by A.N. Dmitriev , V.L. Dyatlov , A.V. Tetenov
(Geology institute UIGGM, Mathematics institute SB RAS, GornoAltaisk state University)
INTRODUCTION
The authors have developed a model of united electrogravidynamics based on the Maxwell's electrodynamics and Heaviside's (Minkovski's, Poincare's) gravidynamics. The model introduces a new object of study  a vacuum domain (VD) which is being considered, in the general model of the physical vacuum (PV) as it's nonhomogeneity or a local modification where the electrodynamics and the gravidynamics are coupled; whereas outside VD there is no such coupling at all.
Vacuum domains in the model possess a set of specific features which include penetration through any kind of matter, where the VD's introduce the electric, magnetic, gravitational, spin fields and the distributed angular momentum. Inside the VDs penetrating gravispin waves (gravitons) are transformed into the electromagnetic waves (photons)
To all the Earth shells from magnetosphere to mantle the VDs bring electric circuits and discharges, magnetic variations and pulses, mechanical stresses and changes in the velocity and intensity of chemical reactions in atmosphere, heliosphere and lithosphere: all these phenomena being unexplainable by classic theories. VDs are localized in lithosphere in the conductive and elastic media, where they may produce pulsed heat release ( such as "contact heat explosions" forming kimberlite pipes) and produce enormous torsion stress affecting the nature of tectonophysical processes and the seismic regime of the Earth.
VDs are identified with manifold natural selfluminous objects of different kinds, such as ball lightnings, "plasmoids", poltergeist, tornadoes, "angels", "small comets or atmospheric holes", ionosphere and atmospheric explosions, lithosphere explosion tubes, "sprites", the glows connected with the earthquakes and the volcanic eruptions.
That's why the study of natural selfluminous formations provide the experimental foundation for the development of physical and mathematical model of nonhomogeneous physical vacuum and vacuum domains.
MAIN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF VACUUM DOMAINS
Phenomenological study of the natural selfluminous objects and other anomalous phenomena connected with them allowed to establish the main physical properties of VDs which are shown in Table 1.
These properties are the following: penetration through the matter, selfemission and absorption of light and other electromagnetic radiation in the wide frequency range, the electric field inside and outside of VD that leads to electric breakdowns, magnetic field, the distortion of the gravitational field (levitation, weighting), rotation of the air and the dust inside VD, explosions ( which often do not change the form and the size of VD).
We add to these properties the following two:
first, that VD possesses a definite geometric form such as a ball, ellipsoid etc.
second, that frequency of VD encounters grows several times in the years of active Sun.
Physical properties of vacuum domains
Table 1
PROPERTIES/
PHENOMENA 
Penetra

Geo

Self

Electro

Electric field 
Magnetic field 
Levita

The rotation of the air, dust etc. 
Explo

Connec

Vacuum domains 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Ball lightnings 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Natural selfluminous objects 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Poltergeist 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
 
+ 
 
 
+ 
 
Tornado 
+ 
 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
+ 
+ 
 
"Angels" 
+ 
 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Small comets or atmospheris holes" 
+ 
 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ionospheric and atmospheric explosions 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
 
+ 
 
Lithospheric explosion pipes 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
+ 
 
"Sprites, elves" 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
+ 
 
 
 
 
 
Glowings connected with the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
+ 
+ 
Table 1 shows the following anomalous phenomena:
Ball lightnings
The most wellknown and studied anomalous phenomenon ^{[1,2]}. They display all the physical properties mentioned in Table 1. The papers don't mention the levitation, but it's hard to be observed due to relative smallness of the ball lightning (the diameter is equal to 1030 cm).
The natural selfluminous objects, i.e. "plasmoids"
These formations are large (10 m and more), and they are definitely selfluminous (fig.1, 2). Most often they appear near crust faults (in the energetically active zones of the Earth). Their physical properties are similar to those of ball lightnings ^{[3]}. At the same time the "levitation" is more definitely observable, as , for example , in the case of "Sasovo explosions" described by A.Yu.Olhovatov ^{[4]}.
Poltergeist
The anomalous phenomenon connected with a balllike slightly glowing object that can penetrate through the building walls, causes electric and magnetic fields and is able to cause damage to people ^{[5]}.
Tornado
A well known violent rotation movement of the air, which is evidently associated with natural selfluminous formations ( large ball lightnings inside the tornado column) and " swarms of ball lightnings". ^{[6, 7]}.
"Angels"
A special kind of radar interference ^{ [8]}. The radar have long since learned to tell "angels" from the "targets", e.g. airplanes and missiles. We have to notice that "angels" are detected some kilometers above tectonic faults whereas "the natural selfluminous formations" are found just above faults. So it's not hard to suppose that they are the same.
"Small comets or atmospheric holes"
Unknown bodies that fall to the Earth from the space. (About 20 each minute, creating "black holes" in upper ionosphere having appr. 30 miles size). They were discovered on ultraviolet images of the Earth made at high altitudes. The discoverers supposed that these objects consist of snow and ice, but this hypothesis was doubted, particularly, by the fact that the tremors on the moon surface that correspond to the collision with such objects had not been detected. Possibly, these objects are also vacuum domains ^{[9, 10]}.
Ionospheric and atmospheric explosions
These are the natural explosions in the upper atmosphere and in the ionosphere of the earth ^{ [5, 11]}.
Litospheric pipe explosions
These kimberlite pipes are the great mystery of the modern geology ^{[12]}.
"Sprites", elves, jets
Brief giant flashes in the atmosphere above thunderstorm cloud reaching 100 km height ^{[13]} often associated with most intense groups of cloudtoground lightnings
The luminescences associated with the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
A luminous formations that have intricate time relation to main events: they may appear before after and in the course of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions ^{[14]}. Nevertheless these luminous objects accompany almost all of such events.
Thus, in various natural processes on the Earth we meet these strange "natural selfluminous formations" or " ball lightnings". Summing up the main physical properties of these anomalous phenomena we obtain a complete list of their physical properties in which we recognize main physical properties of vacuum domains.
Therefore we suppose that all the described phenomena appear as the consequences of the physical processes in the vacuum domains.
Pic.1. Largescale NSLF above the Katun' mountain ridge.
The image was made aboard a helicopter on Aug. ,19 , 1972 at 11 local time.
The observers' attention was drawn by "whitish shining spots in the direction of mt. Belukha summits".
Disk and oval shapes, so distinctly visible on the photo, were not observed visually.
An estimate of the objects made using topographic charts of the region , gives more than 1,5 km.
Pic.2. "Belokurikha flame"
( the author unknown) by the observers' description " the flame grew
up from the Earth,
then rolled itself into a bright ball, rapidly flew up and disappeared in the sky".
The event happened in the area of fault net concentration of the southeastern part of Belokurikha massif.
The model of vacuum domains^{[15, 16]} is developed proceeding from the assumption that the physical vacuum is simultaneously electrical, magnetic, and gravitational polarization medium. In fact, this model of PV has appeared in 19th century, in the vacuum equations of Maxwell electrodynamics ^{ [17]} and vacuum equations of Heaviside gravidynamics ^{[18]} (Poincare ^{[19]}, Minkovski ^{ [20]}). The four "inductions" there are to be considered as the four polarizations of PV, namely, electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin ones.
Maxwell's vacuum equations can be presented as follows:
where E is electrical field; D = P_{E}  electrical induction and at the same time electrical polarization of PV , H'=m_{0}H magnetic field (according to modern vocabulary H magnetic field); e_{0}=8,855Ч10^{12}m^{3}kg^{1}s^{4}A^{2}; m_{0} = 1,257Ч10^{6}mkgs^{2}A^{2}; B' =P_{M} magnetic induction B/m_{0} ratio and simultaneously magnetic polarization of PV; r electric charge density; J= r v electric current density; v average velocity of electric current carriers.
Heaviside's vacuum equations can be presented as follows:
where E_{G}  gravitational field; D_{G} =P_{G} gravitational induction and at the same time gravitational polarization of PV; H'_{G}=m_{0G}H_{G} spin field; e_{0G}=1/4pG= 1,193Ч10^{9}m^{3}kgs^{2}; G=6,672Ч10^{11}m^{3}kg^{1}s^{2}  gravitational constant; m_{0G}=1/e_{0G}c^{2} = 0,9329Ч10^{26}mkg^{1}; c=2,998Ч10^{8}ms^{1}  the speed of light (the speed of the gravitation waves is assumed to be equal to the speed of light) B'_{G}= P_{S}  spin induction B_{G}/m_{0G} ratio and spin polarization of PV; r_{G} the density of the mass; J_{G}=r_{G} v the density of the gravitational current; v  the speed of the gravitational current carriers. Thus PV is characterized by four polarizations: P_{E } the density of the electric dipoles of PV; P_{M}  the density of the magnetic moments of PV; P_{G} the density of the gravitational dipoles of PV; P_{S}  the density of the spin moments (spins) of PV or the density of the angular momentum of PV.
According to (14) polarizations P_{E} and P_{M} are related as well as P_{G} and P_{S} polarizations, but the two pairs of polarizations P_{E} P_{M} and P_{G} P_{S} are completely independent of each other.
For the century of the physics development important changes have occurred in the concepts of the polarizational properties of the matter and PV. The connection between the magnet and the spin polarization in the matter is established. First it was discovered in the classic ferromagnetics and paramagnets in the gyromagnetic Barnett effects (1909) and EinsteindeGaaz effects (1911 ).
Then this connection was confirmed in the other materials using paramagnetic and nuclear resonance techniques. In the modern physics PV is considered to be a quark medium ("vacuum is not the void") in which squarks and santiquarks are connected into dipoles ^{ [21]}. Apparently, PV is the neutral medium ^{[22]}. This medium can be nothing else than the polarization medium.
Since PV quarks have electrical charges and mass, magnetic and spin moments, electrical and gravitational polarizations can be related in PV as well as magnet and spin polarizations. This connection between PV polarizations can be introduced to the Maxwell's vacuum equations (2) and Heaviside's vacuum equations (4).
But on the other hand the correction of the experimentally proved Maxwell's equations and quantum electrodynamics equations (based on Maxwell's equations) will necessarily lead to the unobserved physical phenomena.
The authors have found a solution of this problem ^{[16]}: the connection between electric and gravitational, magnetic and spin polarization was assumed to exist only in the local areas. So in PV theory an object has appeared that was called VD.
The mathematical model of the vacuum domains based on the discussed notions can be presented as follows:
where "cross" coefficients e_{1}=0; m_{1}=0 outside the area V of the vacuum domain and e_{1}† 0, m_{1}† 0 inside the area V of the vacuum domain; e, m, s  the relative electrical and magnetic permeabilities and the conductivity of the matter respectively; e_{G}, m_{G}, s_{G}  the relative gravitational and spin permeabilities and gravitational conductivity of the matter respectively (e_{G}, m_{G} are approximately equal to 1, s_{G} is small^{[15]}); s_{1}  electrogravitational conductivity of the matter (s_{1} is small); J_{0} = r_{0}v; J_{0G}= r_{0G}v; r_{0}, r_{0G}  mobile electric charges and masses respectively.
Outside VD the group of Lorentz transforms is observed, since equations
(58)  are relativistic. In the nonrelativistic approximation (v <<c)
E'= E + [vB];
E'_{G} =E_{G} + [vB_{G}], (9)
where E', E'_{G}  electric and gravitational fields in the moving bases.
Inside the domains the energy conservation law, the law of the conservation of momentum and the law of the conservation of the impulse are observed.
The investigation of the physical properties of VD can be reduced to the solution of the boundary problems with the terminal conditions on the boundaries of the given area V of VD and on the infinity (like the boundary conditions in the problems of electrodynamics).
Though the basic equations (5), (7) of the model are invariable in any problems, additional equations (6) and (8) can be changed and modified in particular problems in accordance with the electric theory of the matter and the continuum mechanics.
In the physical and mathematical model of VD many problems arise. Some of them are already solved ^{[15, 16]}. All the physical properties of the anomalous phenomena shown in table 1 can be easily explained (except for the technical difficulties of the field problems solution). Thus the assumption is confirmed that all these phenomena are the consequence of the physical properties of VD. According to the model all the mentioned physical properties of VD can be expressed simultaneously.
As far as this fact is concerned, the present model is essentially different from the known model of the ball lightning ^{[1]}, in which some physical properties of the ball lightning such as rotation are ignored.
We can't present all the results of the analysis of the physical properties of the anomalous phenomena based on VD model, since it will take too long, but we shall consider some results.
"Selfluminescence" of vacuum domains takes place because gravispin waves energy is transformed into electromagnet waves energy. This effect is studied in the publication that dates back to 1995 ^{ [15]}.
The complete conversion of the energy of one type of waves into the other takes place inside VD at the distance
where l  wave length; a_{e}=e_{1} /(e_{0}e_{0G})^{1/2}; a_{m}=m_{1} /(m_{0}m_{0G})^{1/2} (a_{e}, a_{m}Ј 1).
The electrical discharges and the gas rotation inside VD , one of the forms of explosions, levitation and the magnetic field of the domains are connected with the polarization of VD that arise as a result of the effect of the Earth fields. For example, for the spherical domain these polarizations are expressed as follows:
electrical polarization of the domain
gravitational polarization of the domain
magnetic polarization of the domain
spin polarization of the domains
where E_{0}  electric field (130 V/m); E_{0G} gravitational field (9,83 m/s^{2}); H_{0} magnetic field (19,5 A/m); H_{0S}  spin field (10^{13}kg/mЧ) of the Earth
The polarization of VD allows to calculate the potential energy of VD
W = W_{E} + W_{G} + W_{M} + W_{S}, (15)
where W_{E}=E_{0}( P_{E} V); W_{G}=E_{0G}(P_{G}V); W_{M}=H_{0}(P_{M} V); W_{S}=H_{0S}(P_{S}V); V  the volume of the spheric domain.
The potential energy allows to determine the force that acts upon VD
F =‹W. (16)
Thus if we know the virtual mass we obtain the formula to determine the law of VD motion. It should be noted that this formula is valid in any media.
The initial mechanical stress that acts upon the gas and the solid can be determined proceeding from the continuum theory by L.I.Sedov ^{ [23]}, according to which
where t the tangential stress of the asymmetric stress tensor.
The tangential stress can be as large as hundreds of the atmospheres when VD is moving rapidly in the direction of the change in the magnetic and spin field of the Earth (for example, in tornado)
When VD penetrates into the matter, it acquires the electric monocharge
When VD penetrates into the matter with this monocharge it causes the electric current of the free electric charges that aim at the neutralization of the monocharge. This current is responsible for the liberation of the heat energy
where r'=a_{e}Чh_{0}^{1}r_{G }; R  domain radius.
Heat energy is connected with the contact explosions of VD. The density of the heat energy can be as high as W_{T}/ V@ 10^{6}J/m^{3} with VD diameter of 1 km and more.
TORNADO OUTBREAKS AS AN EXAMPLE OF ACTIVIZATION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF VACUUM DOMAINS
Solutions of particular problems of VD model show that VDs play a significant role in geophysical processes and in the Earth geological change . Moreover, the consideration of hypotheses implied by the model allow us to propose that the influence of vacuum domains upon the formation of the Earth and even Solar System is even more large.
We can assume that VDs are formed in the Sun as a result of decomposition of absolute physical vacuum, which is characterized in our model by the coefficients e_{1}=0, m_{1}=0, into the pair of PV modifications characterized by the coefficients +e_{1}† 0, +m_{1}† 0 ,and e_{1}† 0, m_{1}† 0 or e_{1}† 0, \ +m_{1}† 0 and +e_{1}† 0, m_{1}† 0 (this assertion arises if we assume the Terletsky quadrigue of particles and antiparticles to be a basic unit of absolute physical vacuum.
We may also suppose that these modifications carry some part of thermonuclear synthesis energy away from the Sun, thus making the continuous course of this reaction possible. A combination of the two PV modifications outside of Sun, producing absolute physical vacuum, must result in giving off the captured Solar Energy in the of a "photon explosion".
Possibly, the explosion of the "Tunguska meteorite" in 1908 is an example of such event.
According to the physical essence of the model such explosions may take place in any media of the Earth, including atmosphere, water, lithosphere, etc. , serving as a form of additional solar energy influx to the Earth.
The electric and magnetic fields as well as additional angular momentum of the Earth may also have connection with the VD penetrating deep into the Earth. The additional angular momentum may, in it's turn, contribute to the Earth spin field. Certainly, such processes must take place on the other planets of the Solar system. Basing on the model (namely, on the Heaviside equations) one simply shows that the spin field serves as one of the factors of interaction of the Sun and planets (causing planets to orbit the Sun in the plane of the Sun's ecliptic, causing first seven planets to rotate in the same direction etc.)
Let us discuss in detail the role of VD's in the process of sharp increase of number and power of tornadoes. The two times growth of annual number of tornadoes in the second part of our century must be considered as a part of general rearrangement of the Earth climate machine. The relation between selfluminous formations local nonhomogeneities of physical vacuum, discovered by authors ^{[16]}, allowed us to propose a new model of physical processes and energy supply of tornadoes.
This model contributed to establish a relation, so far unknown, between the geologygeophysical quality of the territory and the rate of tornado occurrence ^{[24]}. The new approaches to the study of tornadoes ^{[25]} also point at the relation between the energetic discontinuities in lithosphere ( such as formation and renovation of tectonic faults ) and the initiation of tornadoes. Thus we propose a new nonmeteorological approach to the study of these violent processes, now growing stronger.
The possibilities of the physics of vacuum domains especially in it's gravidynamic component, provide a foundation for the developed approach ^{[15, 26]}. As it follows from the model, visible or invisible energycontaining formations such as ball lightnings, pulsing electromagnetic emissions, luminous strips etc. Are the effects of the energy transformation inside VDs.
The cross relations between Maxwell and Heaviside equations, described above, for the volume occupied by a natural selfluminous formation, allow to get quantitative estimates for the effects of gravitational polarization. Such polarization creates, in some volume, a gravitation dipole, positive in it's bottom part and negative in it's top part. Thus VDs induce a local variation of the gravitation field, which manifests itself in macroscopic processes of lifting up large masses by a tornado funnel.
Representing a tornado funnel as a "ropelike" vacuum domain , one can obtain that the source of the air rotation forces develops because of spin polarization of selfluminous formation under the action of the Earth magnetic field and it's regional anomalies. Therefore the huge atmospheric vortex processes arise as a result of spin polarization (recall the gyromagnetic effect of EinsteindeGaas), which has vector sum equal to zero if the magnetic field is absent.
As our estimates show , the volume occupied by a vacuum domain possesses the gyromagnetic property exceeding ferromagnetics by several orders of magnitude .
Taking in mind the general property of vacuum domains to be an energy transformer of four fields i.e. electric, magnetic, gravitational, and spin fields one finds a possibility to explain rich but so far unexplained phenomenology of physical processes associated with tornadoes ^{[6]}.
Picture 3
Earthquake epicenters and tornadoes
in California and Nevada.
But as it is pointed out in ^{ [2425]}, the tornado outbreaks conform to the localization and periodization of processes in geologygeophysical environment.
Many years study of the properties and spacetime distribution of selfluminous formations ^{[3, 5, 11]} revealed vigorous relations between origination, existence and disappearance of vacuum domains and the energetic discontinuities in lithosphere and ionosphere.
Particularly, for Altai mountain region, a spatial incompatibility was established for the frequencies of vacuum domains and the earthquake epicenters; with the maxima of the encounters of the natural selfluminous formations being spatially separated from seismically charged regions ^{[3]} a similar regularity was also established for the tornado outbreaks and the earthquake epicenters in California and Nevada ^{[24]}.
The strips of maximal tornado density (fig.3) are considerably distant from that of the the earthquake epicenters density. This effect, to be studied further, gives evidence of ( like in the Vladivostok tornado case) the role of lithosphere energetic discontinuities in in the generation of tornadoes and indicates the activation of vertical energy transfers in the Earth hulls.
The physical and mathematical model of VD does not contradict with the modern quantum field theory. On the contrary, with this theory one can derive the macroscopic consequences of this microscopic theory. In fact, within the scopes of the model PV is considered to be a polarization medium.
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