7 - Awareness and the Soliton

This chapter considers awareness.

  • First, the intelligent particle associated with awareness is considered.

  • Then, a type of projection experience, which supports the association of a single intelligent particle with awareness, is described.

  • Last, the afterlife is considered.

7.1 The Soliton
The soliton is an intelligent particle that has an associated awareness.1


Each person has a single soliton, which is the location of the separate, solitary awareness that each person experiences. Unlike bions, which interact with both intelligent particles and common particles, the soliton interacts only with intelligent particles.

The computing-element program, in effect, can make a soliton the ruler over a cooperating population of bions. Each adult man or woman has a cooperating population of roughly 50 trillion bions - assuming one bion per cell.


The bions of the brain that collectively form the mind, are like a government - and the governed is the body. This government reports to, and receives orders from, the soliton ruler. The role of the soliton ruler is to be the final decision maker - to set goals for the government, and approve its results.

Although the soliton ruler is intelligent, so are the bions that form the subject population. The intellectual work of one’s mind is done by bions. For example, the bions of the brain store memories.


Also, they provide all processing of sensory input, including all recognition work, such as recognizing a face. In addition, they provide all language operations, such as parsing and constructing sentences, and they provide all motor control. Moreover, they provide all problem-solving and creative services - and so on.


The total amount of intellectual product generated by the bions of the brain is much greater than the amount of intellectual product that is brought to the attention of the soliton ruler.2


1 The word 'soliton' is a coined word: truncate the word 'solitary', and suffix 'on' to denote a particle.

2 It is well known from psychology that the activities of the unconscious mind are not always brought to awareness. For example, one is never aware of the algorithmic steps taken by one’s own mind to solve problems, such as the problem of understanding the meaning of this sentence. As the problem is solved, the algorithmic steps are hidden from awareness. One becomes aware of only the finished product.


Regarding the reports received by the soliton ruler from brain bions, there is a filtering process that takes place. The soliton ruler can express preferences about what specific reports it wants to see. Also, the bions can decide on their own, which reports are important and demand the attention of the soliton ruler. Some general examples of reports are: image reports, sound reports, and thought reports.


The conscious act of seeing involves a continuous stream of image reports, sent to the soliton ruler. The conscious act of hearing involves a continuous stream of sound reports, sent to the soliton ruler. The conscious act of thinking involves a continuous stream of thought reports, sent to the soliton ruler.

As an intelligent particle, the soliton can store its own data - such as preferences, which are probably in the form of learned programs - as part of its state information. For a person, the state information of the soliton ruler is one component of personality.


The cooperating population of brain bions that collectively form the mind, is the other component of personality.


7.2 Solitonic Projections
The existence of a solitary particle of awareness, the soliton, is supported by a rare projection experience: During an otherwise ordinary out-of-body experience, the projected population of bions stops sending sensory reports to the accompanying soliton ruler. In other words, the awareness is cut off from all sensory input.


At the same time, the soliton remains awake (section 10.3). Call this a solitonic projection.

A solitonic projection can happen to someone without a prior history of out-of-body experiences, but this seems to be very rare. More likely, a solitonic projection can happen to experienced lucid-dream projectionists, and to bion-body projectionists. The Om meditation method, described in chapter 5, has the potential to elicit a solitonic projection.

The comparative rarity of solitonic projections is indicated by a reading of the principal Upanishads. There seems to be confusion when most of the principal Upanishads talk about the awareness - called the soul in the verses that follow.


However, the Katha Upanishad appears knowledgeable on the subject:

Know thou the soul as riding in a chariot,

The body as the chariot.

Know thou the intellect as the chariot-driver,

And the mind as the reins.3

The above verse from the Katha Upanishad portrays awareness as separate from the mind, just as the soliton is separate from the bions.

Though He is hidden in all things,

That Soul shines not forth.

But he is seen by subtle seers

With superior, subtle intellect.4

A certain wise man, while seeking immortality,

Introspectively beheld the Soul face to face.5

3 Hume, op. cit., p. 351.
4 Hume, op. cit., p. 352.
5 Hume, op. cit., p. 353.



The above two verses from the Katha Upanishad are probably talking about a solitonic projection. The starting point of a solitonic projection is either a lucid-dream projection or a bion-body projection.


Once all sensory reports cease, the following is experienced: One finds oneself existing as a completely bodiless and mostly mindless awareness - residing at the center of a sphere. All sensory inputs are gone. But it is typically still possible to think to oneself, in which case thought reports are still occurring. Also, one cannot report a solitonic projection unless it is remembered. Therefore, any reportable solitonic projection always involves some interaction, albeit minimal, between the projected bion population and the accompanying soliton ruler.

The perception of a surrounding spherical shell - around the point-like awareness - appears to be a common feature of a solitonic projection. This apparent shell is probably the limit of the soliton’s direct perception, when it is in the solitonic-projection state. More specifically, given the solitonic-projection data, it seems that the apparent shell is only a few centimeters in diameter, and, similarly, the accessible information environment for a soliton is only a few centimeters in diameter. This contrasts sharply with bions, which, based on ESP data, seem to have an accessible information environment with a radius greater than the diameter of the Earth.

Solitonic projections are typically short in duration - lasting less than a minute, or perhaps only a few seconds. Given a lucid-dream projection, the solitonic projection typically begins during the sudden acceleration that occurs for long-distance travel. In contrast, a solitonic projection that occurs during a bion-body projection, typically begins when the bion body is stationary.

Based on the scanty reports of solitonic projections scattered in the literature, the awareness is separate from the mind. Besides the separateness of the awareness, the point-like quality of the awareness - as experienced during a solitonic projection - is compatible with the awareness being associated with a single particle.


7.3 The Afterlife
The computing-element reality model allows an afterlife (section 5.1).


A brief outline of the stages of the typical afterlife follows:

Upon death, although not necessarily all at once, the entire population of bions abandons the physical body. Of course, this fleeing population takes its soliton ruler with it. In other words, the soliton accompanies the bion population as it abandons the p-common physical body.

Thus, the first stage of afterlife is roughly equivalent to the bion-body projection experiences of Sylvan Muldoon (section 6.3).6 However, the afterlife bion body is even more dense than the bion body that Sylvan Muldoon had, because all the bions are included.


By analogy with Muldoon, this greater density of the bion body means that the newly dead can see and hear physical objects. However, the fair-play rule prevents them from disturbing anything.

6 This first stage of afterlife should not be confused with the many published accounts of NDEs (near-death experiences). During an NDE, the person, by definition, has not yet died, so many or most of the bions are still with their cells in the physical body - which is not the case once death has occurred.

There is a large literature on NDEs, and journalist Pierre Jovanovic summarizes the typical experience:

“The subject suddenly finds himself outside his body, floats up to the ceiling and observes what is happening around his physical envelope. … In general the patient does not understand what is happening to him, above all when he discovers that he can pass through walls or when he tries to explain to the doctors that he is not dead. [then] After this observation period, he feels himself sucked at extraordinary speed into a tunnel (drain, pipeline, shaft, tube, canal, etc.) at the end of which he sees a light beckoning him on. … After having traveled through the tunnel, the subject may meet near and dear ones who died earlier. [then] Fusion with the light, which seems like a living being made of light, overflowing with an unconditional love for the subject.


His whole life passes before him like a film, in the space of ten seconds, but in three dimensions, with the effects of his actions and words experienced by others. [then] A dialogue (not aloud but in thought) with the Light being, who ends the encounter by saying: ‘Your hour has not come; you must return and finish your job.’ Sometimes the subject is asked, ‘Do you wish to stay here or return?’ [then] Return to the body.”

(Jovanovic, Pierre. An Inquiry into the Existence of Guardian Angels. M. Evans and Co., New York, 1995. pp. 29–30).

Because many or most of the bions are still with their cells in the physical body, the typical NDE is a lucid-dream projection. The part about being “sucked at extraordinary speed into a tunnel (drain, pipeline, shaft, tube, canal, etc.) at the end of which,” is clearly a description of the acceleration and high-speed movement of that person’s projected part (his mind-piece) to a remote location that, in the typical case, is probably many hundreds or thousands of kilometers distant (as mentioned in section 6.2, intelligent particles can accelerate rapidly to a velocity of at least several hundred kilometers per second).

That distant travel is a common feature of NDEs, is not surprising. An NDE can potentially happen to a person anywhere, but the “near and dear ones who died earlier,” and, especially, the “Light being,” are going to be at some more or less fixed location in the afterlife domain, which presumably envelops the Earth. Also, the “Light being,” who is probably a Caretaker (section 8.6), is probably a specialist in handling NDE encounters. And just as people typically travel as needed to the various specialists in their daily lives, so with an NDE: typically the person having the NDE travels to the specialist, instead of the specialist coming to him.

Regarding the NDE’s life-review, the life-review is probably internally generated by that person’s mind-piece (and not generated by the “Light being”). In effect, the life-review is a highly condensed highlights film: only the self-judged significant parts are reviewed (for example, don’t expect to see a review of what you were doing ten minutes ago, whatever that was).

There is not much time for the life-review to take place, and so the data is fed to the soliton at a much higher data rate than is normal for waking consciousness. One result of this high data rate, is that the memory trail that is made of the life-review experience - if there were no such memory trail, then that life-review experience would not be remembered by that person - has a data-content that normally occupies a much longer time period. But the remembering process - in effect, the playback - will take place at normal speed, which causes the person remembering the experience to make typically exaggerated comments, along the lines that his whole life was lived in a few moments, and so on.

Note that the feeding of data to the soliton at a much higher data rate than normal, is also typical for serious accidents. And the author has an anecdote that illustrates this: In 1986, or thereabouts, I was in my car, a 1984 Mercury Capri, stopped at a red traffic light, waiting behind a large garbage truck. Then, the traffic light changed to green, and the traffic in the adjoining lane, going in the same direction as my car, was already moving. But for some reason, the garbage truck in front of me was not moving. A few seconds passed, and I was just sitting there in my car, waiting for that garbage truck to move - wondering why it wasn’t moving.


Then, time suddenly slowed: as if in slow motion, my car, with me in it, was thrown forward, smashing into the back tires of that garbage truck, which had still not moved (my car had been hit from behind by a red MG sports car, driven by a young woman who was bloodied and hurt from that crash, but not too badly, although her car was totaled; I had my seat-belt on and was not hurt, but my car was damaged at both ends). The garbage truck was only a few feet in front of my car, and it seems safe to say that from the moment of the initial impact from behind, until the moment that my car was stopped by its impact with that garbage truck, that less than a second had elapsed. And yet, my experience and memory of that time period seemed to last for many seconds (a rough guess would be between five and ten seconds).

As a final note regarding the soliton and its perception of the passage of time, it is a common observation that the day seems longer when one is a child, and shortens as one grows older. The likely explanation is that the average rate at which data is fed to the soliton, decreases with age: time shortens as one grows older.


Upon death, most of the bions have lost the purpose that they had when they occupied the physical body. Without cells to manage and care for, most of the bions in the bion body are severely underutilized. The only exception to this, would be the former bions of the brain that collectively form those parts of the mind that are not body focused. These former bions of the brain still have their soliton ruler to serve and interact with. However, the loss of purpose for the other bions is probably the reason that the bion-body stage of afterlife typically has a short duration.

The average duration of the bion-body stage is uncertain, but it seems to be a few weeks, or months. And there is some evidence that the older one is when one dies, then the shorter the bion-body stage. There is also evidence that a violent or sudden death, tends to prolong the bion-body stage.

It is just as well that the bion-body stage typically has a short duration, because the bion body can cause feelings of pain. Also, there is the possibility of the bion body being attacked by other bion bodies, such as when the projected Sylvan Muldoon was attacked by a recently deceased neighbor. However, fights during the bion-body stage can be avoided, just as fights can be avoided during ordinary life.

One way or another, sooner or later, one is freed from the bion body. Presumably, the bion body eventually breaks up, as its bions move away to find reuse in the cells of other organisms.

Upon separation from the bion body, a person is not as complete as he once was. What remains with the soliton ruler are those bions that collectively form those parts of the mind that are not body focused.

After the bion-body stage, the next stage of afterlife is roughly equivalent to the lucid-dream projection experiences of Oliver Fox (section 6.2). It seems that this lucid-dream stage of afterlife can last for many years, even centuries. In general, there is no pain or distress during the lucid-dream stage. Instead, one leads a benign and possibly enjoyable existence.


However, at some point the lucid-dream stage ends, typically in some form of rebirth (aka reincarnation).7,8

7 Rebirth is an old belief with a long history, and there is a large literature. The psychiatrist Ian Stevenson has collected over 2,600 reported cases of past-life memories, and has written extensively on the subject. In one of his books (Stevenson, Ian. Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect. Praeger Publishers, Westport CT, 1997), Stevenson presents cases that show a correlation between conditions or happenings in the most recent previous life, and current marks or defects on the body. For example, in some cases a birthmark marks the location of a fatal wound received in the previous life.

Regarding what accompanies the soliton into the new body, there are several considerations: the fact that the soliton finds its way into the new body, despite the soliton’s small accessible information environment; the evidence in the literature that some children accurately recall at least some details from their most recent previous life; the evidence presented by Stevenson that the new body can be marked according to conditions or happenings in the previous life.


From these various considerations, a necessary conclusion is that during the rebirth process, the soliton remains in the company of at least some or all of the bions that were with it during the lucid-dream stage. And it is these bions that account for the navigation to the new body, the past-life memories, and the marks made on the new body.


Regarding the mind’s longevity, the total memory storage in each computing element is finite. Thus, there is a limit on how many memories, and other data, a mind can retain. The management of the available state-information memory of each bion, depends on the learned programs of that bion. However, as available memory becomes filled, storing new memories, and other data, requires replacing old data. Thus, an old mind either forgets its past, or its present.9


Also, the finite amount of memory for each computing element may be the primary reason that the human mind has so many bions.


The more bions, the more room there is to store memories and other data.

8 Astrology associates solar and/or planetary positions relative to the Earth, with specific influences on human personality and/or events. For any given culture that has an astrological system, there may be a kernel of truth in that system; and the rest of the system may be dross that has accumulated over time, due to the need of professional astrologers to add to the complexity of the system and broaden its claims, so as to increase the demand for their services.


In the case of the astrological system of the European peoples, there seems to be, in at least some cases, a correlation between personality and sun sign (i.e., the person has, to some extent, the personality predicted by his birth zodiac sign: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, or Pisces).

Such a correlation is possible, given the computing-element reality model; but the details of the mechanism by which the correlation is maintained are not clear. One possibility is that there is some sort of “birds of a feather flock together” effect going on, in which people are reborn in large groups that self-segregate based on current and/or planned personality characteristics that are carried into the new life by those bions from the lucid-dream stage that accompany the soliton into the new body.

9 The Caretakers (section 8.6) are probably much longer lived than humans, and may in fact be immortal. In a society of immortals, relearning forgotten or soon-to-be-forgotten material, would be an ongoing process - possibly aided by periodic returns to “school.”

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8 - The Lamarckian Evolution of Organic Life

This chapter considers the evolution of organic life.

  • First, there is a brief explanation of evolution.

  • Then follows an examination of the explanation for evolution offered by the mathematics-only reality model; Darwinism is described, and its weakness exposed.

  • Then follows an examination of the explanation for evolution offered by the computing-element reality model, which involves both Lamarckian evolution and a civilization of beings called Caretakers.

8.1 Evolution
With regard to organic life, evolution states that new organic life-forms are derived from older organic life-forms. Often this derivation involves an increase in complexity, but this is not a requirement of evolution.

The idea of evolution is very old. A theory of evolution, such as Darwin’s theory, or Lamarck’s theory, offers an explanation of the mechanism of evolution.

In more general terms, evolution is a process by which something new is created by modifying something old. This kind of evolution is so common throughout human activity that one takes it for granted. Almost every modern product is at least partly derived from knowledge that was previously developed and used to produce one or more preexisting products.


For example, if a group of engineers is asked to design a new car, they do not throw out everything known about cars and reinvent the wheel.


8.2 Explanation by the Mathematics-Only Reality Model of the Evolution of Organic Life
The mathematics-only reality model would have one believe that the entire history of organic life - including the transformation of the early atmosphere to the current atmosphere, and the active ongoing maintenance of the current atmosphere in a state of disequilibrium - was accomplished in its entirety by common particles jostled about by random events.1

1 The oldest known organic life is bacteria. The fossil record shows that bacteria first appeared at least 3½ billion years ago. Since then, organic life has radically altered the atmosphere. For example, the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere probably started with the first appearance of bacteria; and all the oxygen in the atmosphere originated from photosynthesis, an organic process.

The assertion that organic life actively maintains the atmosphere to suit its own needs, is known as the Gaia Hypothesis. The Gaia Hypothesis was developed by atmospherics scientist James Lovelock. While working as a NASA consultant during the 1960s, Lovelock noticed that Venus and Mars - the two nearest planets whose orbits bracket the Earth - both have atmospheres that are mostly carbon dioxide. As a means to explain the comparatively anomalous Earth atmosphere, Lovelock formulated the Gaia Hypothesis (Margulis, Lynn, and Gregory Hinkle. “The Biota and Gaia: 150 Years of Support for Environmental Sciences.” In Scientists on Gaia, Stephen Schneider and Penelope Boston, eds. MIT press, Cambridge, 1993).

The current atmosphere of the Earth is not self-sustaining. It is not an equilibrium atmosphere that would persist if organic life on the Earth were removed. Instead, the atmosphere is mostly a product of life, and is actively maintained in its present condition by life. The composition of the atmosphere by volume is roughly 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, and 0.03% carbon dioxide.


Other gases are present, but in smaller amounts. As Lovelock states in his book Gaia, if life on Earth were eliminated, the oxygen would slowly leave the atmosphere by such routes as reacting with the nitrogen. After a million years or so, the Earth would have its equilibrium atmosphere: The argon would remain, and there would be more carbon dioxide. But the oxygen would be gone, along with much of the nitrogen (Lovelock, James. Gaia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982. pp. 44–46). However, instead of moving to this equilibrium state, the atmosphere is maintained in disequilibrium by the coordinated activities of the biosphere.

One of the more interesting examples of control over the atmosphere by organic life, is the production of ammonia. The presence of ammonia in the atmosphere counteracts the acids produced by the oxidation of nitrogen and sulfur. Lovelock estimated that without ammonia production by the biosphere, rainwater would be as acid as vinegar (Ibid., pp. 68, 77). Instead, there is just enough ammonia produced to counteract the acids, and keep the rainwater close to neutral. Besides ammonia production, there are many other Gaian processes (Shearer, Walter. “A Selection of Biogenic Influences Relevant to the Gaia Hypothesis.” In Scientists on Gaia, op. cit.).


Intelligent processes are too complicated to be explained by mathematical equations. Therefore, the mathematics-only reality model denies that there is any intelligence at the deepest level of the universe.


By a process of elimination, the mathematics-only reality model has only common particles and random events with which to explain all the many innovations during the history of organic life.


8.3 Darwinism
Darwinism - named after the British naturalist Charles Darwin who first proposed his theory in the mid 19th century - is a theory of how organic evolution has happened. The theory states that during the production of a child organism, random events can cause random changes in that child organism’s characteristics.


Then, if those new characteristics are a net benefit to that organism, that organism is more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on those new characteristics to its children.

Darwin’s theory has two parts.

  • The first part identifies the designer of organic life as randomness.

  • The second part, called natural selection, is the means by which good designs are preserved and bad designs are eliminated. Natural selection is accomplished by the environment in which the organism must live.

As discussed in the previous section, random events applied to common particles is the only mechanism for the evolution of organic life that the mathematics-only reality model allows.


Thus, in effect, Darwinism applies the mathematics-only reality model to the question of how organic life has come about; and this is the reason that Darwinism is embraced by those who embrace the mathematics-only reality model. The strong point of Darwinism is natural selection (for example, see the use of natural selection in explaining the evolution of learned programs, in section 4.6).


And the weak point of Darwinism is its exclusive reliance on random events as the cause of the changes winnowed by natural selection.2


8.4 Darwinism Fails the Probability Test
In various forms, the probability argument against the randomness of Darwinism - in which odds are computed or estimated - has been made by many scientists since Darwinism was first proposed more than a century ago.

2 As was described in chapter 3, the production of sex cells has certain steps in which the genetic inheritance from both parents is randomly mixed to form the genetic inheritance carried by each sex cell. Thus, for sexually reproducing organisms, randomness does play an important role in fine-tuning a species to its environment, insofar as that species is defined by its genetic inheritance.

Although sexual reproduction uses randomness - as part of the total sexual reproduction process - that does not mean, as Darwinism would have it, that the process itself was produced by random physical events. For example, in computer science there are many different optimization problems whose solutions are most efficiently approximated by randomly trying different possibilities and keeping only those tries that improve the quality of the solution. This is a standard technique. However, because a computer program uses randomness to find a solution, that does not mean that the program itself was produced by random physical events. Quite the contrary, the programs of computer science were produced by intelligent designers - namely computer scientists and programmers.

In the computing-element reality model, randomness is assumed to play an important role in the origin of learned programs, because, in essence, the trial-by-error learning algorithm (section 4.6) is an algorithm that makes random changes within the confines defined for that algorithm.


More recently, the structure of the major organic molecules, including DNA,3 and protein,4 has become known, and the probability argument against the randomness of Darwinism has become easier to make.


For example, the probability p of getting in one trial an exact sequence of N links, when there are C different equally likely choices for each link, is:

Applying this equation to DNA, where C is 4 - or to protein, where C is 20 - quickly gives infinitesimally small p values as N increases.


For example, consider the DNA needs of the first self-reproducing bacterium (until self-reproduction enters the picture, Darwinian natural selection has nothing to work with).


In an effort to raise p:

  • assume that the DNA needed to code the bacterium is only 10,000 links (this is enough to code a small number of proteins totaling about 3,300 protein links)

  • assume that at any DNA link, any two of the four bases will be adequate in coding the DNA for that link, because, presumably, there are many more DNA sequences than only one DNA sequence that would adequately code the first self-reproducing bacterium (this assumption lowers C from 4 to 2)

  • assume that the number of trials done, which is multiplied by p, is a million trials per second (106) for the estimated age of the visible universe (15 billion years is roughly 1018 seconds) for each physical particle in the visible universe (estimated by physicists at roughly 1090 particles)

  • assume that nothing else is needed but this DNA strand to make the first self-reproducing bacterium (a very generous, albeit ridiculous assumption) 5

With these assumptions, the probability of the first bacterium arising by chance is:

In other words, the odds are roughly 102,896 to one, against.


3 Each molecule of DNA is a long molecule composed of chemical units called bases. These bases are strung together like links on a chain. There are four bases. Thus, there are four choices for each link.

The sequence of bases in an organism’s DNA is very important, because this sequence codes the structure of proteins, among other things. A bacterium - the simplest organic life that can reproduce itself without the need to parasitize other cells - typically has many strands of DNA containing altogether hundreds of thousands or millions of bases.

4 A protein is a long, folded molecule. Just as DNA is composed of a sequence of smaller building blocks, so is protein. However, whereas the building blocks of DNA are four different bases, the building blocks of protein are twenty different amino acids. Although a protein has more choices per link, a protein rarely exceeds several thousand links in length.

A bacterium has several thousand different proteins. The average length of these different proteins is somewhere in the hundreds of links.

5 Any self-reproducing machine in the physical universe must meet certain theoretical requirements. A self-reproducing machine must have a wall to protect and hold together its contents. Behind this wall, the self-reproducing machine needs a power plant to run its machinery - among which is machinery to bring in raw materials from outside the wall. Also, machinery is needed to transform the raw materials into the components needed to build a copy of the self-reproducing machine. And machinery is needed to assemble these components.

All this transport, transformation, and assembly machinery, require a guidance mechanism. For example, there must be some coordinated assembly of the manufactured components into the new copy of the self-reproducing machine. Thus, the guidance mechanism cannot be too trivial, because its complexity must include a construction plan for the entire self-reproducing machine.

The requirements of a wall, power plant, transport machinery, transformation machinery, assembly machinery, and a guidance mechanism - all working together to cause self-reproduction - are not easily met. Consider the fact that there are no manmade self-reproducing machines.



8.5 Darwinism Fails the Behe Test
The Behe test refers to the main argument made against Darwinism by the biochemist Michael Behe:6

By irreducibly complex I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional.


An irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would be a powerful challenge to Darwinian evolution. Since natural selection can only choose systems that are already working, then if a biological system cannot be produced gradually it would have to arise as an integrated unit, in one fell swoop, for natural selection to have anything to act on.7

After giving the example of a mousetrap as an irreducibly complex system, Behe then gives several detailed examples of specific complex biochemical systems that are irreducibly complex:

  • the cilium 8

  • the bacterial flagellum 9

  • blood clotting 10

  • the immune system’s clonal selection, antibody diversity, and complement system 11


6 Behe, Michael. Darwin’s Black Box. Touchstone, New York, 1998.
7 Ibid., p. 39.
8 Ibid., pp. 59–65.
9 Ibid., pp. 69–72.
10 Ibid., pp. 79–96.
11 Ibid., pp. 120–138.


By focusing on the issue of irreducibly complex systems, and being clear about that focus, Behe avoids the strong part of Darwinism, which is natural selection, and instead concentrates on the weak part of Darwinism, that random physical events are the cause of the changes winnowed by natural selection.


Note that the previous section uses as its probability example the DNA needs of the first self-reproducing bacterium, precisely so as to avoid any possible involvement of natural selection.


8.6 Explanation by the Computing-Element Reality Model of the Evolution of Organic Life
As with the mathematics-only reality model, the computing-element reality model also offers as a possible explanation of the evolution of organic life common particles jostled about by random events.


However, as shown in the previous sections, this is not a viable explanation, and is not considered further.

Another possible explanation is that the computing-element program explicitly programs the details of organic life.


For example, the computing-element program could include the details of the DNA, proteins, and other molecules, in the first bacterium. However, this possible explanation, which is not considered further, is weak for many reasons, not the least of which is that it greatly increases the complexity of the computing-element program.

Another explanation - and much more promising - is that the evolution of organic life is the result of the cooperative action of intelligent particles - beginning in the remote past at least 3½ billion years ago, and continuing into the present.


Note that with the availability of intelligent particles, there are two basic approaches available in which intelligent particles can be involved with the evolution of organic life:

  1. An inside-out process: Design innovations in an organism originate from the intelligent particles that occupy a specific instance of that organism. Once made, an innovation can be copied from the originating population of bions to other bion populations that occupy and develop new instances of that organism.12 In effect, this is Lamarckian evolution.13

  2. An outside-in process: There is nothing in the computing-element reality model that implies a need for common particles in the composition of a sentient being. Instead, only intelligent particles are needed. And, as indicated in earlier chapters, even we humans, who have p-common bodies, exist quite well without them.


    Thus, given these considerations,

    • it seems very likely that a large fraction of the sentient beings in the universe are free of any p-common body

    • It is likely that civilizations of such beings exist widely throughout the universe

    • it is likely that at least some of these civilizations are highly advanced in their ability to interact with p-common particles, and in their scientific knowledge of p-common particles

For the members of such a civilization, their interaction with p-common particles would first include direct manipulation of p-common particles by means of learned programs (until the advent of such learned programs, the beings would be unable, in effect, to “touch” any physical matter).


Then, once the beings can directly manipulate physical matter, they can then proceed - more or less in the same way that humanity has done - to master the science of p-common particles; and then, as their interests and needs dictate, they can use that knowledge to construct highly sophisticated p-common environments and/or machines.14



12 If the innovation is a change to one or more learned programs, then the copying that is done, is the copying of those learned programs from one population of bions to another. If the innovation is a change that can be recorded by the organism’s bions, into that organism’s DNA - such as recording, for example, a new design for a specific protein - then, in accordance with the rules for DNA encoding of information (presumably these rules exist in one or more learned programs that all cell-occupying bions share, so that they all speak the same DNA language), that change can be made to the germ-cell DNA, and then allowed to propagate through the normal reproduction means for that organism.

13 Lamarckism - named after the French naturalist Jean Lamarck who first proposed his theory in the early 19th century - is a theory of how organic evolution has happened. The theory states that an organism can adapt to its environment by making structural changes to itself, which can then be inherited.

Historically, Lamarckism was replaced by Darwinism due to Darwinism’s better fit with the mathematics-only reality model. Also, Lamarckism had the problem that there is no apparent physical mechanism by which Lamarckism can happen. However, this objection is removed by the computing-element reality model, because intelligent particles provide the means by which Lamarckian changes can take place.

14 Even though the beings, by means of their learned programs for manipulating p-common particles, would presumably have telekinetic and materialization powers (section 5.1), these powers would necessarily be limited in their scale, because the underlying learned-program statements can only process, and thereby affect, a limited number of p-common particles per unit time. In practice, this limitation is quite severe (for example, see the discussion of Sai Baba in section 10.4, who at his apparent best could only materialize a few kilograms of p-common particles per second). Thus, for example, if the beings want to terraform a planet, they cannot simply use their learned programs to make one.

Also, consider the limitations of a learned program to materialize p-common objects: Could a learned program, for example, materialize a 386 microprocessor or its functional equivalent, if there is no nearby preexisting instance of such a microprocessor that the learned program could, in effect, scan, and therefrom make a more or less exact copy? The answer is no, because there are no learned-program statements that say, in effect, give me a 386 microprocessor or its functional equivalent - for the same reasons that the computing-element program does not contain the designs of organic life. Thus, if the beings want, for example, a p-common computer, they cannot simply materialize one if they have none to begin with. Instead, they must first master the science of p-common particles, and then design and build that first instance. Only after doing so -  and if the object is sufficiently small - can the beings then use their learned programs to materialize copies.

Thus, given the computing-element reality model, it is possible that such a civilization, wise in the ways of p-common particles, existed in the solar system more than 3½ billion years ago - before the beginning of organic life on Earth.


And it is possible that that same civilization, or a more evolved version of it, still occupies the solar system today.

Presumably, the members of this civilization would each be composed of intelligent particles, in the same basic pattern as man: a single intelligent awareness particle, ruling a large, cooperating population of intelligent unaware particles (i.e., a soliton ruling bions).15,16

The way in which this civilization could be involved with the evolution of organic life is fourfold:

  1. They may have played a role in terraforming the Earth.

  2. They could be the source for the original versions of many of the learned programs in our own minds.

  3. Assuming they have deciphered the DNA language, they could act as intelligent breeders within the limits of what the DNA language allows: for example, they could modify an organism’s DNA, and insert that modified DNA into an egg.

  4. They could act directly for or against specific species, in an effort to eradicate them,17 or in an effort to preserve them.18

15 This basic pattern - a single intelligent awareness particle, ruling a large, cooperating population of intelligent unaware particles - is probably also found in the larger and more intelligent animals - such as dogs, cats, elephants, dolphins, horses, apes, and chimpanzees. But exactly where the dividing-line falls - in other words, of those animal species that clearly have a complex mind, which, if any, lack a soliton - is not an easy question. For example, do cattle have solitons? The mere fact that cattle are routinely butchered for food in many countries during the 20th century, does not necessarily mean that these animals lack a soliton, and consequently are unaware.

16 The members of this civilization would differ from man primarily in terms of their learned programs. For example, because they do not have organic bodies, and apparently have no p-common body of any kind, their bions would not have any learned programs dealing with cell matters, such as organic chemistry and the DNA language.

17 For example, the arising by means of Lamarckian evolution of a parasitic or poisonous species, that is judged too damaging, could be singled out for eradication - assuming that eradication is possible.

18 For example, during extinction events caused by comets and asteroids, such as the Cretaceous extinction event of roughly 65 million years ago, some species may be singled out for preservation: representative members could be collected and kept in a protected environment for as long as needed, until they can be safely reintroduced onto the planet’s surface. In theory, an extinction event could be arranged, so as to allow a general “housecleaning” of the Earth’s biosphere, followed by the selective reintroduction of those species wanted on the newly “cleaned” Earth.



This range of possible activity with regard to organic life on Earth suggests for this civilization the name of Caretakers.

Organic life depends on learned programs that, in effect, carry the knowledge and ability to construct and operate the organic structures that compose a given organism. These organic structures range in scale from organic molecules, such as DNA and protein, up to complete organs, such as the heart and lungs, and finally up to the entire organism.

Regarding learned programs in general, learned programs cannot be directly programmed into intelligent particles by any mechanism other than the computing-element program and its learning algorithms (section 4.6). The reason for this limitation, is that the computing elements are inaccessible: All particles, whether intelligent or common, are data stored in computing elements (chapter 2). Thus, particles - as an effect of the computing elements - cannot be used to directly probe and/or manipulate the computing elements.


Thus, for example, no civilization in this universe can ever know the actual instruction set of the computing elements, nor can it ever know the actual programming language of learned programs. Thus, no civilization in this universe can ever write, as one writes on paper, a new set of learned programs, and then program those learned programs into one or more computing elements.


Thus, for example, it is not possible that in the remote past, the Caretaker civilization designed, and then caused to come into existence, the first self-reproducing bacterium, because they could neither write nor program the learned programs needed by whichever bion would operate that first bacterium.19


Thus, only Lamarckian evolution can be the cause of an organic feature that requires a new or modified learned program to go along with that organic feature.

However, where the Caretakers can play a role is in being a source of learned programs for non-organic capabilities - such as mental capabilities. Thus, many of the learned programs in the typical human mind may ultimately trace back to the Caretakers. Also, the Caretakers can play a role in the large-scale needs of organic life on a planetary scale. For example, it is possible that the Caretakers have played a role in terraforming the early Earth, such as by hauling water to this planet from comets further out in the solar system.20

The next chapter considers in more detail what seem to be the current activities of the Caretakers with regard to this planet, and, in particular, with regard to human life.

19 The Caretakers, in theory, could have designed the molecular composition of the first bacterium - its DNA, proteins, etc. -  but without a bion to animate it, the Caretakers would have had only a lifeless lump of organic matter - a lump that would, among other things, have been unable to reproduce itself.

20 The transport of water to the Earth may be an ongoing process. Geophysicists Louis Frank and John Sigwarth have published a number of papers during the 1980s and 1990s regarding what they call 'small comets.'

The claim is that, “Every few seconds a ‘snowball’ the size of a small house breaks up as it approaches Earth and deposits a large cloud of water vapor in Earth's upper atmosphere.”

(quoted from their website at http://smallcomets.physics.uiowa.edu).

If this alleged influx of snowballs is correct, then it may be that this influx is the result of a deliberate transport program operated by the Caretakers.

Back to Contents





9 - Caretaker Activity

This chapter briefly surveys,

  • What is known about UFOs, by describing the UFO, the UFO occupants, and the abduction of people by UFO occupants

  • After the survey, an evaluation of the evidence concludes that the UFO occupants are the Caretakers

  • Then, the possibility of interstellar travel by the Caretakers, and their involvement with miracles, are both considered

9.1 The UFO
Starting with the flood of American UFO reports that occurred in 1947,1 the US Air Force established an official investigation in September, 1947, which existed under different names until December, 1969, when it was closed.


For most of its life, the investigation was lightly staffed, and had a policy of debunking and dismissing each one of the thousands of UFO reports that accumulated in its files.



1 The Roswell 'hoax' - the alleged crash of a UFO in Roswell, New Mexico; and the subsequent recovery and dissection by the US military of several dead alien crash victims - dates to an event in July, 1947: Debris from a crashed balloon - the balloon was part of a secret project of the US military, named Project Mogul - was misidentified by an Army Air Force intelligence officer - who knew nothing of the secret project - as the remains of a crashed saucer (apparently because of the very recent and widespread US news coverage of “flying saucers”).

An astronomy professor, J. Allen Hynek, was a consultant to the investigation, from 1952 to 1966.


However, he quit in disgust after being subjected to public ridicule for his infamous “swamp gas” explanation of the March 21, 1966, UFO sighting on the Hillsdale College campus in Michigan:2 On the night of March 21, a civil-defense director, a college dean, and eighty-seven students, witnessed the wild maneuvers of a car-sized football-shaped UFO.


Keith Thompson, in his book Angels and Aliens, summarizes:

“The curtain came down on this four-hour performance when the mysterious object maneuvered over a swamp near the Hillsdale College campus.”3

2 Thompson, Keith. Angels and Aliens. Addison-Wesley, New York, 1991. pp. 80–84.
3 Ibid., p. 81.



This misidentification was reported in the local Roswell newspaper, and then reported across the US. But within a few days, the military retracted the story as a misidentification of debris that belonged to a weather balloon (Project Mogul was a military secret, and not declassified and made public until 1994, so a more accurate and detailed explanation was not forthcoming).

Although the Roswell event dates to 1947, the Roswell myth did not grow large until the 1980s and 1990s, when many books were written on the subject, supporting the Roswell hoax as being factual.


As researcher Kal Korff says,

“The Roswell ‘UFO crash’ of 1947 is not the only case in UFO history to be blown out of proportion, nor is it going to be the last… Let’s not pull punches here: The Roswell UFO myth has been very good business for UFO groups, publishers, for Hollywood, the town of Roswell, the media, and UFOlogy.”

(Korff, Kal. The Roswell UFO Crash: What They Don’t Want You to Know. Prometheus Books, Amherst NY, 1997. pp. 217–218).

Although money is an important factor in explaining the peddling of the Roswell myth as factual, there is a bigger reason that explains why there was a demand for this myth: The mathematics-only reality model does not allow UFOs and their occupants - if they are real - to be something that the mathematics-only reality model cannot explain.


But the commonly reported characteristics of the occupants - for example, their widely reported use of telepathy - cannot be explained by the mathematics-only reality model.


Thus, because the mathematics-only reality model is the dominant reality model of the 20th century, and many people believe the model, this belief creates a potential paying public for false UFO stories - such as Roswell - to counteract and contradict the UFO evidence that undermines the mathematics-only reality model.


Thus, the creation and consequent peddling of both the Roswell myth and similar but less well-known crash-and-recovery myths; the ultimate purpose being to place the aliens on the dissection table, so as to expose them as physical, as the mathematics-only reality model requires.

Although initially disbelieving, Hynek underwent a conversion during the 1960s as he was overcome by the weight of evidential UFO reports.4 He had personally investigated many of these reports, by interviewing UFO witnesses as part of his role with the Air Force as a UFO debunker.


In a 1975 conference paper, quoted by Leonard Stringfield in his book Situation Red, Hynek summarized as follows:

If you object, I ask you to explain - quantitatively, not qualitatively - the reported phenomena of materialization and dematerialization, of shape changes, of the noiseless hovering in the earth’s gravitational field, accelerations that - for an appreciable mass - require energy sources far beyond present capabilities - even theoretical capabilities - the well-known and often reported E-M effects, the psychic effects on percipients, including purported telepathic communications, the preferential occurrence of UFO experiences to the “repeaters” - those who are reported to have so many more UFO sightings that it outrages the noble art of statistics.5

The statement about materialization and dematerialization refers to reports where the UFO becomes visible or invisible while being stationary.6


The statement about shape changes refers to reports where a UFO undergoes a major change in its apparent shape - such as when two smaller UFOs join to form a single larger UFO. The statement about E-M effects refers to electromagnetic effects, such as the bright lights and light beams that often emanate from UFOs.


Also, there is the effect that UFOs can have on electrical machinery. For example, a UFO in proximity to a car, typically stops the car’s engine.

UFO sightings are not evenly distributed over time. Instead, the sightings tend to clump together in what are called waves. During a UFO wave, the number of reported sightings is much higher than normal. Waves are typically confined geographically.

  • For example, France experienced a large wave in 1954, which included landings and observed occupants.

  • Sweden and Finland experienced a wave beginning in 1946, and lasting till 1948.

  • In that wave, the UFOs were cigar-shaped objects which were termed at the time, ghost rockets.

  • More recent was the wave in Belgium, that began in November, 1989, and lasted through March, 1990.

  • The American waves include those of 1897, 1947, 1952, 1957, 1966, and 1973.


Computer scientist Jacques Vallee, in his book Anatomy of a Phenomenon, summarizes some earlier sightings:

Their attention, for example, should be directed to the ship that was seen speeding across the sky, at night, in Scotland in A.D. 60. In 763, while King Domnall Mac Murchada attended the fair at Teltown, in Meath County, ships were also seen in the air.


In 916, in Hungary, spherical objects shining like stars, bright and polished, were reported going to and fro in the sky. Somewhere at sea, on July 29 or 30 of the year 966, a luminous vertical cylinder was seen….


In Japan, on August 23, 1015, two objects were seen giving birth to small luminous spheres. At Cairo in August 1027, numerous noisy objects were reported. A large silvery disk is said to have come close to the ground in Japan on August 12, 1133.7

There is no standard size, shape, or coloring of UFOs. Reported sizes, as measured along the widest dimension, have ranged from less than a meter to more than a thousand meters.8


However, most reported UFOs, continued on next page whose size was observed from the ground at close range, were roughly between a small car and a large truck in size. In modern times, most UFOs have resembled spheres, cylinders, saucers, or triangles with rounded angles.


Sometimes, the observed UFO has a distinct dome, and sometimes, the UFO has what appear to be windows or portholes.

4 Ibid., pp. 80, 83–84, 117.

5 Stringfield, Leonard. Situation Red: The UFO Siege. Fawcett Crest Books, New York, 1977. p. 44.

6 Because UFOs have the ability to accelerate and decelerate so quickly - faster than the eye can follow - this ability is typically given as the explanation for reported materialization and dematerialization of UFOs. And this is probably the correct explanation, assuming that the UFO involved is physical.

7 Vallee, Jacques. Anatomy of a Phenomenon. Ace Books, New York, 1965. p. 21.

8 Although typically classified in the UFO literature simply as UFOs - because they are seen as unidentified objects moving through the sky - the smallest objects, typically seen as small balls of light less than a meter in size (and which are sometimes seen moving in formation, and are often seen moving to and from a larger UFO), are, apparently, individual intelligent-particle beings. For example: “Also common within abduction reports is the ball-of-light visitation. They have been dubbed ‘bedroom lights’ by UFO researchers. Sometimes the glowing ball will dissipate and disgorge an alien entity. At other times, the alien entity will dissipate and become a luminous ball. Again, with the feeling of deja vu, I too had an encounter with a small light hovering before my bed when I was a child.” (Fowler, Raymond. The Allagash Abductions. Wild Flower Press, Tigard OR, 1993. p. 197).

The “dissipation” that UFO researcher Raymond Fowler is referring to in the above quote, is just the observed reorganization of the being’s bion population, either to or from whatever shape that being assumes when it is about to interact with people. As with the bion bodies described in section 6.3, the being’s bions can potentially assume any shape, such as the alien shape, by individually using the learned-program move statement to make changes in position relative to each other.


Presumably, when moving at speed, the beings assume the undifferentiated shape of a ball, because that shape is more conducive for high-speed travel. In either case, whether the being appears as a ball or as an alien, and whether the being is flying through the air or moving about as an alien, its motive power is the learned-program move statement, used by that being’s intelligent particles.


By using the move statement synchronously, to move together, the intelligent particles that compose that being - whether that being is in a ball shape or an alien shape - can move about in a coordinated manner, maintaining the appearance of being connected.

The question arises as to why the beings are appearing as a ball of light, instead of simply remaining invisible.


The production of visible light, if wanted, could be accomplished by the learned-program move statement: for example, by ionizing molecules in the surrounding air, in such a way as to cause the emission of visible light. The reason the beings may want to be lighted when they travel as a ball, could be the same reason that their vehicle is often lighted.


In general, when the beings are closely interacting with p-common particles, they themselves, apparently, can see by means of visible light (they would have a learned program for this). Thus, when they move as a ball to and from their ship, being visibly lighted may be done so that their progress can be tracked visually by any of their fellow beings who are currently seeing by means of visible light.

As explained above, the small balls of light are the beings themselves. However, the larger UFOs, from car-size on up, are, apparently, the actual vehicles used by these beings when they have something more than just themselves to move around.

When viewed as solid objects, UFOs often have a shiny metallic finish, although dark colors are also sometimes reported.


When viewed as lights, or as flashing lights on a UFO body, typical colors seem to be white and red, with other colors, such as yellow, blue, and green, reported less frequently.


9.2 The UFO According to Hill
Aeronautical engineer Paul Hill (1909–1990) presents a detailed technical evaluation of UFOs in his book Unconventional Flying Objects.9 His experience with UFOs included two different sightings that he had (both sightings were made in Hampton, Virginia).


The first sighting was on July 16, 1952:

In the early 1950s, I studied the UFO pattern and noticed their propensity for visiting defense installations, flight over water, evening visits, and return appearances. … Accordingly, expecting conformance to the pattern, at 5 minutes to 8 P.M., just at twilight, a companion and I arrived at the Hampton Roads waterfront, parked, and started to watch the skies for UFOs…


They came in side by side at about 500 mph [about 800 kilometers per hour], at what was learned later by triangulation to be 15,000 to 18,000 feet altitude [about 4500 to 5500 meters]. From all angles they looked like amber traffic lights a couple of blocks away, which would make them spheres about 13 to 20 feet [about 4 to 6 meters] in diameter…


Then, after passing zenith, they made an astounding maneuver. Maintaining their spacing of about 200 feet [about 60 meters], they revolved in a horizontal circle, about a common center, at a rate of at least once per second.10

9 Hill, Paul. Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis. Hampton Roads Publishing, Charlottesville VA, 1995. (Hill’s book, although completed in 1975, was not published until 1995, five years after his death.)

10 Ibid., pp. 44–45.


Hill computes the acceleration of the revolving UFOs at about 122 g’s.11 Hill’s second sighting, made in 1962, was of a single large dirigible-shaped UFO, that was seen by Hill - who was riding as a passenger in a car - to be maneuvering over Chesapeake Bay:

… I was surprised to see a fat aluminum- or metallic-colored “fuselage” nearly the size of a small freighter, but shaped more like a dirigible, approaching from the rear. It was at an altitude of about 1000 feet [about 300 meters] …. It was moving slowly, possibly 100 mph [possibly 160 kilometers per hour] … It looked like a big, pointed-nose dirigible, but had not even a tail surface as an appendage. …


Soon… it began to accelerate very rapidly and at the same time to emit a straw-yellow, or pale flame-colored wake or plume, short at first but growing in length as the speed increased until it was nearly as long as the object. Also, when it started to accelerate it changed from a level path to an upward slanting path, making an angle of about 5 degrees with the horizontal.


It passed us going at an astounding speed. It disappeared into the cloud layer… in what I estimated to be four seconds after the time it began to accelerate. The accelerating distance was measured by the car odometer to be 5 miles [8 kilometers].12,13,14

Hill computes the acceleration of this dirigible-shaped UFO at about 100 g’s - with a velocity, when he last saw it, of about 9,000 mph [about 14,500 kilometers per hour; about 4 kilometers per second].15 Although an acceleration of 100 g’s would kill a man, intelligent-particle beings have no physical body to crush, and would be safe.

Assuming that a UFO is composed of p-common particles, an acceleration of 100 g’s is not necessarily destructive to that UFO’s p-common content. And Hill points out that the US military has self-guiding cannon shells - subjected to more than 7,000 g’s at launch, and designed to survive 9,000 g’s - that contain electronics, sensors, and maneuverable flight surfaces.16

11 Ibid., p. 48.

12 Ibid., pp. 175–176.

13 According to Hill’s analysis (Ibid., pp. 53–82, 179–180), the plume emitted by this dirigible-shaped UFO is the result of the ionization of the air that moves into the wake of the vehicle. This ionization is caused by soft x-rays, presumably emitted as a consequence of the propulsion system. The plume - although it looks like a flame - is not a flame: there is no burning, and the plume is not hot. The plume lengthens as the vehicle moves faster through the air, because there is a relaxation time for the ionization.

According to Hill, this emission of soft x-rays - primarily in the direction of the vehicle’s thrust vector - is a common feature of UFOs, and accounts for the reported instances of radiation sickness in those persons who get too close to the outside of a UFO for too long. The ionization plume is not normally visible during daylight, but is visible under low-light conditions. For example, a saucer-shaped UFO, hovering at night, can appear cone-shaped: the cone under the saucer is the ionized air beneath the saucer (Ibid., pp. 144–145). In general, the ionization around a UFO tends to interfere with the ability to clearly see the surface of that UFO.

14 According to Hill, he heard no noise from this dirigible-shaped UFO, even though it was moving - when he last saw it - at supersonic speed. According to Hill’s analysis (Ibid., pp. 181–218), both the lack of a sonic boom, and the apparent lack of any significant heating of the UFO - as the UFO moves at supersonic speeds through the atmosphere - are due to the same cause: the same type of force field used to move the craft, is also used to move the air smoothly around the craft.

15 Ibid., pp. 48–49.

16 Ibid., p. 49.

Based on the observation that UFOs tilt to move - which implies a single thrust vector - and based on the various reported effects of UFOs - such as the bending down and breaking of tree branches when a UFO flies too closely over them - Hill makes a very solid case that the UFO moves by means of a directed force field that repels all physical matter, in the same way that gravity attracts all physical matter.17,18


This anti-gravity force field is not known to 20th-century physics.

Although a physical UFO, in theory, could, in effect, be infused with bions, and those bions could use the learned-program move statement to move that UFO about, there are two reasons that work against this explanation:

  1. The move statement moves p-common particles directly. Thus, if a physical UFO were being moved about by the move statement, there would be none of the reported outside reactionary effects, such as the reported downward bending of tree branches under a UFO.

  2. As explained in section 8.6, bions cannot be directly programmed by any civilization. Thus, how would the bions infusing the physical UFO be programmed to move that craft as desired by the craft’s occupants? Alternatively, suggesting that the occupants themselves are moving the physical UFO avoids this second reason, but not the first.

Given the above considerations, it seems most likely that the normal motive force for the physical UFO is the directed force field described by Hill, and not the learned-program move statement.


However, although not normally moving the UFO themselves, the intelligent-particle beings in the craft may play an indirect role: For example, assuming they are the Caretakers, then perhaps they use the learned program that they have for materializing p-common objects (section 10.4), to materialize whatever exotic p-common fuel is needed to run whatever engine creates the directed force field.


9.3 Occupants
UFO occupants come in different humanoid shapes and sizes.


Depending on the circumstances of the observation, a UFO occupant may appear as a normal-size person, a dwarfish person, a humanoid monster, or a small alien. Apparently, the only appearance constant is that the occupant follows, more or less, the basic humanoid shape: two legs, two arms, a head, and bilateral symmetry.

The UFO occupant is often small, ranging from roughly 1 to 1½ meters in height. One advantage of a small size is that, for whoever sees them, that person’s fright is reduced: the person typically assumes he is stronger than the small occupant. In the case of occupants that look human, the person is even more at ease.

UFO occupants assume normal human form when they want to be mistaken as human, such as during certain abductions of people.19



17 Ibid., pp. 98–118.

18 According to Hill’s analysis (Ibid., pp. 219–224), this same type of force field can be directed into the craft, opposite to the thrust vector, so as to more or less cancel the acceleration force on the presumed passenger area of the craft. What this means, is that the presumed passenger area, and its occupants, would be more or less free from experiencing any acceleration, even though the craft may in fact be accelerating at a high rate.

19 Alternatively, in some cases, an occupant that looks human may actually be human. This possibility is not considered further.



Apart from abductions, there seems to be a standard ruse that a single occupant, masquerading as a human, likes to play on the selected observer. The ruse is to approach the person and ask for help of some kind - such as requesting food or water.


This ruse has three advantages.

  • First, it gives the occupant a believable excuse for approaching the person.

  • Second, it puts the person at ease with the occupant, because the occupant is claiming weakness and the need for help.

  • Third, it prolongs the time the occupant has with the person, because the person is soon busy getting the food or water.

For example, in her book Alien Abductions, Jenny Randles recounts an alleged incident on the Drakensteen mountain in South Africa, during the spring of 1951: a British engineer was driving his car up the mountain late at night, when he encountered a strange man who said he needed water. Collecting water in an oil can, the engineer drove the mysterious stranger back to the pick-up point.


Here he now saw a disc-shaped craft hidden in the shadows of the mountain.

He was invited inside and shown a table or bed, on which lay one of the entities. He had supposedly been burnt - hence the need for water. For the man’s kindness, the aliens allowed their benefactor to ask questions. Naturally he wanted to know how their UFO worked, but the reply was not helpful:

‘We nullify gravity by way of a fluid magnet,’ they explained.

So where did they come from?


They looked at the sky, pointed and said melodramatically,

‘From there!’20

20 Randles, Jenny. Alien Abductions. Inner Light Publications, New Brunswick, 1988. p. 153.


UFO occupants assume dwarfish human form under two conditions. First, occupants assume this form when they are engaged in activities on the ground that may cause them to be inadvertently observed by persons who come along by chance.


There are many reports, both old and recent, of people coming across this kind of occupant while it is busy collecting rocks, soil, or plants. There may be several occupants so engaged at once, and there always seems to be a UFO parked nearby. When surprised by someone, the standard scenario is that the occupants quickly take whatever they are carrying at the moment, return to their UFO, and leave the area.


Depending on the actions and proximity of the person when his presence is detected, one of the observed occupants may aim a short wand at him, rendering him unable to move until some minutes after the occupants and their UFO have departed.


For example:

On December 19, [1954] Jose Parra, an eighteen-year-old jockey from Valencia [Venezuela], who was doing some night-training, during the early hours, suddenly saw six little men pulling boulders from the side of the highway and loading them aboard a disc-shaped craft which was hovering less than nine feet [less than three meters] from the ground.


Parra started to run away, but one of the little creatures pointed a small device at him, which gave off a violet-colored light and prevented Parra from moving.21

The second condition under which UFO occupants assume dwarfish human form, is obsolete in modern times.


In pre-modern times, when UFO occupants wanted to abduct someone, they typically appeared to the abductee as dwarfish people. These occupants would then play a ruse on the abductee. They invited the abductee to come with them, to provide help of some kind, or to participate in their celebrations. Some such excuse would be made, to help win the abductee’s initial cooperation in his own abduction.


The people at the time believed these occupants to be members of an advanced human race that lived on mountains, in caves, or on islands; in places not inhabited by ordinary people. But this deception became obsolete when it became unbelievable in modern times. However, the deception was used in Europe until as late as the 19th century, when the practice died out completely.


Jacques Vallee, in Dimensions (quoting Walter Evans-Wentz, who wrote both a thesis on Celtic traditions in Brittany, and a book in 1909, titled The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries):

The general belief in the interior of Brittany is that the fees once existed, but that they disappeared as their country was changed by modern conditions. In the region of the Mene and of Erce (Ille-et-Vilaine) it is said that for more than a century there have been no fees and on the sea coast where it is firmly believed that the fees used to inhabit certain grottos in the cliffs, the opinion is that they disappeared at the beginning of the last century.


The oldest Bretons say that their parents or grandparents often spoke about having seen fees, but very rarely do they say that they themselves have seen fees. M. Paul Sebillot found only two who had. One was an old needlewoman of Saint-Cast, who had such fear of fees that if she was on her way to do some sewing in the country and it was night she always took a long circuitous route to avoid passing near a field known as the Couvent des Fees.


The other was Marie Chehu, a woman 88 years old.22


21 Vallee, Anatomy of a Phenomenon, p. 201.
22 Vallee, Jacques. Dimensions. Ballantine Books, New York, 1988. pp. 70–71.

Although UFO occupants have been seen collecting rocks, soil, and plants; in recent times almost no one has reported seeing them collecting farm animals. However, UFOs have been sighted in farm areas, where shortly afterward the carcasses of biopsied farm animals, typically cattle, have been found.


For example, there was the wave of so-called cattle mutilations that took place in America during the 1970s:

There is no doubt that in the mid to late 1970s, something of an epidemic of animal mutilations in states including Minnesota, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, and Texas took place. By May 1974, more than 100 cattle had been found dead and gruesomely mutilated in Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska alone.


In case after case, ranchers and farmers reported that an unknown person had killed the animals, and removed with surgical precision body parts including sex organs, tongues, ears, eyes, or anuses.

“I’ve yet to see a coyote who can chew a straight edge,” said the organizer of a patrol to protect the animals.

The killers were elusive, leaving no footprints or other evidence of their presence.


Often the mutilations were committed in what should have been plain sight or within hearing distance - close proximity to a farmhouse, for instance - but no sights or sounds were reported.23

UFO involvement with animal collection is not confined to modern America.


Jacques Vallee, in his book Messengers of Deception, describes an incident that occurred in the Natal midlands of Africa, during the 1960s, as two men walked down a hill:

They saw “an eerie reddish glow” on the farm runway, about 200 yards [roughly 200 meters] from them.


The flock of sheep in the runway paddock were all standing in two one-third circles on opposite sides of the glow, looking toward it.

“From our elevated position,” wrote Anton Fitzgerald in the aviation magazine Wings over Africa, “the sheep reminded me of iron filings on a piece of paper around a magnet.”

The pinkish glow started rising vertically without a sound. Fitzgerald inspected the area, and noticed that one old sheep was missing. He was reminded of the Zulu legend of “the Red Sun that rises straight up into the sky after devouring some of the tribe’s cattle.” The Cherokee Indians have a similar legend of the Sun that rises straight up.24

UFO occupants assume monstrous form comparatively rarely. Perhaps there are times when the UFO occupants want to deliberately frighten the observer. By appearing monstrous, a UFO occupant communicates the idea that it is radically different from man - thus discouraging, in advance, certain lines of questioning and types of behavior.


A possible, legendary example is Oannes: a large fish with feet at its tail, and a human voice, who walked out of the Persian Gulf and taught civilization to the early Babylonians.25


23 Thompson, op. cit., p. 129.
24 Vallee, Jacques. Messengers of Deception. And/Or Press, Berkeley, 1979. p. 165.
25 Story, Ronald. Guardians of the Universe?. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1980. pp. 104–109. (Ronald Story quotes the Greek sources for this legend.)



9.4 The Abduction Experience
In recent times, and especially in America, UFO occupants assume a small-alien form when they are abducting people. Elsewhere around the world, many abductions are reported to be conducted by UFO occupants that look human.

Detailed reports of the abduction experience typically come from abductees who undergo hypnosis to learn the truth of what has happened to them. It seems to be standard practice that the UFO occupants do something to the abductee to prevent conscious recall of the abduction experience. This forced forgetfulness is not new.

For example,

“the mind of a person coming out of Fairy-Land is usually blank as to what has been seen and done there.” 26

When UFO occupants abduct someone, they are faced with a dilemma: On the one hand, the abductee must be conscious during any psychological testing. In addition, a conscious abductee can do certain tasks, such as undress himself.


Also, a conscious abductee can warn the UFO occupants if he is being inadvertently hurt by them. On the other hand, conscious recall by the abductee distracts that person from his normal life, and causes social ostracism if the abduction experiences are told to others. For this dilemma, forced forgetfulness is probably the best solution.

Historian David Jacobs, in his book Secret Life, states that he,

“had more than 325 hypnosis sessions with more than sixty abductees.” 27

Summarizing Jacobs’ description of the UFO occupants involved in abductions:

  • The aliens do not wear clothes, although sometimes the coloring of clothing appears to be “painted” on their bodies.

  • The aliens lack any visible sign of a circulatory system. In other words, there is no sign of veins on their bodies.

  • The alien skin is completely smooth, and there is no sign of surface or color irregularities. For example, there are no hairs, bumps, or wrinkles.

  • There is no noticeable aging of the aliens.

  • There are no signs of bones or muscles in the alien body. In other words, there is no visible sign of subsurface supporting structures.

  • The two alien eyes - on a disproportionately large head - are very large, slanted in a v shape, solid black, fixed without visible movement, and have no eyelids.

  • The alien mouth is a slit which never seems to move or open.

  • The alien neck has a narrow tube shape.

  • Also, their arms and legs have a narrow tube shape.

  • And in spite of such apparently flimsy structure, motor control by the aliens is excellent. They move about and manipulate tools with speed and precision.

Regarding bodily needs, Jacobs remarks,

“they do not appear to breathe or to ingest food and water.”28

The basics of the abduction experience - in which a person, body and all, is abducted - are described by David Jacobs in Secret Life. There are other books, by different authors, that say essentially the same thing, although not necessarily in as much detail.

The typical abduction experience begins when several small aliens appear to the abductee. The aliens typically choose a time for the abduction when the possibility of detection is minimized - such as late at night, or when the person is alone. If the abductee is in, for example, a bedroom, then the aliens either pass through a wall or float through a window.


At some point, the abductee is aware of the presence of these aliens. Fear is the normal human reaction, and at least one alien quickly moves alongside the abductee who is calmed by this alien. If there is someone near the abductee, such as a mate, that person remains unconscious - asleep - for the duration of the abduction.

The next step is that one or more of the aliens grab hold of the abductee. The entire party then floats upward and out of the abduction site - up toward a waiting UFO. If the abduction site is a room, standard procedure is for the party to pass through a window, to leave that room.29

26 Vallee, Jacques. Passport to Magonia. Henry Regnery Company, Chicago, 1969. p. 87. (Jacques Vallee is quoting Walter Evans-Wentz.)
27 Jacobs, David. Secret Life. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1992. p. 24.
28 Ibid., p. 228.
29 Jacobs claims that both the aliens and the abductee will pass through a closed window. However, this claim may not be completely correct. For the aliens, assuming they are intelligent-particle beings with no p-common content, passing through a window or wall is simply a matter of their intelligent particles not interacting with that window or wall. However, regarding the abductee passing through an allegedly closed window, it is probably the case, instead, that the window is opened - either by one of the aliens, or by the abductee, prior to the abductee passing through the window.


Note that if one assumes - as apparently many abduction researchers do, and probably also as many abductees do - that the aliens and abductee are physical beings, then because the aliens are reported to be passing through closed doors and windows, and solid walls, it is not unreasonable to assume that the abductee can do likewise - assuming that the aliens can apply to the abductee whatever means they apply to themselves.


Thus, a report that an abductee passes through a closed window - instead of being a report of direct observation - may be more of a logical inference, made by the abductee and/or researcher. Also, the mere fact that the abductee is normally reported as taken through a window, even when the aliens themselves come through a wall, indicates that physical objects are more of an obstacle for the abductee than for the aliens.

As the UFO is approached by the party, the size of the UFO - as estimated by abductees - is somewhere between 10 and 100 meters in diameter. Depending on the size of the craft, the abductee may enter directly into the examination room; or, if the UFO is very large, the abductee enters first into a waiting room.

Once the abductee is in the craft, the next step is the undressing of the abductee - assuming the abductee is wearing something. If the craft is very large, the abductee is soon brought to the examination room in which there are typically many examination tables. At least some of these tables may already be occupied by other people undergoing the examination process.

Throughout the abduction experience, all communication from the aliens is by telepathy.


Typically, they say to the abductee only words of assurance that everything is all right, and that the abductee will not be harmed. When the aliens are asked questions about their motivation for the abduction, the typical reply is that it has to be done, followed by the usual assurances. In general, the aliens do not volunteer information, and as a rule they evade direct questions.

The abductee is placed on an empty examination table, and a very thorough physical exam - by human standards - is conducted by several aliens working together. At the end of the physical exam, a tiny object may be implanted in the abductee. This implant is typically placed in the head, up the nose.


According to Jacobs,

“someone might expel a tiny metallic ball from their nasal passage, although this has not happened to the abductees I have worked with… In the cases where they have been recovered, analyses have so far been inconclusive about their origin… To date, no operations have been performed to remove the suspicious masses because the risks and problems inherent in surgery outweigh recovery considerations, or the object mysteriously disappears.” 30

The standard comment that abduction researchers make about this implant is that it is analogous to the tagging of animals.

Once the physical exam is over, a specialist alien - noticeably taller than the other aliens - may become involved with the abductee, to conduct an advanced physical procedure - using hand-held tools. When working on women, this specialist does egg and fetus removal, and, presumably, other things - such as fertilized egg implants.31


Sometimes, soon after her abduction, a woman abductee learns that she is pregnant; and then, within the next few months, the fetus is removed during a follow-up abduction. Besides collecting eggs and fetuses, the aliens also collect sperm - but sperm collection is a comparatively easy task, which does not require the specialist.

Psychological exams - which are sometimes given after the physical exam - are also done by a specialist. Some of these tests involve emotional response. For example, a woman abductee might be placed in a comfortable-looking room. Shortly afterward, a man whom the woman knows and is attracted to, suddenly enters the room. While this is happening, the specialist remains close to the woman, and “stares” at her, watching her response. Later, the woman learns that the man is actually an alien who had assumed that man’s appearance.

When the examinations are over, it is time for the abductee to leave the UFO. If not already there, the abductee is taken to his clothing. Then, the abductee is encouraged to dress, and helped if necessary. The abductee is then escorted out of the UFO, and returned to the place from which he was originally taken. Once returned, the abduction experience is over - having lasted, usually, “from one to three hours.” 32

The typical abductee is abducted first in infancy or childhood, and then abducted at least several more times over the remaining course of his life. This pattern has the obvious advantage of allowing a long-term study of the individual, beginning at an early stage of development.


Also, another advantage of repeated abductions is that the repetition habituates the individual to the abduction routine, making the results of psychological testing more reliable and less corrupted by the surrounding abduction experience.

30 Ibid., p. 240.

31 When a woman abductee is implanted with an egg, one should not necessarily assume that that egg came from that woman; although, depending on the reason for the implantation, it may have. Also, although the term fertilized is used to indicate that the egg is diploid and ready to start dividing, one should not necessarily assume that the aliens actually introduced a sperm into that egg to make it diploid; although, depending on the reason for the implantation, they may have. Note that if the aliens in a specific implantation case, want to specify exactly some or all of the egg’s genetic content, then it is not unreasonable to assume that prior to implantation, the aliens custom-built the DNA wanted, and introduced it into the egg.

32 Ibid., p. 50.


9.5 Identity of the Occupants
The fact that the UFO occupants can communicate telepathically with the people they abduct, indicates that the learned programs involved in the communication are either the same or very similar in both parties.


For example, the learned programs of both parties must agree as to the low-level protocols used in establishing and maintaining the communication channel, over which the raw data is sent and received. Also, the learned programs of both parties must agree, at least in large part, as to the format and meaning of the raw data that is sent and received.


This commonality of learned programs is consistent with the UFO occupants being the Caretakers.


Presumably, these learned programs were copied, at some time in the remote past, from Caretakers to humans.

In contrast to man, the UFO occupants - like the Caretakers - are, it seems, composed solely of intelligent particles. Thus, without the burden of common particles, the UFO occupants are free to pass through walls, as during an abduction, and to shape-shift and assume the many different appearances found in the survey data. This shape-shifting ability includes the ability to form the appearance of clothing, although, on certain occasions, actual p-common clothing may be worn.

The ability of a UFO occupant to become solid to p-common particles, such as when collecting rocks and soil, is a consequence of the intelligent particles composing that occupant deciding that they will interact with p-common particles. Specifically, the learned-program move statement can be applied to p-common particles.


For example, if a learned program only applies the move statement to move p-common particles that are next to the outermost intelligent particles of the occupant, then, the direct contact that man experiences with his own p-common body can be closely simulated. Even Newton’s law - for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction - can be simulated, allowing an occupant to use the resulting feedback to moderate the force that the move statement applies against p-common objects.


Thus, not surprisingly, there are many reports of UFO occupants being knocked over by various p-common impacts - such as by a person falling on them, or by bullets hitting them - after which they get up unharmed and continue whatever they were doing.

That UFOs are described in old historical records, is consistent with the UFO occupants being the Caretakers, because the Caretaker civilization is assumed to be very ancient, and is probably more ancient than the beginning of organic life, 3½ billion years ago. The collecting of rocks and soil by UFO occupants, although not necessarily a Caretaker function, can be a Caretaker function, because various biosphere-related chemicals, bacteria, and other organisms, are typically found on rocks and in soil.

The biopsies done on lower animals - such as the cattle that had parts of their anatomy removed - are consistent with the UFO occupants being the Caretakers. A possible reason for such sampling of animal parts is to monitor the animals’ well-being as a species in the face of environmental change. Similarly, the abduction experience - with its focus on human fitness and reproduction - is consistent with the UFO occupants being the Caretakers.


In conclusion, the UFO occupants are the Caretakers.


9.6 Interstellar Travel
Presumably, the Caretakers can and do travel within the solar system. However, travel to other stars is another matter. Even if they can do it, it would be a time-consuming trip at sub-light speed.33

33 Does the computing-element program allow the Caretakers to instantaneously jump to other star systems? Specifically, does the computing-element program offer learned-program statements that allow a group of intelligent particles to instantaneously move itself to arbitrarily different spatial coordinates?

First, although the accessible information environment of a bion is a very large sphere centered on that particle, there is no reason to believe that this sphere’s radius is on the order of interstellar distances, because of the computational burden involved. The computational burden of examining an accessible information environment is proportional to the sphere’s volume. Thus, for example, compared to the computational burden of examining the information environment of a sphere with a radius of 100,000 kilometers, the computational burden for a sphere with a radius of four light years - which is the distance to the nearest star - is about 1025 times greater.

Without strong evidence - and there is none - one should not assume that intelligent particles can directly perceive objects across interstellar distances. And without direct perception, an intelligent particle cannot provide a meaningful destination coordinate, or address, that a move statement, or a send or receive statement for communication purposes, requires. Of course, this does not rule out a series of short jumps, made within the limits of direct perception. However, there are other difficulties.


Specifically, the existence of a move statement for arbitrary spatial translation within the accessible information environment, would be inherently dangerous to the stability of any population of cooperating intelligent particles. Each intelligent particle is autonomous, running its own learned programs, so there is no guarantee that a cooperating population of intelligent particles would always use such a move statement in perfect synchrony. Thus, intelligent particles could easily separate from each other, beyond the limits of their direct perception, quickly becoming lost to each other. Given these considerations, it seems likely that the only move statement offered by the computing-element program is a safe move statement, whose range is much shorter than the range of the send and receive statements.


And in another star system, the learned programs of whatever intelligent-particle beings are there, are probably different enough from those of the Caretakers to make personal interaction with them difficult.


Thus, star systems are probably fairly isolated from each other, even for the Caretakers.


9.7 Miracles at Fatima
Regarding UFOs and religion, many UFO researchers have suggested that UFO occupants have played a major role in the formation and maintenance of at least some of the historical religions.


The evidence for this claim includes the widely cited miracle at Fatima, Portugal, which occurred on October 13, 1917, and was witnessed by roughly 70,000 people. This large number of witnesses was the direct result of a methodical sequence of ever greater miracles occurring at the same location, which was a pasture named Cova da Iria, 2½ kilometers from the village of Fatima.


The sequence of events had the following dates and approximate attendance:

  • May 13 attended by 3

  • June 13 attended by 50

  • July 13 attended by 4,500

  • August 13 attended by 18,000

  • September 13 attended by 30,000

  • October 13 attended by 70,000 34

On May 13, three children, who worked as shepherds, apparently met and conversed with a Caretaker, who appeared as a woman floating on top of a tree.


The woman wore radiant, beautiful clothing. The children, being Catholic, believed that she was the Virgin Mary. Among other things, this Caretaker told them to return to the same spot each month, on the 13th day. On October 13, 1917, at the Cova da Iria site, at the appointed time of noon, there appeared a giant, radiant UFO, which had a flat, disc shape.


This UFO maneuvered about for roughly ten minutes, changing colors, spinning, and sometimes dropping closer to the ground, which frightened the audience greatly.


9.8 Miracles and the Caretakers
The Caretakers lack organic bodies, and their learned programs evolved without concern for organic frailty. As a result, the Caretakers have subject to their conscious control, learned programs that make them look like gods with marvelous psychic powers.

It seems that, occasionally, the Caretakers transfer some of their psychic powers - presumably by a copying of the relevant learned programs - to a person for whom they intend a role as a miracle worker. A possible contemporary example is Sai Baba (section 10.4).

Alternatively, the miracles apparently done by a miracle worker may actually be done by a nearby Caretaker, who monitors the situation, but remains invisible. A possible example of such Caretaker involvement, is the escape artist Harry Houdini, who died in 1926 at the age of 52.


According to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, a friend and contemporary of Houdini:

He told me that a voice which was independent of his own reason or judgment told him what to do and how to do it. So long as he obeyed the voice he was assured of safety.

“It all comes as easy as stepping off a log,” said he to me, “but I have to wait for the voice. You stand there before a jump, swallowing the yellow stuff that every man has in him. Then at last you hear the voice and you jump. Once I jumped on my own and I nearly broke my neck.”

This was the nearest admission that I ever had from him that I was right in thinking that there was a psychic element which was essential to every one of his feats.35,36

34 Vallee, Dimensions, p. 177.


35 Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan. The Edge of the Unknown. Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1992. p. 12.

36 Of course, not every independent mental voice a person might hear, is from a Caretaker. Other possible sources include other human minds, or the dead; or a functional piece of the person’s own mind, which has not integrated properly. This functional-piece possibility is the explanation for those suffering from schizophrenia, in which the voices heard are independent but “low,” having an extremely limited mental range.


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