by Laura Knight-Jadczyk
12 February 2008
Impression of the
1178 lunar event
Last time I said I was going to talk
about how much your "glorious leaders" really hate and despise you
and how they are plotting your deaths while most of you are so
screwed up that you not only do not see this, you actually dance
blithely toward disaster for yourselves and your children.
going to get there, but first, I want to tie up a few loose ends and
reiterate a couple of points.
As I mentioned in my previous article on this topic, the
Discovery Channel special Super Comet - After the
Impact, places the comet that wiped out the dinosaurs in a
modern setting, using the same type of cometary body assumed to have
caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, the same size, same impact
location, and utilized all the computer modeling they have done on
this past event to try to show what might happen (and to show what
they think happened then).
Studies of the history of the Earth via various scientific methods
show us that there are relatively long periods of "evolution"
punctuated by rapid, overwhelming changes we call catastrophes. Many
scientists have noted the periodicity of these punctuational events.
What no one seems to know for sure is the mechanism that induces
these definitely periodic catastrophes.
It is suggested that the periodicity of these events relates to
galactic cycles and there is good evidence for this view presented
by Victor Clube in his book
The Cosmic Winter. (You can really
forget the nonsense going around about "Planet Nibiru" and "Project
He suggests that galactic tides induct
giant comets into our Solar system and it is their disintegration
products which interact strongly and directly with the Earth with
variable results at different (and very frequent!) periods which
results in the variations in the geological record. Clube
demonstrates that the breaking up of a giant comet produces a wide
range of debris from objects 10 km across, to hundreds or thousands
of 1 km sized bodies, to multiple swarms of sub-kilometer sized
Many of these bodies have sooty, black
surfaces making them almost impossible to see and many of them are
in an orbit very similar to the
Taurid meteor streams, though a few
may be in an orbit rotated about 90 degrees. Clube posits
that many (if not most or all) of the asteroids in the Solar system
split from a giant comet (or many of them) thousands or tens of
thousands of years ago, and it is the streams of debris that pose
the most serious and immediate threats to our planet.
For example, one of the large asteroids in an Earth-crossing orbit
Hephaistos. It is about 10 km in diameter, about the
same size as the asteroid that is depicted as striking the earth in
the above-mentioned movie (the dinosaur extinction model).
It is true that the effects of the
impact of such a body would be felt globally, but it is not so clear
that it would be exactly as "global" as depicted in the movie.
A painting showing
how the alleged KT Impactor may have appeared.
Nevertheless, the connection between a
single impactor and past mass extinctions has been made and
popularized widely, and this may be unfortunate considering the
issues of more frequent and less "global" events that Clube
The problem is, as Clube points out, a solitary large impact
is, from an astronomical point of view, quite unlikely to be the
only agency at work in such extinctions. Further, when one considers
the details of the evidence, both astronomical and geological, many
discrepancies in the single impactor scenario begin to emerge.
When the Alvarezes, pere et fils, came across the iridium
layer at the
K-T extinction boundary, announcing that iridium in
those amounts could only be thrown up by the impact of a large
meteorite, this shocking idea was taken up gleefully by the press
and everyone was on the hunt for iridium.
Clube points out that there are several problems with the "single
impact" interpretation of the presence of iridium at the extinction
boundary. The first problem is that the concentration of the element
is too high.
Well, because if it were a single, giant
impactor, such an asteroid would excavate several hundred times its
own volume of Earth crust material and blow it into the atmosphere
mixed with its own material. This means that the iridium would be
significantly diluted and would not precipitate on the planet in
such concentrations as have been found. However, at many of the
sites examined, it is noted that the iridium has been diluted by
only 20 times its own volume (keeping in mind that the iridium in
the comet/asteroid is already only a percentage of the total volume
of the extraterrestrial body!)
Additionally, other chemicals associated with the alleged single
impact event do not fit the stony meteorite theory very well. There
is an abundance of rare elements such as osmium and
rhemium; enormous and overabundant common elements such as
antimony and arsenic.
In respect of this finding, Clube points
out that, after a January 1983 eruption of Kilauea, particles
collected from the volcano were found to have high concentrations of
arsenic, selenium and other elements found in high abundance at the
extinction boundary. These volcanic particles were also found to be
very rich in iridium.
Clube suggests that the iridium
anomaly may, therefore, be a big red herring.
"...it is interesting to speculate
whether, had a volcanic source of iridium been known in 1980, a
meteorite impact would have been suggested" by the Alvarezes?
So, that was probably a good thing because it at least drew press
attention to the matter since Clube also points out that there is an
impressive amount of evidence that the extinction event was not just
a process of evolutionary change and decay. Catastrophic changes - a
profound ecological shock - took place across the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the devastation was certainly
sudden. So the
Alvarez theory opened the door
to consider that in a world that was tightly bound up in
Among the interesting finds at this level of Earth's history is that
very large amounts of soot are also present at the extinction
boundary. The conclusion is, of course, that global wildfires were
raging during the extinction event. The movie tried to depict that
with computer models (made on the assumption of a single large
asteroid impact) which had the entire atmosphere of the earth
heating up to the point where things just ignited spontaneously.
That may not be exactly how things
happen even with a very large meteor impact.
Canadian Museum of
The thin clay layer that marks the boundary between the Cretaceous
and Tertiary rocks.
This layer has been
found at many localities around the Earth.
It is a a thin layer
of material all around the earth which contains a large amount of
the rare element iridium, plus soot from widespread fires.
Another point that Clube makes is that
there is not a trace of meteoritic debris in the form of stony
inclusions in the sediments.
I won't go into all the details; suffice it to say that it begins to
look like the stray impact of a single 10 km wide asteroid is not
the cause of the global extinction after all.
What is a realistic scenario?
Clube presents the evidence that this extinction event was an
episode of bombardment of many, dozens, hundreds, thousands of
cometary fragment and/or meteorite type bodies, some of them large,
liberating copious amounts of meteorite dust in the Terran
atmosphere, many of them exploding overhead in rains of fire.
These swarms would be "swimming" in
streams of comet dust - tons of it - which would also be loading the
atmosphere and precipitating onto the earth over months and years.
The high concentrations of iridium found at the dinosaur extinction
boundary at several localities, and the absence of bulk meteoritic
debris, are hard to explain in terms of a single big bang but easily
understood in terms of zodiacal dust as a provider of the input.
Added to this, there is increasing
evidence for a multiplicity of impacts at the dinosaur extinction
boundary, as well as at other points of global catastrophe such as
the Permian - Triassic (P - Tr) extinction event. The swarm theory
also easily accounts for the huge amounts of soot at the boundary.
An Earth ablaze is within the capacity of an exceptionally intense
swarm to produce, but probably beyond that of even a 10km wide
In short, the extinction of the
dinosaurs may very well have been a complex, traumatic, and
What the dinosaurs
Clube proposes that the Earth
itself is a storehouse of information about its interactions with
the Galaxy, and that it is the Galaxy itself, and Earth's position
in it, that drives the cycles of extinctions mainly because the
cycles of events best fit known galactic cycles.
The one thing that stands out from all of the evidence is the
importance of very large comets that enter the Solar System and
break apart, leaving streams of debris that interact with our planet
for millennia after the parent body or bodies have been captured and
torn apart by intra-solar system forces.
That such bombardments of the earth have
occurred at other times is becoming more widely known, witness the
work of Richard Firestone, Alan West and Simon
Warwick-Smith who have identified the Carolina Bays as "air
impact" craters from overhead cometary explosions exactly like that
In fact, similar "craters" were found in
the Tunguska region with the exact same morphology. This even has
been dated to about 12,500 years ago and was global in extent and
cataclysmic in effect. Life on Earth almost came to an end.
What is frightening about this even is
the sheer numbers of craters - upwards of 50,000 of them.
This image shows
numerous craters in Robeson County, North Carolina
Arial photo the Carolina Bays craters
The largest crater in this particular image is approximately 1.4
Clube mentions the
hypothesis briefly, noting that "Certainly the companion-star
hypothesis adopts the central mechanism of the galactic one, namely
the creation of comet showers through regular comet cloud
He then dismisses this as facing "insuperable
The "insuperable problems" are the
proposed orbital periods for the hypothesized companion star and his
idea that there would be far more cratering if the motive mechanism
was a companion star. He may be entirely correct and his theory of
galactic tides and comet birth in the cold, dark reaches of space
certainly deals with the main elements of what we know about our
As he notes:
The astronomical framework, grounded
in celestial observations, is the basis for the theory of
terrestrial catastrophism described here. ... It is in our view
essential , if one is to arrive at a true picture, to take
account of all the relevant evidence: "hard evidence" in the
geologist's sense has to be coupled with some respect for hard
astronomical facts as well.
Put another way, we do not need a 1
- km asteroid to land in our presence to demonstrate the amount
of kinetic energy it will release. In particular, the correct
picture must explain recent as well as past events in the
terrestrial record. Thus the giant comet, and indeed the
historical record, are essential elements in the quest for
It is this inextricable linkage
between the very recent and the very remote past which lends
urgency to the study: if we get the grand picture wrong, the
next set of old bones in the ground could be ours.
We have presented some good evidence in
this series of articles that Clube's ideas are very likely correct
or darn close: the earth has been repeatedly and regularly showered
with extraterrestrial debris of some sort, and these showers have
been generally disastrous from local scales, to regional, national,
and even continental.
It seems clear from the evidence that
history itself is not a process of evolution, but more often,
devolutionary as each cosmic crisis has either resulted in "survival
of the lucky," as opposed to the fittest, and the more recent ones
have been amplified or utilized by
ruling elites to pursue their own
On other occasions, the Earth has
suffered insults that have hardly turned a head in the human
Tunguska was one such event.
Just after 7:15 a.m. local time on 30 June 1908, in the central
Siberian plateau, there took place an impact of ferocious intensity.
Yet so isolated and vast is this region (half as large again as the
USA), it was almost twenty years before the Western world became
aware of the event.
How the Tunguska
object may have appeared.
On the night of 30 June and 1 July, the
sky throughout Europe was strangely bright. Throughout the United
Kingdom, over 3000 miles from the point of impact, it was possible
to play cricket and read newspapers by the glow from the night sky.
From Belgium came descriptions of a huge
red glow over the horizon, after sunset, as if a great fire was
raging. This strangely bright sky was seen throughout Europe,
European Russia, Western Siberia and as far south as the Caucasus
mountains. Photographs were taken at midnight or later, with
exposures of about a minute, in Sweden, in Scotland, and as far east
as the university city of Kazan, on the banks of the river Volga....
Much comment was excited in newspapers and learned journals at the
time. Some thought that icy particles had somehow formed high in the
atmosphere and were reflecting sunlight. Others considered that a
strange auroral disturbance was involved. The Danish astronomer Kohl
drew attention to the fact that several very large meteors had
recently been observed over Denmark and thought that comet dust in
the high atmosphere might account for the phenomenon. But there was
no agreement as to what had happened.
Over 500 miles to the south of the fall, a seismograph in the city
of Irkutsk near Lake Baikal, close to the Mongolian border,
registered strong earth tremors.
Nearly 400 miles south-west of the explosion, at 7:17 a.m. on 30
June, a train driver on the Trans-Siberian express had to halt the
train for fear of derailment due to the tremors and commotion.
Fierce gusts of wind were felt in towns 300 to 400 miles away.
In an Irkutsk newspaper dated 2 July it was reported that, in a
village more than 200 miles from the Tunguska river, peasants had
seen a fireball brighter than the sun approach the ground, followed
by a huge cloud of black smoke, a forked tongue of flame and a loud
crash as if from gunfire.
"All the villagers ran into the
street in panic. The old women wept and everyone thought the end
of the world was approaching."
Local Siberian newspapers carried stories of a fireball in the
sky, and a fearful explosion, but by the autumn of 1908 these
stories had died out, and they went unnoticed in St. Petersburg,
Moscow and the west. The region was arguably one of the most
inaccessible places on Earth, in the centre of Siberia. ...
However, rumors of an extraordinary event persisted,
transmitted back by geologists and other intrepid researchers
working in the area. These attracted the attention of a
meteorite researcher, Leonard Kulik,... It was not until 1927
that an expedition ... led by Kulik, finally penetrated to the
site of the 1908 explosion.
The energy of the explosion has been calculated from the extent
of the flattened forest and from the small pressure waves which
arrived at the speed of sound and were recorded on barographs
around the world. ... The wave trains were unlike any others
which had been recorded up until that time but resemble those
obtained from a hydrogen bomb explosion. It seems that the
impact had an energy of 30 to 40 megatons, about that from a few
dozen ordinary hydrogen bombs....
The date of fall (30 June) corresponds
to the passage of the Earth through the maximum of the Beta Taurid
stream. From this and its trajectory, it appears that the Tunguska
object was part of the Taurid complex.
Probably the Earth passed through a
swarm within the stream.
Aftermath of the
Aftermath of the Tunguska explosion
This image shows the directions of the blast
This diagram shows the area of damage in Tunguska as compared to the
size of Washington D.C.
The occurrence, this century, of an
impact with the energy of a hydrogen bomb does give cause for some
concern, and it is interesting to speculate on whether one's
historical perceptions would be quite the same had the bolide struck
an urban area or a city.
As it happens, however, the Tunguska
impact is fairly trivial:
In this year, on the Sunday before
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, after sunset when the moon
had first become visible a marvelous phenomenon was witnessed by
some five or more men who were sitting there facing the moon.
Now there was a bright new moon, and as usual in that phase its
horns were tilted toward the east; and suddenly the upper horn
split in two.
From the midpoint of the division a
flaming torch sprang up, spewing out, over a considerable
distance, fire, hot coals, and sparks. Meanwhile the body of the
moon which was below writhed, as it were, in anxiety, and, to
put it in the words of those who reported it to me and saw it
with their own eyes, the moon throbbed like a wounded snake.
Afterwards it resumed its proper state. This phenomenon was
repeated a dozen times or more, the flame assuming various
twisting shapes at random and then returning to normal.
Then after these transformations the
moon from horn to horn, that is along its whole length, took on
a blackish appearance. The present writer was given this report
by men who saw it with their own eyes, and are prepared to stake
their honor on an oath that they have made no addition or
falsification in the above narrative.
This curious report is written in the
chronicles of the medieval monk known as
Gervase of Canterbury.
The year of the event was AD 1178 and
the date, 18 June on the Julian calendar, converts to the evening of
25 June on the modern Gregorian one. If real, it is clear that some
extraordinary event on the Moon is being described and the meteorite
expert Hartung proposed that what was observed and recorded
800 years ago was the impact of a body on the Moon. The flame, he
suggested, was the writhing of incandescent gases, or sunlight
reflection from dust thrown out of the crater. The blackish
appearance of the Moon along its whole length was a temporary
suspension of dust buoyed up by a transient atmosphere. [...]
Hartung deduced that if there was a crater, it would be at least 7
miles in diameter, possess bright rays extending from it for at
least seventy miles, and would lie between 30 and 60 degrees north,
75 and 105 degrees east on the Moon. ...
As it happens, there is one crater with the predicted
characteristics exists, a crater named after the seventeenth-century
Giordano Bruno. This crater is
located at 36 degrees N and 105 degrees E, within the predicted
It is 13 miles in diameter and is
distinguished by its remarkable brightness, and by the brilliant
system of rays which extend several hundred miles out from it. [...]
Giordano Bruno crater
on the Moon has a diameter more of more than 13.6 miles or 22
Giordano Bruno crater on the Moon
It should be noted that NASA has
attempted to debunk Hartung's theory, saying:
Such an impact would have triggered
a blizzard-like, week-long meteor storm on Earth -- yet there
are no accounts of such a storm in any known historical record,
including the European, Chinese, Arabic, Japanese and Korean
Well, we know from our current survey
that this is not necessarily so. There could have been impacts on
the earth that no one knew about - witness Tunguska - and it doesn't
necessarily follow that an impactor on the moon would trigger a
blizzard of meteors on Earth.
Back to Clube:
It is the fate of all species to
become extinct and most manlike species have already done so.
Over and above extinction, large population fluctuations take
place in nature, sometimes within a few years. The controlling
factor is often climate, and Earth's climate, in turn, can be
greatly affected by its astronomical surroundings.
It has been suggested that the current
"climate change" issues are due to the earth moving through
dust clouds. It could even be that such things as "chemtrails" are a
result of such dust loading in the upper atmosphere.
The two and a half centuries which
lay between the Gervase chronicle of 1178 and the onset of the
Black Death in Europe in 1348 saw 'an acute crisis developing in
One chronicler at least reports of the most
immediate cause of the plague in 1345 that,
"between Cathay and Persia there
rained a vast rain of fire; falling in flakes like snow and
burning up mountains and plains and other lands, with men
and women; and then arose vast masses of smoke; and
whosoever beheld this died within the space of half a
There seems little doubt also that a
worldwide cooling of the Earth played a fundamental part in the
process. The Arctic polar cap extended, changing the cyclonic
pattern and leading to a series of disastrous harvests. These in
turn led to widespread famine, death and social disruption.
In England and Scotland there is a pattern of abandoned villages
and farms, soaring wheat prices and falling populations.
In Eastern Europe there was a series of winters of unparalleled
severity and depth of snow. The chronicles of monasteries in
Poland and Russia tell of cannibalism, common graves overfilled
with corpses, and migrations to the west.
Even before the Black Death came, then, a human catastrophe of
great proportions was under way in late medieval times. Indeed
the cold snap lasted well beyond the period of the ... plague. A
number of such fluctuations are to be found in the historical
record, and there is good evidence that these climatic stresses
are connected not only with famine but also with times of great
social unrest, wars, revolution and mass migrations.
In spite of their traumatic effects, these global coolings
probably amounted to no more than about a degree in average
summer temperatures as compared with today: even relatively
minor climatic effects have had a profound influence on human
history. A major climatic cooling amounting to several degrees.
With the modern dependence on 'green revolution' crops, finely
tuned to give a high yield under a narrow range of climatic
conditions, the onset of such a 'winter' would cause the
population of the world to crash in the course of a decade, or
even a single year.
Such events are completely outside
normal experience and their existence is not generally
recognized, even though they represent a hazard vastly more
horrific than any of the more familiar catastrophes such as
earthquake, famine or flood. ... More to the point though,
civilization is in the presence of a hitherto unrecognized
cosmic phenomenon which could plunge it without warning into a
What can be
Unfortunately the extent and epoch of the next cosmic winter depend
for the moment on a number of imponderables which lie outside the
scope of existing knowledge: it is not now possible to make an
accurate assessment of what the future has in store.
This is clearly not a satisfactory state
Nor can we expect that Nature will hold back on account
of our ignorance or lack of preparedness.
However, in view of the seriousness
of cosmic winters for human survival, and noting the vast
expenditures to the tune of many billions of dollars on a whole
variety of preparations for all manner of lesser hazards and
calamities, both man-made and natural, disease and nuclear war
not excluded, one must surely note also that not a single cent
of taxpayer' money is currently devoted to their study. [...]
The first step must therefore be one of exploration. An asteroid
in a Taurid orbit, carrying 100,000 megatons of impact energy,
coming out of the night sky, would be visible in binoculars for
about six hours before impact. By the time it was a naked-eye
object it would be at most half an hour from collision. In its
final plunge it would be seen as a brilliant moving object for
perhaps 30 seconds. One needs more time than this to prepare for
the [Cosmic] Winter.
A thorough exploration of the
Earth's surroundings, and the discovery and tracking of probably
tens of thousands of bodies, is therefore a first requirement.
This is technically feasible.
Complementing such an observational program, a fresh exploration
of the past, armed now with the new astronomical understandings,
is also necessary; not just for its own sake but also to arrive
at a better understanding of the risks. .[...]
To go from mere statistical projection to detailed forecasting,
then, a generation of exploration, both of the Earth's
environment and of our history and prehistory, will be
necessary. As we have remarked, such studies cannot be seen only
as an academic game: there is nothing academic about a 1,000
megaton impact, and the modern prospects for nuclear error, not
to mention nuclear meltdown, exacerbate the issue.
And if the sirens should sound, what then?
It may be marginally
within the capacity of present day technology to divert a small
asteroid, given enough warning, though not a swarm of them...
But at least, unlike our forebears, we have a chance to act: we
need no longer be helpless in the hands of the gods. The main
problem at the moment is to be aware that there is a problem.
Three thousand years ago, in accordance with age-old practice,
the kings of Babylon were still employing astronomer-priests to
give warnings of cosmic visitations. A thousand years ago, the
emperors of China were still relying on similar skills, while in
Europe the Pope saw messages in the sky and urged Holy War.
But this latter was an aberration;
for the last two and a half thousand years have seen the decline
and fall of the sky gods, and the growing presumption that the
cosmos is stable and regular. The shift of paradigm has been
unconscious, convenient, insidious and thorough. Probably, the
rediscovery of a lost tradition of celestial catastrophe could
not have been made through analysis of ancient texts alone; a
key had to be provided, and it has been, by the paraphernalia of
modern science. It is a salutary lesson both on the capacity of
human reasoning to get it wrong for long periods of time, and on
the essential unity of knowledge.
It would be naïve to think, however, that one merely has to
point to deep-seated cracks in the structure of modern knowledge
to have scholars setting to and constructing a better framework
within which mankind might plan his future. There is
considerable intellectual capital invested in the status quo,
enough to ensure that those with an interest in preserving it,
the 'enlightened' and the 'established', will continue to
present the cosmos to us in a suitably non-violent form.
The history of ideas reveals that
some will even go further and act as a kind of thought police,
whipping potential deviants into line. For them, temporal power
takes precedence over the fate of the species.
(Clube, The Cosmic Winter)
Famed astronomer, Fred Hoyle, friend and
colleague of Clube, made some interesting remarks in his book: "The Origin of the Universe and the Origin
of Religion" along the same
Science is unique to human
activities in that it possesses vast areas of certain knowledge.
The collective opinion of scientists in these areas about any
problem covered by them will almost always be correct. It is
unlikely that much in these areas will be changed in the future,
even in a thousand years. And because technology rests almost
exclusively on these areas the products of technology work as
they are intended to do.
But for areas of uncertain knowledge the story is very
different. Indeed the story is pretty well the exact opposite,
with the collective opinion of scientists almost always
There is an easy proof of this statement. Because of the large
number of scientists nowadays and because of the large financial
support which they enjoy, uncertain problems would mostly have
been cleared up already if it were otherwise. So you can be
pretty certain that wherever problems resist solution for an
appreciable time by an appreciable number of scientists the
ideas used for attacking them must be wrong.
It is therefore a mistake to have anything to do with popular
ideas for solving uncertain issues, and the more respectable the
ideas may be the more certain it is that they are wrong. [...]
Another big one for the book is the
origin of life, which
according to respectable opinion happened here on the Earth.
Imagine the Earth's history to be represented by a single day.
Then the origin of life did not occur in the last 20 hours
because there is fossil evidence that life has existed over the
last 20 hours. Nor did life originate in the first 3 1/2 hours,
because in this early period the Earth was so heavily bombarded
by missiles from outside that even rocks were pulverized so
violently as to be unable to preserve their integrity.
So life, if it originated on the
Earth, did so between 03:30 a.m. and 04:00 a.m. We therefore ask
for the evidence that the amazing biochemical miracle of the
origin of life happened in this comparatively brief window in
the Earth's history. A few sedimentary rocks have survived from
it, but they have unfortunately been heated so much that any
fossil evidence of life and its origin which might have existed
have been lost. Thus the evidence for the respectable popular
belief is nil.
This is one remarkable aspect of the popular belief, that it is
founded on nothing.
The other remarkable aspect is the intensity of the opprobrium
one incurs if one denies it. Only a little biochemical knowledge
is needed to see this is yet another situation to set the cats
in an uproar.
Biology is replete with them. We are told that natural selection
acts to spread small advantageous mutations and operates to
suppress disadvantageous bones. But small changes must be
frequent if a species is to go anywhere much, in which case the
bad and the good are superposed on each other, and how then does
natural selection manage to separate them? With the bad
generally accepted to be more frequent than the good, all
natural selection can do, in simple replicative systems at any
rate, is to minimize the rate at which things get worse.
You would think this problem would have been addressed with some
care, but as far as I can see it never is. The fossil record of
the last 500 millions years provides a serious indictment of
biological thinking on evolution. It provides ample evidence of
small changes and little or none of big changes.
So if evolution is correct, as I
suspect it to be, the big changes occur swiftly and the small
changes slowly, the big changes so swiftly that they cannot be
captured by the random moments revealed by the fossil record. As
a physicist might put it, evolution takes place through a
sequence of delta-functions, not smoothly as according to
respectable scientific academies it is supposed to do.
More than a century ago Alfred Russell Wallace noticed that the
higher qualities of Man are acausal, like the Universe itself.
Where human qualities have been honed by evolution and natural
selection there is very little difference between one individual
and another. Given equivalent opportunities for training,
healthy human males of age 20 will hardly differ in their
abilities to run at pace by more than 10 percent between the
Olympic runner and the average.
But for the higher qualities it is very much otherwise. From
enquiries among teachers of art, Wallace estimated that for
every child who draws instinctively and correctly there are a
hundred that don't. The proportions are much the same in music
and mathematics. And for those who are outstanding in these
fields the proportions are more like one in a million.
made this point Wallace then made the striking argument that,
while the abilities with small spread like running would have
been important to the survival of primitive man, the higher
qualities had no survival value at all.
Perhaps this is not entirely true?
Perhaps "higher abilities" had survival value in terms of those
individuals who could "read the handwriting on the wall" in a
scientifically observational way?
Or, more speculatively, perhaps higher
abilities could ensure survival by warning an individual that
catastrophe was on its way thereby enabling them to act in
preparation to survive?
Over a span of 12 years spent in the
Amazon and in the forests of the East Indies, Wallace is said to
have discovered 30,000 new species off his own bat. He lived by
shipping his specimens to an agent in London who then marketed
them to museums. During most of the time, when he wasn't writing
epoch-making papers on biological evolution, he lived with
Wallace therefore knew a great deal
about the modes of survival of primitive man, probably more than
anybody else of his generation and probably more than anybody
does today. His views on the matter therefore carry weight. What
he said was that in his experience he never saw a situation in
which an aptitude for mathematics would have been of help to
primitive tribes. So little numerate were they that in 12 years
he saw only a few who could count as far as 10.
His conclusion was the higher qualities, the qualities with
large variability from individual to individual, had not been
derived from natural selection.
Abilities derived from natural selection have small spread.
Abilities not derived from natural selection have wide spreads.
I think the higher qualities must be of genetic origin, the same
as the rest. The mystery is that we have to be endowed with the
relevant genes in advance of them being useful. The time order
of events is inverted from what we would normally expect it to
be, a concept that is of course gall and wormwood to respectable
opinion. The objection is that it explodes one's concepts,
raising all manner of new ideas. Which is exactly what
respectability dislikes, because it is only in times of
stagnation that respectability flourishes.[...]
Already in 1813, in a lecture to the Royal Society of London,
William Wells described the process of evolution by natural
selection. In the early 1830's it was being asked how this
process might go in detail. Could it explain evolution on a
large scale, as in the well-known picture of evolution occurring
like a branching tree? General opinion was that it could not,
and for a reason that was good and which was never answered in
the enthusiasms of the later
It was observed that plants and animals always, or almost
always, have limited habitats, usually with quite sharp
boundaries in which they thrive and outside which they do not.
Why, if evolution could produce very large differences like
those between horses, bears and primates, could it not produce
the much smaller differences that would serve to enable species
to extend their limited habitants?
Why did each species not have the plasticity (as it was called)
to spread itself all over the world?
The fact that this
emphatically was not what happened suggested that, while by
selection each species fine-tuned its abilities within the range
accessible to it, the range in every case is small, far smaller
than would be needed to produce the difference between horses
The Origin of the Universe and the Origin
Hoyle's remarks quoted above certainly
raise a lot of questions, but the one that immediately comes to my
mind is: are human beings with "higher faculties" mutations? A
related question might also be: are psychopaths also mutations in
the other direction? But I don't want to divert onto that topic just
yet, we'll save it for another article.
Again, I want to reiterate
what I wrote in the previous article:
If short-period bombardment of our planet by comets or comet dust is
a reality (as it increasingly appears to be); and the effects of
such an event are deleterious in the extreme; and if we are in fact
overdue for a repeat performance of such a visitation (which also
appears to be the case):
What effect might public awareness
of this have on the status quo on the planet at present?
Would the bogus "war on terror" not
become instantly obsolete and would people across the planet not
immediately demand that their political leaders reassess
priorities and take whatever action possible to mitigate the
And if those political leaders
refused to do so and it became known that that this grave threat
to the lives of billions was long-standing and common knowledge
among the political elite (with all that that implies), what
One last hurrah before the 6th
We only know that this knowledge, in its
fullest explication, is being suppressed and marginalized. The
reasons for the psychological games and ploys may be interesting to
investigate, so that is what we will look at next:
Why is Humanity
so Deaf, Dumb and Blind?
We'll be coming to that!
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