by Marshall D. Smith
Teddy Speaks Foundation, Inc.
(Originally posted to the
ELFrad Group 06/27/00)
Many thanks to Charlie and the members of the Group in the
preparation of this report.
There has been considerable interest in the possibility the
mysterious 0.9 Hz ULF signal observed by
the ELFrad group is a
result of HAARP broadcasts. I have been monitoring HAARP for
sometime and noted a number of similar characteristics between the
HAARP broadcasts and the dates, times and pulsing of the ULF signal.
The name HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program)
would imply its major function is the creation of high-frequency or
Nonetheless, one of the main purposes of
HAARP is the generation of powerful ULF/ELF/VLF signals as stated in
both the original design patent and in their list of ongoing
research activities. For those researchers using sensitive ULF/ELF
receivers or magnetometers for seismic correlation studies it would
be useful to know when HAARP is generating ULF signals and then
subtract those signals from your data set. Unfortunately, HAARP does
not notify the public of the varied dates, times and frequency, or
nature of modulation of its transmissions.
So you would need to
determine that for yourself.
HAARP transmits primarily on 2 frequencies: 3.39 MHZ and 6.99 MHZ.
The multiple transmitters have the capability, under computer
control, to quickly change to any frequency between 2.8 and 10 MHZ.
Early tests have demonstrated this capacity. But the crossed array
circularly-polarized dipole antennas have been “cut” for maximum
Effective Radiated Power at the design frequencies.
Most radio amateurs would quickly recognize the shortwave radio
propagation characteristics for the HAARP frequencies since they are
adjacent to the 40 and 80 meter ham bands. This means the signals
can be heard quite well at night over long distances since they
reflect off the smooth F layer of the ionosphere and may bounce or
skip clear around the world. During the day time the sunlight
disrupts the D, E and F layers and the long distance capability of
those frequencies from 1 to 10 MHZ is lost.
In March 1997 and again March 1999, HAARP performed listener
reception tests, with mostly ham radio listeners, using CW morse
code signals at a specified time and date on both 3.39 and 6.99 MHZ.
In the March 1997 test, most listener reports show strong signals
from the second F layer skip along a line from northern California
to Toronto, then very little or no reception along the line from
southern California to the New England states, but strong reception
again along a third F layer skip line from Texas to the Carolinas.
In the March 1999 listener tests, with the then much higher power
output, there was “minimal-but-readable” to “very-strong” reception
in all of the US and Canada along with strong signals in Japan,
Australia, United Kingdom and central Europe. Even though HAARP
sends most of its 110 MW of power straight up in the air, there are
still enough megawatts leaking off the side lobes and going around
the world to make HAARP one of the “big boys” on 40 and 80 meters.
By June 2000 HAARP has again increased its power levels. The
increased reception around the world of the 1999 test compared to
the 1997 test is due not only to the increased transmitter power but
also the increased plasma density of the ionospheric F layer as we
approach the solar sunspot maximum in the year 2000. So world-wide
reception of HAARP on short wave may drop in succeeding years.
During normal operation throughout the year, HAARP transmits on
either of its frequencies with a loud 6.25 second pulse, and with
either a 15 or 30 second space between pulses. When listening for
the pulses they are easy to distinguish. The sound of the pulse is
something like a blowtorch, modulated by the sound of a 10-ton fully
loaded Mercedes lorry falling off the Chunnel train half-way to
Once you have heard the HAARP pulses they are instantly
For monitoring purposes the receiver audio can be set very low. Each
of the pulses begins with two, short but very strong, sine wave
multi-frequency tones which are about 20 db above the main pulse.
With the receiver audio set to a minimum background hiss, the
“beep-boop” sound of the pre-pulse tones can be easily heard and let
you know HAARP is transmitting.
HEATER RESEARCH FACILITIES
Current or Planned Research Facilities: Listed in order of final
design output power (ERP)
(Transmitter power x Antenna gain = Effective Radiated Power)
1. HISCAT (International
Radio Observatory, Sweden) (350 MW)
2. HAARP Gakona Alaska (110 MW)
3. EISCAT (Tromsö, Norway) (48 MW)
4. VOA (Voice of America - Delano, CA) (27 MW)
5. SURA (Radiophysical Research Institute, Nizhny
Novgorod, Russia) (20 MW)
6. Arecibo (National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center,
Puerto Rico) (20 MW)
7. HIPAS High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
(UCLA Plasma Physics Lab - Fairbanks Alaska) (17 MW)
3. THE EASTLUND
It would seem the primary shortwave transmitter instrument at HAARP,
called the IRI (Ionospheric Research Instrument), has been built
essentially according to
the 1991 US Patent 5,038,664 submitted by
Dr. Bernard Eastlund. The patent has the esoteric name “Method For
Producing A Shell Of Relativistic Particles At An Altitude Above The
As with most modern patents it is long on theory and claims, but
short on actual description of how the device is built. The
assumption being any person knowledgeable in the field would be able
to build a device to perform according to the specifications and
demonstrate the claims. As such, HAARP does this quite well. The
patent, originally filed in 1985, is now 15 years old so it can be
assumed some improvements have been made.
Put simply, the patent describes a method using a radio beam aimed
at the ionosphere where shortwave pulses from 1 to 3.6 MHZ are
applied to “heat” the electrons in the ionosphere.
Then the antenna
is turned so as to align with the magnetic field lines in the
magnetosphere, and ELF waves (in the audio range) are applied which
then drive the hot electrons upward into the magnetic bottle of the
magnetosphere where they remain trapped. The purpose is to enhance
the number and density of hot electrons in the magnetosphere so it
will become more radio reflective. Some of the beneficial reasons
for making the magnetosphere into a radio reflector are listed in
the patent. Of course, none of the military uses for a radio/radar
mirror out at several earth diameters above the surface are listed.
The main advantage of the unique placement of HAARP in Gakona,
Alaska is by placing the transmitter directly below the auroral
electrojet where the magnetosphere intersects the ionosphere, the
magnetic field lines there are nearly vertical. Then both operations
described in the patent can be performed simultaneously and without
moving the antenna. Thus the shortwave pulses heat the ionospheric
electrons and the powerful ULF/ELF component of the pulses shoots
the electrons up into the magnetosphere at the same time. There are
several other ionospheric heaters like HAARP in operation around the
world. But facilities such as Arecibo in Puerto Rico and VOA Delano
in California are too far away from the auroral electrojet to
accomplish both these functions.
Thus one of the primary research activities at HAARP is creating the
enhanced reflectivity magnetosphere and then bouncing radio signals
off the mirror to determine how well the mirror is working. This
depends on how many hot electrons are injected into the magnetic
bottle of the magnetosphere. To get the most electrons injected, you
need to have just the right ULF/ELF signal.
When you are listening to HAARP the sound of the blowtorch is the
string of pulses from two pulse generators heating the ionosphere,
but slightly out of sync with each other so there is a beat
frequency between them which changes numerous times and generates
the ULF signals. The continuous sweeping through the ULF/ELF range
is the sound of the 10-ton Mercedes lorry falling off the Chunnel
train. The purpose of the research is to determine which ULF/ELF
sound is most efficient.
So sometimes the researchers will fill
that lorry with a flock of Welsh Sheep and other times they might
try a load of Scotch Rye Whiskey. And one time it sounded like a
load of Window Workers from Holland. I can tell by listening they
have not yet determined which sound is most efficient at producing a
shell of relativistic particles, Welsh sheep, Window Workers or
But as do all good researchers on long term government
grants they keep trying.
MYSTERIOUS 0.9 Hz ALFVEN RESONANCE
Since the early days of radio, in the age of
Nikolai Tesla, it has
been known the earth has a natural electromagnetic resonance. If a
radio signal is sent out from point A it will then travel around to
the opposite side of the planet, the antipode at point B, and then
continue to travel around back to point A. If a new signal is sent
at the same time the first signal arrives back, then the two will
add together and seem to resonate constructively.
To calculate that resonant frequency is simple. Take the speed of
the radio waves (speed of light), and divide by the distance
traveled (circumference of the earth). Then 186,000 mi/s divided by
24,000 mi results in 7.75 /s or about 8 Hz. This is called the first
Schumann Resonance of the earth. It is assumed radio static from
large lightning discharges follow this pattern and can be heard on a
ULF radio receiver as overlapping random ringing damped waves at 8
If you take your receiver and tune below the Schumann Resonance down
to about 0.9 or 1 Hz you will hear static from yet another resonant
source. The cause of this Alfven Resonance is a complete mystery.
would imply there is some other path radio waves can follow which
has a round trip path 8 times the size of the earth. Or it may mean
there is a medium through which the radio waves travel which is 8
times slower than the speed of light. It might mean a combination of
the two. It can only be a change in the speed of light or a longer
distance traveled. As yet no one knows.
When radio waves or light rays travel through water or glass they
are slowed down to about ¾ the speed of light. This accounts for the
bending of light at air/water interfaces or by prisms. If radio
waves travel through ionized gas they also are slowed down depending
on the “plasma frequency” which is a function of the temperature,
density and the species of ions which make up the plasma. If radio
waves travel through the rocks of the earth they too are slowed down
depending on the density and make-up of the rock.
As a result there
are primarily three schools of thought about the source of the Alfven Resonance. These are:
interactions with radio waves
Many of the members of the Elfrad group
would fit into the third lithospheric group. The theory is, stresses
in deep rocks in the lithoshpere created by seismic or magmatic
activity can cause piezo-electric signals which radiate from the
source, but due to some resonance of the rock and the distance
between the crust and mantle, the signals are strongest at the
resonance point which might be the Alfven Frequency.
As a result the
Alfven Resonance may not be due to radio waves in the air, but is
actually coming from the earth due to random seismic activity around
the planet. This area of study has been pursued for over 20 years,
as yet, there are many indications but no clear proof has come
The second line of thought, ionospheric
Alfven waves, has many
supporters and researchers with large grants for research. Among
these are teams at HAARP, along with European and Russian
researchers, possibly using the EISCAT and SURA ionospheric heater
The basic concept here is somehow waves travel through
the thin plasma between the top of the ionosphere, the F layer, and
below the magnetosphere several thousand miles above the surface,
and at a speed much slower than the speed of light.
There are some
problems with this theory, one being, what is the source of the
waves and how did they get there. But there are a number of
researchers who just in the last 2 years feel they are right on the
edge of proving maser-like interactions in layers of ions below the
magnetosphere are the source of the Alfven Resonance.
The third group, Magnetospheric Alfven waves, seems to have few
proponents, or they have not yet published or I simply haven’t read
their papers. But there is the possibility waves can travel through
the plasma of the magnetosphere itself and just as the electrons are
bounced back and forth from north to south magnetic pole, they may
be grouped in bunches such that their density rises and falls at a 1
This would of course need to be along the longest path of
the magnetosphere, which is along the orbit of earth. The
magnetosphere in the direction of the sun is compressed by the solar
wind bow shock and would be a shorter path. And the magnetosphere
path away from the sun is discontinuous since it forms a long
conical tail also shaped by the solar wind.
The magnetospheric tail itself, may in fact be a source of another
theory for magnetospheric Alfven waves.
If a thunderstorm produces
red and blue sprites and elves
(below image), the rising plasma jets
from these phenomena may radiate electromagnetic waves upward in the
direction of the magnetic tail.
Under certain solar wind conditions
the shape of the magnetic tail may act as a corner reflector and
send the radio waves right back to the very thunderstorm which
created them, which would then trigger another sprite or elf which
then radiates back to the magnetic tail and ... well, possibly an
electromagnetic radiation path with a total path length about 8
times the circumference of the earth resonating as long as the
thunderstorm is active, with a resonant frequency of 0.9 to 1 Hz.
What this shows is, there is a tight horse race among many
researchers all looking in different places for the source of the
mysterious Alfven Resonance at 0.9 Hz. It would seem the lithospheric group is being left out in the cold, while most of the
grant money is going to the ionospheric group. Among the grantors of
science funding, those people who build radios and then strangely
bury their antennas in the ground are often viewed as being like
those hardy folk who eat dirt and drink motor oil for breakfast.
Thus most of the grant money goes to places like HAARP.
This also points out the reason for the extreme mystery and secrecy
surrounding the projects at HAARP. If you want to find out what is
happening at HAARP the only place you might find out is during a
cocktail party after an international geophysical conference. Even
then if you are lucky enough to collar a researcher, he will only
give you a wink and a nod, and that’s about it.
Why? Well, he
doesn’t want his competitors and fellow researchers to know what
he’s doing. He wants to collect his data, write his paper, be first
to get into the Journal of Geophysical Research, and then proudly
stake his claim as the discoverer of the source of the Alfven
Resonance. All that creates an aura of academic secrecy around the
HAARP activities which is even tighter than a place like, say, Los
With an environment of such high secrecy, the public is inclined to
believe all manner of secret military activities such as, futuristic
weapons, weather and mind control projects along with possibly
communication with ETs, are all occurring at HAARP. When in fact,
most of the secrecy is due to normal academic behavior when a
scientific breakthrough is about to occur.
But then again, a prime
reason for all the secrecy at HAARP is... the US Navy.
SUBMARINE COMMUNICATION CODES
In the 1960’s the US Navy began experiments using ELF transmissions
to talk to submarines deep in the ocean. First experiments in 1969
from a 14 mile antenna at Clam Lake, Wisconsin proved the concept
would work. They later built a 28 mile antenna and then in 1987 a 56
mile antenna in Upper Michigan. But the US Navy was not alone.
British built a large ELF antenna in Glen Cally Forest, Scotland,
the French built one at Roshay, and the Soviets built two very large
antennas at Riga and Gomel. The US Navy systems broadcast in the ELF
range from 40 to 50 Hz and 70 to 80 Hz, but mostly around 76 Hz. The
Soviet system actually operated down in the ULF range at the first
Schumann Resonance of 8 Hz. It turns out, the lower in frequency the
transmission, the deeper in the ocean the signals can be received.
Early on the Navy started having problems with the neighbors. Many
taxpaying citizens complained about having those big wires putting
out some kind of radiation in their backyards. Some people
complained about hearing strange noises, ringing and humming in
their ears. The cheeseheads in Wisconsin complained the Navy might
be drying up their dairy cows. Angus MacDonough in Michigan was sure
it was the Navy who was scaring his sheep. And the last thing a
Scotsman wants is scared sheep. The Navy needed to find another way
to talk to its submarines.
In 1985 along comes the Eastlund Patent. If you look at the patent
another way, it could be, by using shortwave signals to reach up and
jiggle the auroral electrojet at a ULF/ELF frequency, then the whole
electrojet becomes a 10,000 mile ULF antenna—and its not in
anybody’s backyard. With such a large antenna the frequency could go
all the way down to the Alfven Frequency of 0.9 Hz and the Navy
could talk to even deeper boats. By hiding its submarine antenna up
in the ionosphere, the Navy wouldn’t need to worry about the
neighbors over the back fence complaining, nor worry about Angus MacDonough being scared sheepless.
The Navy called in a bunch of ULF/ELF researchers and made them an
offer. The Navy would supply them a fabulous research facility with
state-of-the-art equipment, computer-controlled everything, the best
instrumentation available, wonderful living quarters, and a nearby
Domino’s and Burger King only 2 hours away by overland dogsled. The
researchers were ecstatic. But what did the Navy want in return?
Nothing. What? Nothing.
While the magnetic bottle stuffers would be shooting hot electrons
into the magnetosphere then turning off the pulse and checking to
see how well the mirror was working, all the Navy wanted was that 30
seconds of nothing in between the pulses. And while the 0.9 Hz Alfven wave
hunters would be using a ULF pulse to ring the magnetospheric bell and then turn off the pulse so they could take a
look around and see what’s shakin’ up there and maybe discover the Alfven Resonator, all the Navy wants is maybe 15 seconds of that
nothing between pulses.
To the researchers that was no problem. With
mega-dollars in research facilities, grants and possibly Nobel
Prizes laying on the bargaining table, and all the Navy wants in
return is Nothing? Such a deal. Everybody smiled, shook hands and
soon after HAARP construction began.
If you go to
the HAARP Internet web site and look at the nearly-live
Induction Magnetometer data you would sometimes see at the bottom of
the chart some bright orange lines which seem to be the ULF output
of HAARP impressed upon the earth’s magnetic field. If you could
expand the scale you could actually see the pattern of pulses and
spaces of the code. But the output of the magnetometer is averaged
over a period of 102.4 seconds. A rather odd number but guaranteed
to average out any indication of 15 or 30 second pulses and spaces.
This would imply the Navy is rather shy about publishing the pattern
of nothing on the Internet. So I will assist the Navy in getting
over its shyness by publishing it for them. Below are three hour
samples of the spaces in between the HAARP pulses. I have indicated
a 30 second space with a “1” and a 15 second space with a “0.” I
have arbitrarily broken the pattern into blocks of 4 to make it easy
to read, but in fact the pattern is continuous.
could be called “sweet nothings” from the Navy to their boys in the
0735-0800 UT June 20 2000 3.39
1110 0011 0001 0000 0100 0100 0000 0010 1111 1011 0101 0101
0110 1010 1...
0805-0830 UT June 20 2000 3.39 MHz
1010 1101 0110 1010 1010 0010 0010 0010 0000 0101 0110 1010
1400-1425 UT May 4 2000 3.39 MHZ
1001 0001 0001 0001 0010 1010 1010 0101 0101 0101 0101 0100
I have made an attempt to decode the
second sample. It goes something like, “... SUBCOMNAV to R73 proceed
7E5H the smoking lamp is li...” and then the message breaks off. I
may have missed a few of the characters but Mr. Merkley’s
cryptography course was not my favorite high school elective. For
some reason there weren’t any girls in the class.
If anybody has a
better way to decrypt the code, let me know.
6. THE HAARP OBSERVATIONS
In general during the year 2000 spring months HAARP was transmitting
on a weekday schedule with almost no broadcasts on weekends. The
spring transmissions seemed to stop on May 27, 2000 with only one
single very strong pulse on 3.39 MHZ at 0930 UT, then no more
transmissions until the summer program began on June 6, 2000. The
summer program includes both weekday and weekend transmission.
some cases the times listed here are approximate since the signal
may have faded in and then faded out so I could not determine the
Have I proven HAARP to be the source of the mystery 0.9 Hz ULF
signal? I would have to conclude, No. But it would certainly be the
most likely. I have tried to show all the possible sources for
man-made signals at the pc1, first Alfven frequency. There are
generally two types of possible sources. The first is the ULF/ELF
transmitters of which there are only 6, two in Russia, two in the
United States, and one each in Britain and France.
And a new class
of possible sources which are the Ionospheric Heaters with access to
the Northern Polar Auroral Electrojet which could modulate the
electrojet at the pc1 frequency. In this group there are only 4
possible devices, HISCAT in Sweden, HAARP in Alaska,
Norway, and the “little peanut whistle” 17 MW HIPAS operated by UCLA
in Fairbanks, Alaska.
I would suggest all of the ground based ULF/ELF transmitters can be
eliminated. To use a loop transmitting antenna at 1 Hz would require
a loop with a diameter of about 1000 miles. There is no indication
anybody has built one of these. The existing transmitters might be
used with the smaller existing antennas but series coils with a
length of about 900 miles would need to be wound and inserted in the
That would not be very efficient since about 98% of the
transmitter power would go into heating the coils and not being
transmitted. People have done some silly things before but that is
definitely a dumb idea. So we can toss out all the existing ULF/ELF
transmitters as not very likely to be the source of the mystery 0.9
Among the Ionospheric Heater devices, if we skip the UCLA device,
HIPAS, as being too small and not really in the business of
modulating the Auroral Jet, then that leaves 3 possible sources.
HISCAT, with 350 MW is the largest
then comes HAARP at 110 MW
then there is EISCAT with 48 MW
The HISCAT facility in Sweden looks
like a good candidate except for one problem, its still in the
conceptual stage and hasn’t been built yet. And a lot of the parts
for HISCAT will be made out of refurbished parts from EISCAT. So we
can exclude HISCAT, and that leaves us with two possible sources for
the mysterious 0.9 Hz ULF wave, HAARP and EISCAT. Are we ready to
flip a coin and guess which one? Not yet.
EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter) facility is co-jointly operated
by geophysical research councils in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Japan,
France, the United Kingdom and Germany.
Their primary focus is using
a radar scatter device to map the auroral region, but they do have
an ionospheric heater to assist the radar. Their ionospheric heater
device is very similar to HAARP’s. It has multiple transmitters,
uses multiple crossed dipole antennas, but it does have far fewer
transmitters and dipoles than HAARP.
Like HAARP the EISCAT transmitters can work over a large range from
3.85 to 8 MHz. But EISCAT only uses the assigned frequencies of
4.04, 4.544, 4.9128, 5.423, 6.77, 6.96, 7.1, 7.953 MHz. But before
you rush over to your receiver and try to tune them in, you need to
remember, if you are in the US, and since Norway is around the other
side of the planet, and the only possible short wave radio path is
over the pole. And during the summer the north pole its always
sunny, especially this time of year when we have the midnight sun.
That means there is no way to use F layer shortwave skip to receive
the EISCAT signals.
If you want to tune them in to find out if they are modulating their
transmitters with ULF waves you need to wait until it is dark both
in the US and Norway and that only occurs during November, December
and January. But, not to worry.
Unlike HAARP which is very
secretive, the EISCAT group is very academic, open and cooperative.
You can actually write to them, maybe even e-mail them and ask,
“Hey, you guys sending out 0.9 Hz pc1 Alfven frequencies on your
transmissions?” And they would probably write back, “Nope, not us.”
Well, without any further evidence, its time to flip the coin. Is it HAARP or EISCAT? And every time I flip the coin it keeps coming up
Its my wish that this information has been useful to you. I have not
proven what is the source of the mysterious 0.9 Hz signal, but I
have looked at all the possible contenders and tried to eliminate
all but the most likely.
Its now up to you to do a little digging, a
little researching, and maybe some listening to determine from where
did the signal come.