by Stephen Smith
from Thunderbolts Website
Massive solar explosion on June 7, 2011
Credit: NASA/SDO, AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams
Edited by J. Major.
Alfvén waves are said to carry heat
from the Sun's photosphere out to its corona.
Why the corona is millions of Kelvin
hotter than the surface is one of the Sun's greatest enigmas.
The Sun's temperature gradient is anomalous, ranging from 7500° Kelvin at the bottom of the photosphere to 4500° Kelvin at the top.
It then increases substantially, reaching 2 million Kelvin in the corona. Some scientists suggest that the Sun accelerates charged particles into space through "acoustical wave-guides," known as magnetic flux tubes.
Structures called spicules (below video) rise thousands of kilometers above the photosphere and supposedly carry hot gas with them.
This mechanism was recently proposed as
an explanation for coronal heating.
According to a relatively recent press release, magnetic oscillations spread upward from the solar surface, carrying enough energy to heat the coronal plasma.
In an Electric Universe, the extreme temperature in the lower corona is most likely due to electrically accelerated positive ions colliding with relatively static ions and other neutral atoms.
Electric discharges in plasma take the form of long, thin, twisting filaments (below video) that can best be described as tornadoes of glowing plasma.
Anode tufting (below video) on the Sun's surface is
mistaken for convection cells.
The cathode is an invisible "virtual
cathode," called the
heliosphere, at the farthest limit of the Sun's
coronal discharge, billions of kilometers from its surface. This is
the double layer that isolates the Sun's plasma cell from the
galactic plasma that surrounds it.
Electric Sun model
predicts the reverse temperature gradient and describes how it
occurs. If the temperature discontinuity did not exist, that would
be a problem for the Electric Sun hypothesis.