by Robert Koontz

from DoctorKoontz Website

 

 

"Whatever dark energy actually is,

detailed measurements from independent techniques reveal that

it comprises a whopping 72% of our universe's total mass-energy.

(Credit: NASA and the WMAP science team)"

Source

 

 


Dark Matter

There are two kinds of unknown matter-energy in the universe.

 

One of these is called dark matter and the other is called dark energy. Dark matter might just be relatively ordinary matter that is just not emitting light. So, burned-out stars might be contributing to dark matter. Or it could be that dark matter is a form of matter associated with previously unknown particles which have a large mass but do not otherwise interact very strongly.

 

These hypothetical particles are called WIMPS for weakly interacting massive particles. WIMPS have yet to be seen, although experimental searches are underway.

Dark Matter is thought to contribute to about 23% of the mass of the known universe. This dark matter appears to attract ordinary matter and as such would be acting to decrease the expansion of the universe. Dark matter would thus be gravitic rather than antigravitic. Dark matter may possibly be totally unconnected with dark energy, but this is not exactly known, only hypothesized about.

Dark matter also appears necessary to account for the fact that galaxies do not fly apart even though the energy associated with their angular motion exceeds their deduced gravitational (binding) energy.

 

In essence, an attractive and unseen (dark matter) appears necessary in order for things to work out when it comes to galactic mechanics.

 

More on Dark Matter in below insert:

 

 

 

 

 

 

DARK MATTER

from BBC Website

 

One of the biggest conundrums in modern astronomy is the fact that over 90% of the Universe is invisible. This mysterious missing stuff is known as 'dark matter'.

The problem started when astronomers tried to weigh galaxies. There are two methods of doing this. Firstly, we can tell how much a galaxy weighs just by looking at how bright it is and then converting this into mass.

The second way is to look at the way stars move. Everything in the Universe rotates. The Earth spins on its axis. The whole planet orbits around our parent star, the Sun.

 

The Sun rotates around the centre of the Milky Way, along with the billions of other stars in the Galaxy, forming a huge cosmic dance.

 

This rotation provides another way of weighing a galaxy. Studying how fast stars at the very edge move reveals the mass of the whole galaxy. The faster the Galaxy rotates, the more mass there is inside it.

But when astronomers such as Jan Oort and Fritz Zwicky did the two sets of sums in the early 1930s they hit a big problem. For every galaxy they studied the two answers didn't match. They were very confident that both methods were sound as they'd been tried and tested for many years.

 

So they came to a startling conclusion - there must be stuff out there that we just can't see - and so they called it 'dark matter'. This dark matter was really important, as if it wasn't there then galaxies would fly apart as they spun round.

This might seem like a strange conclusion, but it's not really that bizarre. Imagine looking at a tower block at night. Although you can only see lights coming from some of the rooms, that doesn't mean that there aren't any more rooms in the tower. Just like these unlit rooms, dark matter can't be seen, because it doesn't shine.

 

Astronomers are currently hunting for this missing matter. It may consist of lots of strange sounding things like MACHOs, WIMPs and neutrinos. Or there may be new solutions involving dark energy or superstring theory.

 

But whatever it is, finding it will help to answer one of the most fundamental questions in astronomy - what is the fate of the Universe?

 


 


Note: The hypothetical constituent elements of dark matter are also sometimes referred to as MACHOS ... More On MACHOS here.
 

 

 


Dark Energy

Dark energy is energy that appears to fill the universe and appears to have an antigravitic nature in that it is thought to be pushing the universe apart.

 

It is thus reasoned that the rapid rate of expansion of the universe is a consequence of dark energy. But no one as of yet knows what dark energy is. Some people think that dark energy is a manifestation of Einstein's cosmological constant. This would be associated with a very large negative energy density that might be seen everywhere in space.

 

Einstein was the first to introduce the cosmological constant when he was developing his general theory of relativity and later said that this was his greatest mistake. (Photo Gives Weight to Einstein's Thesis of Negative Gravity)

 

73% of the mass-energy of the universe is said to be related to dark energy.

 

See below insert:

 

 

 


NASA And DOE Collaborate On Dark Energy Research

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/11/081119171826.htm

 

ScienceDaily (Nov. 25, 2008)

NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have signed a memorandum of understanding for the implementation of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, or JDEM.

 

The mission will feature the first space-based observatory designed specifically to understand the nature of dark energy.

Dark energy is a form of energy that pervades and dominates the universe. The mission will measure with high precision the universe's expansion rate and growth structure. Data from the mission could help scientists determine the properties of dark energy, fundamentally advancing physics and astronomy.

"Understanding the nature of dark energy is the biggest challenge in physics and astronomy today," said Jon Morse, director of astrophysics at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

 

"JDEM will be a unique and major contributor in our quest to understand dark energy and how it has shaped the universe in which we live."

One of the most significant scientific findings in the last decade is that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. The acceleration is caused by a previously unknown dark energy that makes up approximately 70 percent of the total mass energy content of the universe.

 

This mission has the potential to clarify the properties of this mass energy. JDEM also will provide scientists with detailed information for understanding how galaxies form and acquire their mass.

"DOE and NASA have complementary on-going research into the nature of dark energy and complementary capabilities to build JDEM, so it is wonderful that our agencies have teamed for the implementation of this mission," said Dennis Kovar, associate director of the DOE Office of Science for High Energy Physics.

In 2006, NASA and DOE jointly funded a National Research Council study by the Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee to assist NASA in determining the highest priority of the five proposed missions in its Beyond Einstein program.

 

In September 2007, the committee released its report and noted that JDEM will set the standard in precisely determining the distribution of dark energy in the distant universe. The committee recommended that JDEM be the first of NASA's Beyond Einstein missions to be developed and launched. Following the committee's report, NASA and DOE agreed to proceed with JDEM.

The importance of understanding dark energy also has been emphasized in a number of other significant reports from the National Research Council, the National Science and Technology Council, and the Dark Energy Task Force.

For more information about JDEM, including the signed memorandum of understanding, visit: http://jdem.gsfc.nasa.gov

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can Dark Energy Be Produced In the Laboratory?

 

It has been estimated that 72% of the mass-energy of the universe consists of something that scientists refer to as "dark energy," an energy that is known to be antigravitic, a negative energy.

 

So, why, if that energy is so prevalent, can't we produce it?

 

The answer may be that we can produce it.

 

 

 

 

But we have to take a different approach to how we think of energy.


 

 

The Bifilar Coil Used In the Experiments

 

The photo below shows the large bifilar coil through which 15 amps of pulsating 60 Hz DC was passed.

 

 

 

 

In this bifilar coil, the current flowing through one lead of twin-lead wire was redirected back through the second lead so that the magnetic field of the second lead canceled the magnetic field of the first lead.

 

It is this canceling of electromagnetic fields which forms the basis of what is called "scalar electromagnetics."

 

While it appears to be the case that scalar electromagnetics has been developed and exploited by Russian weapons scientists, western physicists generally do not appear to understand this form of physics. Many Western scientists may even deny that scalar electromagnetics is possible.

 

The existence of scalar electromagnetics would imply that classical electrodynamics is flawed, which is something I have asserted is true and which is a relatively easy proposition to prove.

 

 


 

 

Classical Electrodynamics is Flawed

from DoctorKoontz Website
 

TWO CANCELING PHOTONS IN A BOX
WHERE DOES THE ENERGY GO?

Consider two photons in a box -- with the two photons 180 degrees out of phase. The photons each carry one unit of energy, but because they are 180 degrees out of phase, the electromagnetic energy density is zero, as is the Poynting vector.

 

Therefore, if we follow conventional reasoning, we have lost two units of energy and thus have a violation of energy conservation. But that is not allowed. We must thus deduce that classical electrodynamics has a flaw within it.

 

That flaw is addressed when we include scalar electromagnetic energy - as it has come to be called.


 

 

 

 

 

The variac shown in the schematic may be purchased here, the full-wave bridge rectifiers here.

 

The wire employed in the coil involved five rolls or approximately 500 feet of #16 Radio Shack speaker wire.

 

Here is possible replacement wire: link. Essentially the wire was wound into loops of nylon cable ties that were fed through holes drilled into a large piece of wood paneling turned upside down. The current level at which the device was operated was set to the maximum level at which the device could operate without overheating. That was about 15 amps or so at about 15 volts.

 

Eventually, after years of operation, the coil burned out.

 


Holes Produced In The Clouds?


When the device was operating at maximum current levels, and with all sources of light turned off, with the windows blocked, there appeared to be some sort of blue ectoplasmic energy coming off the coil.

 

That energy appeared to fill the room in which the coil was operating.

 

Since a large amount of energy was apparently involved, and since the Soviets reportedly used scalar energy in weather control, experiments were done to see if the energy emitted by the bifilar coil would affect the clouds above the house.

 

 

 

 

On several occasions, it was seen that large holes were produced directly above the house, as can be seen in the photo above where a contrail is evident through one of two large holes.
 

Note: With respect to operation of the bifilar coil, it is advisable to have a 2 or 3 inch air gap above and below the coil as otherwise the coil is not in an ideal state for generation of the scalar energy. The air gap also allows for air circulation. One of course should be very careful to not overheat the system. Placing a fuse in the primary of the variac is advisable. Be careful that you do not cause a fire with this system. Careful engineering is advised, as one should be careful to operate the system only when a person is present.

Also: When winding the coil, try to not introduce any twists in the twin-lead wire.

And based on a calculation I have done, a better frequency for pulsing the system might be 4.8 Hz, rather than 60 Hz. But that would be more difficult to engineer. So I would suggest first building the device I built and to then go from there.

Another thing: Do not place a voltmeter or any other device across the output of the rectifier circuits. Nor should an ammeter be place in series with the coil. Connect the output of the rectifier circuits directly to the coil with nothing else involved. If this is not done, then there is the very real risk that the system will not produce the desired energy. Do not ground either side of the coil. Let the system float.

Health Effects With This Energy: I have found that the experience of the putative dark energy produced by the bifilar coil above is very pleasant. But it does appear that one can get too much of a good thing, for after exposing myself to the energy for many hours, I did find myself very tired. Those who experiment with this energy are advised to proceed cautiously, and, of course, you are on your own.

 

But my experience with this energy is good.


 

 


Videos

 

 

 

Study Sheds Light On Dark Energy

 

 

 

 

 

Dark Energy and the Runaway Universe

 

 

 

 

 

Patricia Burchat: The search for dark energy and dark matter