan to circle the globe
with schools. Spending more than $25 million, RF helps establish
schools in Prague, Warsaw, London, Toronto, Copenhagen,
Budapest, Oslo, Belgrade, Zagreb, Madrid, Cluj (Romania),
Ankara, Sofia, Rome, Tokyo, Athens, Bucharest, Stockholm,
Calcutta, Manila, and Sao Paulo.
Infantile paralysis or poliomyelitis ("polio") is widespread in
the summer of 1921. Franklin Roosevelt contracts the
disease--his legs are completely and permanently paralyzed.
RCA hired Alfred Goldsmith as consulting head of Research
Department while he taught electrical engineering at the City
College of New York. Two years later, Goldsmith led a crew of
engineers, technicians, and scientists to the new Technical and
Test Laboratory opposite Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx in New
York City. There they tried to maintain quality control and
standardization of the vacuum tubes and radios manufactured by
General Electric and Westinghouse Companies and marketed by
Between 1930 and 1932, David Sarnoff re-organized RCA as an
independent company that manufactured as well as marketed
Poland. Many witnesses in observe a silvery object, two
hemispheres divided by a rotating ring. The object ’shoots’ a
beam of light, and then rises with a loud noise.
Samuel Russell established Russell and Company for the purpose
of acquiring opium in Turkey and smuggling it to China. Russell
and Company merged with the Perkins (Boston)
syndicate in and
became the primary American opium smuggler. Many of the great
American and European fortunes were built on the "China"(opium)
trade. One of Russell and Company’s Chief of Operations in
Canton was Warren Delano, Jr., grandfather of Franklin
Roosevelt. Other Russell partners included John Cleve Green (who
financed Princeton), Abiel Low (who financed construction of
Columbia), Joseph Coolidge and the Perkins, Sturgis and
Forbes families. (Coolidge’s son organized the United Fruit company,
and his grandson, Archibald C. Coolidge, was a co-founder of the
Council on Foreign Relations both of which will be itemized
Early in the year, Harding suffers from a severe attack of
influenza, followed by other disorders. His wife is also in poor
health. He decides to go on a speaking tour that could help his
health and his popularity. He leaves with his wife and a party
of 65 on a 1,500-mile, 2-month trip to Alaska with stops at
cities along the way. Exhausted, he becomes ill in Seattle and
dies of bronchopneumonia and a possible cerebral hemorrhage on
August 2nd in San Francisco’s Palace Hotel. Mrs. Harding
immediately returns to Washington and burns all of his papers.
He leaves an administration torn by scandal, but was a popular
president and is deeply mourned by the nation. Vice President
Calvin Coolidge is vacationing at his father’s home in Plymouth,
Vermont. It takes several hours for the news of President
Harding’s death in California to reach the small town. Because
the chief justice of the Supreme Court is 500 miles away,
Coolidge’s father, a notary public, administers the oath of
office to his son by the light of a kerosene lamp at 2:30 a.m.
Harry A. Franck, explorer, visits the
Xianyang mounds previously
seen by Robert Sterling Clark in 1908.
Beyond Sienyang the whole dust-hazy landscape was covered as far
as the eye could see with graves, not the little conical
spatters of earth to be seen in myriads all over China, but
immense mounds by the score, some of them veritable mountains.
(Wandering in North China)
The Virginia Racial Integrity Act passed on the advice of
Laughlin (Eugenics lab funded by Harrimans and
was finally overturned and struck off the books by order of the
US Federal Supreme Court as late as 1967.
On February 22nd, Calvin Coolidge delivers the first
presidential radio broadcast from the White House.
Ireland, County Wexford. Two boys watched for several minutes as
a solid beam of light several feet long traveled through the air
a few feet from the ground. It moved at approximately 10mph,
climbing a hedge and crossing a field, before encountering a
railroad track and moving off along its length.
Coolidge wins a second
term as president.
United States, Moora, WA. Two Australian teenagers stumbled upon
a saucer-shaped shimmering object resting on four legs in a
paddock near. They ran off in fear.
Mongolia. During his expedition explorer
Nicholas Roerich and
members of his caravan, caught sight of a huge oval-shaped
object high in the sky. It had a shiny surface that reflected
the sun on one side and moved at great speed north to south.
Charles Lindbergh is the first person to fly across the Atlantic
Stalin comes to power in the former Soviet Union.
Romania. A cylindrical object flew over a Rumanian village at an
altitude of 200-300 m from west to east. Smoke gray in color it
was an estimated 15-20 m in length and had a diameter of 3-4 m.
It was not illuminated and passed soundlessly.
Australia, Fernvale. A disc-shaped object with a dome on top was
seen to light up a valley as it landed one evening. The
witnesses returned the next day and discovered a circle of
scorched grass about 10m in diameter.
Albert Mitchell-Hedges discovers
crystal skulls in Central
America. The clearing of the ancient Mayan city in the tropical
jungles of the Yucatan peninsula (it’s today’s Belize) in 1924
preceded the discovery. It was decided to burn down thirty three
hectares of forests that covered the ancient buildings. When the
smoke finally lifted, the expedition saw an unbelievable scene:
stone ruins of a pyramid, of the city walls, and an enormous
amphitheater that could hold up to several thousands spectators.
During the excavation of the ruins, Mitchell-Hedges discovered
the crystal skulls. His find became the most mysterious
discovery of the 20th century.
Coolidge declines to run for president again.
Herbert Hoover was "designated" to run for president of the
United States. There was only one problem; although Herbert
Hoover had been born in the United States, and was thus eligible
for the office of the presidency, according to the Constitution,
he had never had a business address or a home address in the
United States, as he had gone abroad just after completing
college at Stanford. The result was that during his campaign for
the presidency, Herbert Hoover listed as his American address
Suite 2000, 42 Broadway, New York, which was the office of Edgar
Rickard. Suite 2000 was also shared by the grain tycoon and
partner of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation, Julius H.
The New York Times carried a story headlined: "Einstein on verge
of great discovery; resents intrusion," followed by another
headline: "Einstein reticent on new work; will not "count unlaid
eggs." These stories erroneously state that Einstein was
preparing a book on a new theory. In fact, as his correspondence
shows, and his colleagues confirmed, he was at work on a short
paper trying out a new version of UFT by means of distant
parallelism. At the time, Einstein’s name was as magical then as
a rock star is today and considering the impending stock market
crash, it is very likely that these were merely distractions for
Einstein’s friend Eddington wrote to him saying
"You may be
amused to hear that one of our great department stores in London
has posted on its window your paper (the six pages pasted up
side by side), so that passers-by can read it all through. Large
crowds gather around to read it!"
So great was the public clamor
for a hero that Einstein had to go into hiding. And, as it
turned out, it was much ado about almost nothing. His attempt to
derive his equations from a variational principle had to be
The Rockefeller Foundation formally embarks on programs in the
social sciences, with the consolidation of the activities of the
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial into RF. Directed by
Beardsley Ruml, the Memorial concentrated on increasing manpower
and developing facilities for research "in a systematic
investigation of concrete social problems." A year later
identifies three major social science fields for support:
international relations, economic stabilization, and
administration. Grants are to go for research, conferences, and
Rockefeller Foundation also makes grants to build the
America’s first TV station (W3XK) begins scheduled television
Herbert Hoover becomes the 31st president and the first
president born west of the Mississippi River.
Stock Market Crash - The Great Depression begins. The stock
market crash throws the nation’s economic system into disorder.
Roosevelt’s vigorous relief policies convince people that he is
on their side. Joseph Kennedy is one of the few financiers to
sense the coming crash and makes hundreds of millions of
dollars--he will set up a million-dollar trust fund for each
child to free them from future financial worry and allow them to
devote their lives to the public good, if they desire.
Einstein was again sure he was "on the right track."
Wolfgang Pauli wrote scathingly:
inventiveness as well as his tenacious energy in the pursuit of
[unification] guarantees us in recent years, on the average, one
theory per annum"
It is psychologically interesting that for
some time the current theory is usually considered by its author
to be the "definitive solution."
Secretary of State Henry Stimson refuses to endorse a
code-breaking operation, saying, "Gentlemen do not read each
Agreement between Rockefeller Foundation and the General
Education Board paves the way for the Foundation to "accept
responsibility for the support of the natural sciences."
Archaeologists working on excavation of the ancient Athenian
Agora receive support through grants to the American School of
Classical Studies, Athens. Other early RF efforts in the
humanities include support to the Oriental Institute of the
University of Chicago to train archaeologists and Harvard’s
Art Museum to train curators and art historians, and for
building library collections abroad. Max Mason becomes president
of RF and serves until 1936.
Institute for Advanced Study founded. This ivory tower of
academia, if ever there was one, was the result of a
"synchronous" act of philanthropy. The Institute was
underwritten with a gift from Mr. Louis Bamberger and his
sister, Mrs. Felix Fuld, under the guidance of the famous
educator Abraham Flexner, who originated the concept from which
the Institute took its form. The Bambergers originally thought
of endowing a dental school, which is probably why they
consulted Flexner when they decided that they wanted to give
some of their fortune away. Flexner was a high school principal
who wrote a report on American Colleges. Based on this report
and the recommendation of his brother, a pathologist with
connections to existing medical schools, he was chosen by the
Carnegie Foundation to do a study of American Medical Education
just after the turn of the century. Flexner visited medical
schools across the nation on a schedule that barely allowed him
a whole day each for the evaluation of some schools. His efforts
were closely linked with the American Medical Association, who
provided resources. Although purporting to be objective, the
Report actually established guidelines that were designed to
sanction orthodox medical schools and condemn homeopathic ones
and alternative therapies. In short, it was biased toward allopathy and the
The New York Herald Tribune of February 18, 1930, quoted by
Congressman Louis McFadden in the House on February 26, 1930,
"One of Belgium’s two directors on the Bank for
International Settlements will be Emile Francqui of the
Generale, a member of both the Young and Dawes Plan Committees.
The board of directors of the international bank will have no
more colorful character than Emile Francqui, former Minister of
Finance, veteran of the Congo and China . . . he is rated as the
richest man in Belgium, and among the twelve richest men in
Despite his prominence, The New York Times Index mentions
Francqui only a few times during two decades before his death.
On October 3, 1931, The New York Times quoted Le Peuple of
Brussels that Francqui would visit the United States.
friend of President Hoover, Monsieur Francqui will not fail to
pay a visit to the President." On October 30, 1931, The New York
Times reported this visit with the headline, "Hoover-Francqui
Talk was Unofficial". "It was stated that Mr. Francqui spent
Tuesday night as a personal guest of the President, and that
they talked of world financial problems in general, strictly
unofficial. Mr. Francqui was an associate of President Hoover
during the latters ministrations in Belgium during the war.
Their visit had no official significance. Mr. Francqui is a
private citizen and not engaged in any official mission."
reference is made to the Hoover-Francqui business associations
which were the subject of huge lawsuits in London before WW I.
The Francqui visit probably involved Hoover’s Moratorium on
German War Debts, which stunned the financial world. On December
15, 1931, Chairman McFadden informed the House of a dispatch in
the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, October 24, 1931,
REVEALS HOOVER’S SECRET.
The American President was in intimate
negotiations with the German government regarding a year’s debt
holiday as early as December, 1930." McFadden continued, "Behind
the Hoover announcement there were many months of hurried and
furtive preparations both in Germany and in Wall Street offices
of German bankers. Germany, like a sponge, had to be saturated
with American money. Mr. Hoover himself had to be elected,
because this scheme began before he became President. If the
German international bankers of Wall Street--that is Kuhn Loeb
Company, J. & W. Seligman, Paul Warburg, J. Henry Schroder--and
their satellites had not had this job waiting to be done,
Herbert Hoover would never have been elected President of the
United States. The election of Mr. Hoover to the Presidency was
through the influence of the Warburg Brothers, directors of the
great bank of Kuhn Loeb Company, who carried the cost of his
election. In exchange for this collaboration Mr. Hoover promised
to impose the moratorium of German debts. Hoover sought to
exempt Kreuger’s loan to Germany of $125 million from the
operation of the Hoover Moratorium. The nature of Kreuger’s
swindle was known here in January when he visited his friend,
Mr. Hoover, in the White House."
(Not only did Hoover entertain
Francqui in the White House, but also Ivar Kreuger, the most
famous swindler of the twentieth century.)
Herbert Hoover appoints one of the old London crowd,
Meyer, as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board. Meyer’s father
had been one of the partners of Lazard Freres of Paris, and
Lazard Brothers of London. Meyer, with Baruch, had been one of
the most powerful men in the United States during World War I, a
member of the famous Triumvirate which exercised unequalled
power; Meyer as Chairman of the War Finance Corporation,
Baruch as Chairman of the War Industries Board, and Paul Warburg
as Governor of the Federal Reserve System.
Chairman Louis McFadden of the House Banking and Currency
Committee, a longtime critic of Eugene Meyer, was quoted in The
New York Times, December 17, 1930, as having made a speech on
the floor of the House attacking Hoover’s appointment of Meyer,
and charging that "He 74 represents the Rothschild interest and
is liaison officer between the French Government and J.P.
Morgan." On December 18, The Times reported that "Herbert Hoover
is deeply concerned" and that McFadden’s speech was "an
unfortunate occurrence." On December 20, The Times commented on
the editorial page, under the headline, "McFadden Again", "The
speech ought to insure the Senate ratification of Mr. Meyer as
head of the Federal Reserve. The speech was incoherent, as
McFadden’s speeches usually are." As The Times predicted,
was duly approved by the Senate.
The Hoover Moratorium was not intended to "help" Germany, as
Hoover had never been "pro-German". The Moratorium on Germany’s
war debts was necessary so that Germany would have funds for
rearming. In 1931, the truly forward-looking diplomats were
anticipating the Second World War, and there could be no war
without an "aggressor".
27 American states had enacted sterilization laws to allow the
compulsory sterilization of certain categories such as the
feebleminded and morons. By 1941, almost 36,000 individuals in
the US had been compulsorily sterilized under such laws. The
trend spread: within a few years a number of European countries
had followed suit with compulsory sterilization. These included
not only Nazi Germany, but also Switzerland and the
Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller
Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects
with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army
Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and
is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he
begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American
soldiers and civilian hospital patients.
Sir Francis Chichester
’like an oblong pearl’ drew
steadily closer until perhaps a mile away when, right under my
gaze as it were, it suddenly vanished. . . .But it reappeared
close to where it had vanished. . . .It drew closer. I could see
the dull gleam of light on nose and back. It came on, but
instead of increasing in size, it diminished as it approached!
When quite near, it suddenly became its own ghost. For one
second I could see clear through it and the next. . .it had
June 10, 1931 , Tasman Sea
Sir Francis Chichester, a
famous aviator, sailor, and author, reporting on a strange
sighting he had while flying his Gypsy Moth.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with
syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment,
and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the
progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently
die from syphilis, their families never told that they could
have been treated.
Rockefeller Foundation grants are used to establish full-time
departments of psychiatry in teaching hospitals and medical
schools, including Chicago, Duke, Harvard, McGill, St. Louis,
Tulane, Yale, and Washington.
The presidential campaign is staged against the background of
the depression. Millions of people mistakenly blame President
Hoover for the depression. Political manager James A. Farley is
able to procure a strong lead for Roosevelt long before the
Democratic convention opens. Roosevelt flies to Chicago to make
his acceptance speech in person, showing that he is prepared to
act boldly and that polio will not hamper him as president.
Hoover fights a vigorous battle, denouncing Roosevelt’s ideas,
but Roosevelt carries all but 6 states. Hoover then wants to
work with Roosevelt on emergency measures but Roosevelt believes
that without authority he can take no responsibility.
On December 13, 1932, Chairman McFadden introduced a resolution
of impeachment against President Hoover for high crimes and
misdemeanors, which covers many pages, including violation of
contracts, unlawful dissipation of the financial resources of
the United States, and his appointment of Eugene Meyer to the
Federal Reserve Board. The resolution was tabled and never acted
upon by the House since it is a moot point after the election of
In December of 1932, it seemed inevitable to many observers of
the German scene that Hitler was also ready for a toboggan slide
into oblivion. Despite the fact that he had done well in
national campaigns, he had spent all the money from his usual
sources and now faced heavy debts.
In his book Aggression, Otto Lehmann-Russbeldt tells us that
"Hitler was invited to a meeting at the Schroder Bank in Berlin
on January 4, 1933. The leading industrialists and bankers of
Germany tided Hitler over his financial difficulties and enabled
him to meet the enormous debt he had incurred in connection with
the maintenance of his private army. In return, he promised to
break the power of the trade unions. On May 2, 1933, he
fulfilled his promise."
Present at the January 4, 1933 meeting
were the Dulles brothers, John Foster Dulles and
Allen W. Dulles
of the New York law firm, Sullivan and Cromwell, which
represented the Schroder Bank. The Dulles brothers often turned
up at important meetings. They had represented the United States
at the Paris Peace Conference (1919); John Foster Dulles would
die in harness as Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, while
Dulles headed the Central Intelligence Agency for many years.
Their apologists have seldom attempted to defend the Dulles
brothers appearance at the meeting which installed Hitler as the
Chancellor of Germany, preferring to pretend that it never
happened. One biographer, Leonard Mosley, bypasses it in
when he states,
"Both brothers had spent large amounts of time
in Germany, where Sullivan and Cromwell had considerable
interest during the early 1930’s, having represented several
provincial governments, some large industrial combines, a number
of big American companies with interests in the Reich, and some
Allen Dulles later became a director of
J. Henry Schroder
Company. Neither he nor J. Henry Schroder were ever suspected of
being pro-Nazi or pro-Hitler; the inescapable fact was that if
Hitler did not become Chancellor of Germany, there was little
likelihood of getting a Second World War going, the war which
would double their profits.
On February 15th, Giuseppe "Joe" Zangara tries to assassinate
president-elect Franklin Roosevelt but kills Chicago mayor
J. Chermak instead.
The depression deepens before Roosevelt takes office. More than
20 states declare bank "holidays" to stop panic withdrawals on
Roosevelt’s March 4th inaugural address is broadcast on the
radio and does much to restore public confidence. In foreign
affairs, he is a follower of Woodrow Wilson, wanting world
peace, close friendship with Latin America and the British
Empire, and more foreign trade. Roosevelt appoints Frances
Perkins, a well-known social worker, as secretary of labor, the
first woman Cabinet member.
When Congress ends its 99-day special session, an amazing number
of laws have been passed. Roosevelt says he will be satisfied if
he is right 60% of the time.
Congress passes the Securities Act.
Congress passes the Tennessee Valley Authority Act.
Congress Passes the Banking Act (’33).
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. It is ironic that when the
Nazis came to power in 1933 they found many of their ideas about
human fitness already in place within the medical and scientific
communities of Britain and America. A eugenic
was enacted immediately, inspired partly by what was happening
in the US. By the 1940s some 400,000 people had been sterilized
on eugenics grounds. A whole bureaucracy was established: there
were Erbklinik (genetic clinics), Erbgesundheitsgerichte
(genetic courts), ErbŠmter (genetic officials).
In April of 1933, Hitler’s first anti-Jewish law was
promulgated, stripping all "non-Aryan" academics of their
teaching posts. The new law abruptly stripped a quarter of the
physicists in Germany, including eleven who had earned or would
earn Nobel Prizes, of their positions and their livelihood.
Under official Emergency Committee auspices thirty scientists
and scholars arrived in the U. S. in 1933, thirty-two in 1934,
only fifteen in 1935; but forty-three came in 1938, ninety-seven
in 1939, fifty-nine in 1940, and fifty in 1941. Of these,
approximately 100 were physicists.
Physicist Leo Szilard conceives the atomic chain reaction and
Rockefeller Foundation, beginning in 1933 and extending for more
than 20 years, expends $1.5 million in identifying and assisting
300 scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany to settle in
friendly locations; many relocate to U.S. universities.
Scandinavia. The month of December saw the beginning of the
Swedish ’Ghost Rockets’ Wave. It ended four years later with an
accumulation of 1,000 reports that also covered neighboring
Finland and Norway. Most sightings involved airplane-shaped
craft and luminous phenomena, none identified.
Hoover attacks FDR’s New Deal policies in
The Challenge to
Congress passes the Securities and Exchange Act.
In China, Mao Zedong and his followers begin
’The Long March.’
The British government classifies Physicist
Leo Szilard’s atomic
chain reaction patents.
Drs. E. L. Chaffee and R. U. Light write monograph:
A method for
Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System
Experiments in Distant Influence, book by Soviet Professor
Leonid L. Vasiliev. Vasiliev also wrote an article, "Critical
Evaluation of the Hypnogenic Method" concerning the work of
I. F. Tomashevsky on experiments in remote control of the brain.
The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from
Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health
Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the
agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra
is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of
the deaths occurred within poverty-striken black populations.
Parallel with the eugenics programme, the Nazi racial doctrines
were developed. The Nuremburg Race Laws of 1935 were drawn up
after extensive discussion amongst leading academics. It can
fairly be said that, rather than following their political
masters, the medical profession and the scientific establishment
were driving forces behind Nazi race theories. It is difficult
to exaggerate the degree to which mainstream German science was
involved. Racial theories, which grew out of the ideas of the
Society for Racial Hygiene and other groups, had become an
integral part of German academic life in the years after the
First World War.
Within the scientific community itself many individuals, some of
them early supporters of eugenics, came to oppose the movement.
Noteworthy were the American biologists Herbert Jennings and
Morgan, and the British biologists J.B.S. Haldane and
Huxley. The latter was grandson of Darwin’s great friend and
advocate, T.H. Huxley, and the brother of Aldous, whose
masterpiece Brave New World satirizes the eugenics movement.
Congress Passes the Banking Act
Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. During the Ethiopian War a
object hovered motionless in the sky above and was seen by many
Canada, Saskatchewan. Three witnesses saw landed
UFO at Nipawin,
and watched several little entities in silver suits ascending
and descending a ladder. Square imprints and burnt areas seen
and photographed at the location the next day.
John Maynard Keynes publishes The General Theory of Economics.
So-called "Macroeconomics" is born.
The Olympic Games are held in Berlin. African American track and
field star Jesse Owens wins gold medals.
A UFO crashed near the city of
Freiburg, according to some
sources. It is said that the UFO was retrieved, and that German
scientists attempted to understand the UFO’s energy system and
Herrlee Glessner Creel, sinologist and archaeologist notes in a
paper that the tombs of King Wen - to whom tradition ascribes
authorship of the I Ching - and his sons King Wu and the Duke of
Zhou were located on the ancient plateau previously visited by
Robert Sterling Clark in 1908 and Harry A. Franck in 1923. He
located the place northwest of modern-day Xi’an, north of the
Wei River in Shaanxi province and about four miles north of
Xianyang. He described the tumuli as
pyramids. Yet in his later work, (1970) a book about the
dynasty that Kings Wen and Wu founded, he never mentions the
burial mounds again. Nor does any other scholarly archaeological
text on China mention the subject after this point.
Einstein proposes to take Kaluza’s fifth dimension as REAL.
Estonia, Juminda. Two observers watched a 1-meter long object
that was greenish -brown in color until it finally disappeared.
Stalin tries the "Anti-Soviet bloc of rightists and
Trotskyites." The crux of the Stalinist accusation was that
Trotskyites were paid agents of international capitalism. K. G. Rakovsky, one of the 1938 defendants, said, or was induced to
say, "We were the vanguard of foreign aggression, of
international fascism, and not only in the USSR but also in
Spain, China, throughout the world." The summation of the
"court" contains the statement, "There is not a single man in
the world who brought so much sorrow and misfortune to people as
Trotsky. He is the vilest agent of fascism ...." And we are
reminded of the strange affair of Trotsky and Woodrow Wilson and
the Wall Street Bankers. What we notice, in particular, is that
Trotsky was supported by the same gang of international
capitalists, who, incidentally, were also supporters of
Mussolini and Hitler.
World War II begins in Europe, when Germany invades Poland.
In Germany, sterilization of the mentally retarded was replaced
by a euthanasia law. Now patients in mental hospitals could
simply be killed on eugenics grounds. Victims of this program,
both adults and children, were given lethal injections or
gassed; in the occupied territories, they were shot by the same
Einsatzgruppen that were killing Jews and gypsies. By 1941, when
protests against the policy of gassing patients had become so
great that orders were given by Hitler to stop, some 70,000 had
been killed. However, killing by other means continued, and even
took place after the end of the war.
Due to scientific criticism, the Carnegie Institution withdrew
funding from the Eugenics Record Office and closed it down in
1939. However, it was only the liberation of the concentration
camps, and the discovery of the work of men like Mengele, that
finally discredited the ’old’ eugenics movement.
Nevertheless, much legislation remained on the statute books.
Laws against miscegenation in various American states were
finally overturned by a federal Supreme Court ruling as late as
1967. In Sweden, eugenic sterilizations continued until 1976. In
total, some 62,000 Swedes were sterilized over the 40 years of
the programme, an unenviable per capita world record.
Julian Huxley’s brother, Aldous, wrote Brave New World with the
eugenics of the 1930s in mind, but his novel has a fair claim to
become the prophesy of the 21st century. For eugenics went
underground with the importation of the Nazi Scientists after WW
II. As we note, eugenics was formerly supported in Germany by
Rockefeller et al funding - but the outcry of the people after
the war made it imperative to take this work deep underground.
It is now supported on site and in secret.
Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with
order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to
combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg
cite this American study to defend their own actions during the
Rockefeller Foundation supports work to improve the design of
the Van de Graaff accelerator and makes a grant to
Lawrence for research on a 154-inch cyclotron-two tools of
physics used to study the nuclei of atoms.
Japan. While flying over Japan,
Wing Commander D.J. Blakeslee
sighted an object he described as having red, green and white
lights. The craft moved rapidly to escape detection. Blakeslee
was guided by ground radar. He was reported to be stable and
reliable. The Air Force officially ruled the sighting to be
Jupiter, although it was tracked by radar.
Roosevelt authorized the FBI to engage in electronic
eavesdropping against activities judged by Hoover to be
potentially detrimental to the internal security of the United