by H. E. Puthoff, Ph.D.
Institute for Advanced
Studies at Austin
4030 Braker Lane W., #300
Austin, Texas 78759-5329
In July 1995 the CIA
declassified, and approved for release, documents revealing its
sponsorship in the 1970s of a program at Stanford Research Institute
in Menlo Park, CA, to determine whether such phenomena as remote
viewing "might have any utility for intelligence collection"
Thus began disclosure to the public of a two-decade-plus involvement
of the intelligence community in the investigation of so-called parapsychological or
Presented here by the program’s
Founder and first Director (1972 - 1985) is the early history of the
program, including discussion of some of the first, now
declassified, results that drove early interest.
On April 17, 1995, President Clinton issued Executive Order Nr.
1995-4-17, entitled Classified National Security Information.
Although in one sense the order simply reaffirmed much of what has
been long-standing policy, in another sense there was a clear shift
toward more openness.
In the opening paragraph, for example, we
"In recent years, however, dramatic changes have altered,
although not eliminated, the national security threats that we
confront. These changes provide a greater opportunity to emphasize
our commitment to open Government."
In the Classification Standards
section of the Order this commitment is operationalized by phrases
such as "If there is significant doubt about the need to classify
information, it shall not be classified."
Later in the document, in
reference to information that requires continued protection, there
even appears the remarkable phrase,
"In some exceptional cases,
however, the need to protect such information may be outweighed by
the public interest in disclosure of the information, and in these
cases the information should be declassified."
A major fallout of this reframing of attitude toward classification
is that there is enormous pressure on those charged with maintaining
security to work hard at being responsive to reasonable requests for
One of the results is that FOIA (Freedom of Information
Act) requests that have languished for months to years are
suddenly being acted upon.
One outcome of this change in policy is the government’s recent
admission of its two-decade-plus involvement in funding
highly-classified, special access programs in remote viewing (RV)
and related psi phenomena, first at Stanford Research Institute
(SRI) and then at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC),
both in Menlo Park, CA, supplemented by various in-house government
Although almost all of the documentation remains yet
classified, in July 1995 270 pages of SRI reports were declassified
and released by the CIA, the program’s first sponsor
although through the years columns by Jack Anderson and others had
claimed leaks of "psychic spy" programs with such exotic names as
Grill Flame, Center Lane, Sunstreak and Star Gate, CIA’s release of
the SRI reports constitutes the first documented public admission of
significant intelligence community involvement in the psi area.
As a consequence of the above, although I had founded the program in
early 1972, and had acted as its Director until I left in 1985 to
head up the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin (at which point
Ed May assumed responsibility as Director), it was not
until 1995 that I found myself for the first time able to utter in a
single sentence the connected acronyms CIA/SRI/RV.
In this report I
discuss the genesis of the program, report on some of the early, now
declassified, results that drove early interest, and outline the
general direction the program took as it expanded into a multi-year,
multi-site, multi-million-dollar effort to determine whether such
phenomena as remote viewing "might have any utility for intelligence
In early 1972 I was involved in laser research at Stanford Research
Institute (now called SRI International) in Menlo Park, CA.
time I was also circulating a proposal to obtain a small grant for
some research in quantum biology. In that proposal I had raised the
issue whether physical theory as we knew it was capable of
describing life processes, and had suggested some measurements
involving plants and lower organisms . This proposal was widely
circulated, and a copy was sent to
Cleve Backster in New York City
who was involved in measuring the electrical activity of plants with
standard polygraph equipment.
New York artist
Ingo Swann chanced to
see my proposal during a visit to Backster’s lab, and wrote me
suggesting that if I were interested in investigating the boundary
between the physics of the animate and inanimate, I should consider
experiments of the parapsychological type.
Swann then went on to
describe some apparently successful experiments in psychokinesis in
which he had participated at Prof. Gertrude Schmeidler’s laboratory
at the City College of New York. As a result of this correspondence
I invited him to visit SRI for a week in June 1972 to demonstrate
such effects, frankly, as much out of personal scientific curiosity
as anything else.
Prior to Swann’s visit I arranged for access to a well-shielded
magnetometer used in a quark-detection experiment in the Physics
Department at Stanford University. During our visit to this
laboratory, sprung as a surprise to Swann, he appeared to perturb
the operation of the magnetometer, located in a vault below the
floor of the building and shielded by mu-metal shielding, an
aluminum container, copper shielding and a superconducting shield.
As if to add insult to injury, he then went on to "remote view" the
interior of the apparatus, rendering by drawing a reasonable
facsimile of its rather complex (and heretofore unpublished)
construction. It was this latter feat that impressed me perhaps even
more than the former, as it also eventually did representatives of
the intelligence community. I wrote up these observations and
circulated it among my scientific colleagues in draft form of what
was eventually published as part of a conference proceedings
In a few short weeks a pair of visitors showed up at SRI with the
above report in hand. Their credentials showed them to be from the
CIA. They knew of my previous background as a Naval Intelligence
Officer and then civilian employee at the National Security Agency (NSA)
several years earlier, and felt they could discuss their concerns
with me openly. There was, they told me, increasing concern in the
intelligence community about the level of effort in Soviet
parapsychology being funded by the Soviet security services
; by Western
scientific standards the field was considered nonsense by most
As a result they had been on the lookout for a
research laboratory outside of academia that could handle a quiet,
low-profile classified investigation, and SRI appeared to fit
the bill. They asked if I could arrange an opportunity for them to
carry out some simple experiments with Swann, and, if the
tests proved satisfactory, would I consider a pilot program along
these lines? I agreed to consider this, and arranged for the
The tests were simple, the visitors simply hiding objects in a box
and asking Swann to attempt to describe the contents. The results
generated in these experiments are perhaps captured most eloquently
by the following example.
In one test Swann said,
"I see something
small, brown and irregular, sort of like a leaf or something that
resembles it, except that it seems very much alive, like it’s even
The target chosen by one of the visitors turned out to be a
small live moth, which indeed did look like a leaf.
Although not all
responses were quite so precise, nonetheless the integrated results
were sufficiently impressive that in short order an eight-month,
$49,909 Biofield Measurements Program was negotiated as a pilot
study, a laser colleague
Russell Targ who had had a long-time
interest and involvement in parapsychology joined the program, and
the experimental effort was begun in earnest.
Remote Viewing Results
During the eight-month pilot study of remote viewing the effort
gradually evolved from the remote viewing of symbols and objects in
envelopes and boxes, to the remote viewing of local target sites in
the San Francisco Bay area, demarked by outbound experimenters sent
to the site under strict protocols devised to prevent artifactual
Later judging of the results were similarly handled by
double-blind protocols designed to foil artifactual matching. Since
these results have been presented in detail elsewhere, both in the
scientific literature [6-8] and in popular book format
, I direct
the interested reader to these sources.
To summarize, over the years
the back-and-forth criticism of protocols, refinement of methods,
and successful replication of this type of remote viewing in
independent laboratories [10-14], has yielded considerable
scientific evidence for the reality of the phenomenon. Adding to the
strength of these results was the discovery that a growing number of
individuals could be found to demonstrate high-quality remote
viewing, often to their own surprise, such as the talented Hella
Hammid. As a separate issue, however, most convincing to our early
program monitors were the results now to be described, generated
under their own control.
First, during the collection of data for a formal remote viewing
series targeting indoor laboratory apparatus and outdoor locations
(a series eventually published in toto in the Proc. IEEE
), the CIA contract monitors, ever watchful for possible chicanery,
participated as remote viewers themselves in order to critique the
protocols. In this role three separate viewers, designated visitors
V1 - V3 in the IEEE paper, contributed seven of the 55 viewings,
several of striking quality.
Reference to the IEEE paper for a
comparison of descriptions/drawings to pictures of the associated
targets, generated by the contract monitors in their own viewings,
leaves little doubt as to why the contract monitors came to the
conclusion that there was something to remote viewing (see, for
example, Figure 1 herein).
As summarized in the Executive Summary of
the now-released Final Report  of the second year of the program,
"The development of this capability at
SRI has evolved to the point
where visiting CIA personnel with no previous exposure to such
concepts have performed well under controlled laboratory conditions
(that is, generated target descriptions of sufficiently high quality
to permit blind matching of descriptions to targets by independent
What happened next, however, made even these results pale
Figure 1 - Sketch of
target by V1
Figure 2 - Target (merry-go-round)
To determine whether it was necessary to have a "beacon" individual
at the target site, Swann suggested carrying out an experiment to
remote view the planet Jupiter before the upcoming NASA Pioneer 10
In that case, much to his chagrin (and ours) he found a
ring around Jupiter, and wondered if perhaps he had remote
viewed Saturn by mistake. Our colleagues in astronomy were
quite unimpressed as well, until the flyby revealed that an
unanticipated ring did in fact exist.
Expanding the protocols yet further, Swann proposed a series of
experiments in which the target was designated not by sending a
"beacon" person to the target site, but rather by the use of
geographical coordinates, latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes
Needless to say, this proposal seemed even more
outrageous than "ordinary" remote viewing. The difficulties in
taking this proposal seriously, designing protocols to eliminate the
possibility of a combination of globe memorization and eidetic or
photographic memory, and so forth, are discussed in considerable
detail in Reference .
Suffice it to say that investigation of
this approach, which we designated Scanate (scanning by coordinate),
eventually provided us with sufficient evidence to bring it up to
the contract monitors and suggest a test under their control. A
description of that test and its results, carried out in mid-1973
during the initial pilot study, are best presented by quoting
directly from the Executive Summary of the Final Report of the
second year’s followup program .
The remote viewers were Ingo
Pat Price, and the entire transcripts are available in the
released documents .
"In order to subject the remote viewing phenomena to a rigorous
long-distance test under external control, a request for
geographical coordinates of a site unknown to subject and
experimenters was forwarded to the OSI group responsible for threat
analysis in this area.
In response, SRI personnel received a set of
geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude in degrees,
minutes, and seconds) of a facility, hereafter referred to as the
West Virginia Site.
The experimenters then carried out a remote
viewing experiment on a double-blind basis, that is, blind to
experimenters as well as subject. The experiment had as its goal the
determination of the utility of remote viewing under conditions
approximating an operational scenario. Two subjects targeted on the
site, a sensitive installation.
One subject drew a detailed map of
the building and grounds layout, the other provided information
about the interior including codewords, data subsequently verified
by sponsor sources (report available from COTR)."
Since details concerning the site’s mission in general, and
evaluation of the remote viewing test in particular, remain highly
classified to this day, all that can be said is that interest in the
client community was heightened considerably following this
Because Price found the above exercise so interesting, as a personal
challenge he went on to scan the other side of the globe for a
Communist Bloc equivalent and found one located in the Urals, the
detailed description of which is also included in Ref.
. As with
the West Virginia Site, the report for the Urals Site was also
verified by personnel in the sponsor organization as being
What makes the West Virginia/Urals Sites viewings so remarkable is
that these are not best-ever examples culled out of a longer list;
these are literally the first two site-viewings carried out in a
simulated operational-type scenario.
In fact, for Price these were
the very first two remote viewings in our program altogether, and he
was invited to participate in yet further experimentation.
Operational Remote Viewing (Semipalatinsk,
Midway through the second year of the program (July 1974) our CIA
sponsor decided to challenge us to provide data on a Soviet site of
ongoing operational significance.
Pat Price was the remote viewer. A
description of the remote viewing, taken from our declassified final
report , reads as given below. I cite this level of detail to
indicate the thought that goes into such an "experiment" to minimize
cueing while at the same time being responsive to the requirements
of an operational situation.
Again, this is not a "best-ever"
example from a series of such viewings, but rather the very first
operational Soviet target concerning which we were officially
"To determine the utility of remote viewing under operational
conditions, a long-distance remote viewing experiment was carried
out on a sponsor-designated target of current interest, an
unidentified research center at Semipalatinsk, USSR.
This experiment, carried out in three phases, was under direct
control of the COTR. To begin the experiment, the COTR furnished map
coordinates in degrees, minutes and seconds. The only additional
information provided was the designation of the target as an R&D
(research and development) test facility. The experimenters then closeted themselves with
Subject S1, gave him the map coordinates and indicated the
designation of the target as an R&D test facility.
experiment was then carried out. This activity constituted Phase I
of the experiment.
Figure 3 - Subject
effort at building layout
Figure 4 - Subject effort at crane construction
shows the subject’s graphic
effort for building layout; Figure 4 shows the subject’s particular
attention to a multistory gantry crane he observed at the site.
results were obtained by the experimenters on a double-blind basis
before exposure to any additional COTR-held information, thus
eliminating the possibility of cueing.
These results were turned
over to the client representatives for evaluation. For comparison an
artist’s rendering of the site as known to the COTR (but not to the
experimenters until later) is shown in Figure 5.....
Figure 5 - Actual
COTR rendering of Semipalatinsk, USSR target site
Were the results not promising, the
experiment would have stopped at this point.
Description of the
multistory crane, however, a relatively unusual target item, was
taken as indicative of possible target acquisition. Therefore, Phase
II was begun, defined by the subject being made "witting" (of the
client) by client representatives who introduced themselves to the
subject at that point; Phase II also included a second round of
experimentation on the Semipalatinsk site with direct participation
of client representatives in which further data were obtained and
As preparation for this phase, client representatives
purposely kept themselves blind to all but general knowledge of the
target site to minimize the possibility of cueing.
The Phase II
effort was focused on the generation of physical data that could be
independently verified by other client sources, thus providing a
calibration of the process.
The end of Phase II gradually evolved into the first part of
III, the generation of unverifiable data concerning the Semipalatinsk site not available to the client, but of operational
interest nonetheless. Several hours of tape transcript and a
notebook of drawings were generated over a two-week period.
The data describing the
Semipalatinsk site were evaluated by the
sponsor, and are contained in a separate report. In general, several
details concerning the salient technology of the Semipalatinsk site
appeared to dovetail with data from other sources, and a number of
specific large structural elements were correctly described.
results contained noise along with the signal, but were nonetheless
clearly differentiated from the chance results that were generated
by control subjects in comparison experiments carried out by the
For discussion of the ambiance and personal factors involved in
carrying out this experiment, along with further detail generated as
Price (see Figure 6) "roamed" the facility, including detailed
comparison of Price’s RV-generated information with later-determined
"ground-truth reality," see the accompanying article by
Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 10, No. 1. Click
to read the abstract.
Figure 6 - Left to
right: Christopher Green, Pat Price, and Hal Puthoff.
Picture taken following a successful experiment involving
Additional experiments having
implications for intelligence concerns were carried out, such as the
remote viewing of cipher-machine type apparatus, and the RV-sorting
of sealed envelopes to differentiate those that contained letters
with secret writing from those that did not.
To discuss these here
in detail would take us too far afield, but the interested reader
can follow up by referring to the now-declassified project documents
The above discussion brings us up to the end of 1975. As a result of
the material being generated by both SRI and CIA remote viewers,
interest in the program in government circles, especially within the
intelligence community, intensified considerably and led to an
ever-increasing briefing schedule.
This in turn led to an
ever-increasing number of clients, contracts and tasking, and
therefore expansion of the program to a multi-client base, and
eventually to an integrated joint-services program under
single-agency (DIA)  leadership.
To meet the demand for the
increased level of effort we first increased our professional staff
by inviting Ed May to join the program in 1976, then screened and
added to the program a cadre of remote viewers as consultants, and
let subcontracts to increase our scope of activity.
As the program expanded, in only a very few cases could the clients’
identities and program tasking be revealed. Examples include a
NASA-funded study negotiated early in the program by Russ Targ to
determine whether the internal state of an electronic
random-number-generator could be detected by RV processes
a study funded by the Naval Electronics Systems Command to determine
whether attempted remote viewing of distant light flashes would
induce correlated changes in the viewer’s brainwave (EEG) production
For essentially all other projects during my 14-yr. tenure at
SRI, however, the identity of the clients and most of the tasking
were classified and remain so today. (The exception was the
occasional privately-funded study.)
We are told, however, that
further declassification and release of much of this material is
almost certain to occur.
What can be said, then, about further development of the program in
the two decades following 1975?  In broad terms it can be said that
much of the SRI effort was directed not so much toward developing an
operational U.S. capability, but rather toward assessing the threat
potential of its use against the U.S. by others. The words threat
assessment were often used to describe the program’s purpose during
its development, especially during the early years.
As a result much
of the remote-viewing activity was carried out under conditions
where ground-truth reality was a priori known or could be
determined, such as the description of U.S. facilities and
technological developments, the timing of rocket test firings and
underground nuclear tests, and the location of individuals and
And, of course, we were responsive to requests to
provide assistance during such events as the loss of an airplane or
the taking of hostages, relying on the talents of an increasing
cadre of remote-viewer/consultants, some well-known in the field
Keith Harary, and many who have not surfaced publicly until
recently, such as
One might ask whether in this program RV-generated information was
ever of sufficient significance as to influence decisions at a
policy level. This is of course impossible to determine unless
policymakers were to come forward with a statement in the
One example of a possible candidate is a study we
performed at SRI during the Carter-administration debates concerning
proposed deployment of the mobile MX missile system. In that
scenario missiles were to be randomly shuffled from silo to silo in
a silo field, in a form of high-tech shell game. In a computer
simulation of a twenty-silo field with randomly-assigned (hidden)
missile locations, we were able, using RV-generated data, to show
rather forcefully that the application of a sophisticated
statistical averaging technique (sequential sampling) could in
principle permit an adversary to defeat the system.
I briefed these
results to the appropriate offices at their request, and a written
report with the technical details was widely circulated among groups
responsible for threat analysis , and with some impact. What
role, if any, our small contribution played in the mix of factors
behind the enormously complex decision to cancel the program will
probably never be known, and must of course a priori be considered
in all likelihood negligible.
Nonetheless, this is a prototypical
example of the kind of tasking that by its nature potentially had
Even though the details of the broad range of experiments, some
brilliant successes, many total failures, have not yet been
released, we have nonetheless been able to publish summaries of what
was learned in these studies about the overall characteristics of
remote viewing, as in Table 5 of Reference
. Furthermore, over
the years we were able to address certain questions of scientific
interest in a rigorous way and to publish the results in the open
Examples include the apparent lack of attenuation of
remote viewing due to seawater shielding (submersible experiments)
, the amplification of RV performance by use of error-correcting
coding techniques [19,20], and the utility of a technique we call
associational remote viewing (ARV) to generate useful predictive
As a sociological aside, we note that the overall efficacy of remote
viewing in a program like this was not just a scientific issue. For
example, when the Semipalatinsk data described earlier was forwarded
for analysis, one group declined to get involved because the whole
concept was unscientific nonsense, while a second group declined
because, even though it might be real, it was possibly demonic; a
third group had to be found. And, as in the case of public debate
about such phenomena, the program’s image was on occasion as likely
to be damaged by an overenthusiastic supporter as by a detractor.
Personalities, politics and personal biases were always factors to
be dealt with.
With regard to admission by the government of its use of remote
viewers under operational conditions, officials have on occasion
been relatively forthcoming.
President Carter, in a speech to
college students in Atlanta in September 1995, is quoted by Reuters
as saying that during his administration a plane went down in Zaire,
and a meticulous sweep of the African terrain by American spy
satellites failed to locate any sign of the wreckage.
It was then
"without my knowledge" that the head of the CIA (Adm.
Turner) turned to a woman reputed to have psychic powers. As told by
"she gave some latitude and longitude figures. We focused
our satellite cameras on that point and the plane was there."
Independently, Turner himself also has admitted the Agency’s use of
a remote viewer (in this case,
Pat Price). And recently, in a
segment taped for the British television series Equinox
Ed Thompson, Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, U.S.
Army (1977-1981), volunteered,
"I had one or more briefings by SRI
and was impressed.... The decision I made was to set up a small,
in-house, low-cost effort in remote viewing...."
Finally, a recent unclassified report
 prepared for the CIA by
the American Institutes for Research (AIR), concerning a remote
viewing effort carried out under a DIA program called
Star Gate, cites the roles of
the CIA and DIA in the history of the program,
including acknowledgment that a cadre of full-time government
employees used remote viewing techniques to respond to tasking from
operational military organizations.
As information concerning the various programs spawned by
intelligence-community interest is released, and the dialog
concerning their scientific and social significance is joined, the
results are certain to be hotly debated.
Bearing witness to this
fact are the companion articles in this volume by
Ed May, Director
SAIC programs since 1985, and by Jessica Utts and
Hyman, consultants on the AIR evaluation cited above. These articles
address in part the AIR study. That study, limited in scope to a
small fragment of the overall program effort, resulted in a
conclusion that although laboratory research showed statistically
significant results, use of remote viewing in intelligence gathering
was not warranted.
Regardless of one’s a priori position, however, an unimpassioned
observer cannot help but attest to the following fact. Despite the
ambiguities inherent in the type of exploration covered in these
programs, the integrated results appear to provide unequivocal
evidence of a human capacity to access events remote in space and
time, however falteringly, by some cognitive process not yet
My years of involvement as a research manager in these
programs have left me with the conviction that this fact must be
taken into account in any attempt to develop an unbiased picture of
the structure of reality.
1 - One example being the release of
documents that are the subject of this report - see the memoir
by Russell Targ.
2 - Since the reputation of the intelligence services is mixed
among members of the general populace, I have on occasion been
challenged as to why I would agree to cooperate with the CIA or
other elements of the intelligence community in this work. My
answer is simply that as a result of my own previous exposure to
this community I became persuaded that war can almost always be
traced to a failure in intelligence, and that therefore the
strongest weapon for peace is good intelligence.
3 - This result was published by us in advance of the ring’s
4 - Editor’s footnote added here: COTR - Contracting Officer’s
5 - An NSA listening post at the Navy’s Sugar Grove facility,
according to intelligence-community chronicler Bamford 
6 - DIA - Defense Intelligence Agency. The CIA dropped out as a
major player in the mid-seventies due to pressure on the Agency
(unrelated to the RV Program) from the Church-Pike Congressional
7 - See also the contribution by Ed May elsewhere in this volume
concerning his experiences from 1985 on during his tenure as
8 - For example, one application of this technique yielded not
only a published, statistically significant result, but also a
return of $26,000 in 30 days in the silver futures market .
9 - The direct quote is given in Targ’s contribution elsewhere
in this volume.
10 - "From 1986 to the first quarter of FY 1995, the DoD
paranormal psychology program received more than 200 tasks from
operational military organizations requesting that the program
staff apply a paranormal psychological technique know (sic) as
"remote viewing" (RV) to attain information unavailable from
other sources." 
 "CIA Statement on ’Remote
Viewing’," CIA Public Affairs Office, 6 September 1995.
 Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ, "Perceptual Augmentation
Techniques," SRI Progress Report No. 3 (31 Oct. 1974) and Final
Report (1 Dec. 1975) to the CIA, covering the period January
1974 through February 1975, the second year of the program. This
effort was funded at the level of $149,555.
 H. E. Puthoff, "Toward a Quantum Theory of Life Process,"
unpubl. proposal, Stanford Research Institute (1972).
 H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ, "Physics, Entropy and
Psychokinesis," in Proc. Conf. Quantum Physics and
Parapsychology (Geneva, Switzerland); (New York: Parapsychology
 Documented in "Paraphysics R&D - Warsaw Pact (U),"
DST-1810S-202-78, Defense Intelligence Agency (30 March 1978).
 R. Targ and H. E. Puthoff, "Information Transfer under
Conditions of Sensory Shielding," Nature 252, 602 (1974).
 H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for
Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical
Perspective and Recent Research," Proc. IEEE 64, 329 (1976).
 H. E. Puthoff, R. Targ and E. C. May, "Experimental Psi
Research: Implications for Physics," in The Role of
Consciousness in the Physical World, edited by R. G. Jahn (AAAS
Selected Symposium 57, Westview Press, Boulder, 1981).
 R. Targ and H. E. Puthoff, Mind Reach (Delacorte Press, New
 J. P. Bisaha and B. J. Dunne, "Multiple Subject and
Long-Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing of Geographical
Locations," in Mind at Large, edited by C. T. Tart, H. E.
Puthoff and R. Targ (Praeger, New York, 1979), p. 107.
 B. J. Dunne and J. P. Bisaha, "Precognitive Remote Viewing
in the Chicago Area: a Replication of the Stanford Experiment,"
J. Parapsychology 43, 17 (1979).
 R. G. Jahn, "The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena:
An Engineering Perspective," Proc. IEEE 70, 136 (1982).
 R. G. Jahn and B. J. Dunne, "On the Quantum Mechanics of
Consciousness with Application to Anomalous Phenomena," Found.
Phys. 16, 721 (1986).
 R. G. Jahn and B. J. Dunne, Margins of Reality (Harcourt,
Brace and Jovanovich, New York, 1987).
 J. Bamford, The Puzzle Palace (Penguin Books, New York,
1983) pp. 218-222.
 R. Targ, P. Cole and H. E. Puthoff, "Techniques to Enhance
Man/Machine Communication," Stanford Research Institute Final
Report on NASA Project NAS7-100 (August 1974).
 R. Targ, E. C. May, H. E. Puthoff, D. Galin and R.
Ornstein, "Sensing of Remote EM Sources (Physiological
Correlates)," SRI Intern’l Final Report on Naval Electronics
Systems Command Project N00039-76-C-0077, covering the period
November 1975 - to October 1976 (April 1978).
 H. E. Puthoff, "Feasibility Study on the Vulnerability of
the MPS System to RV Detection Techniques," SRI Internal Report,
15 April 1979; revised 2 May 1979.
 H. E. Puthoff, "Calculator-Assisted Psi Amplification,"
Research in Parapsychology 1984, edited by Rhea White and J.
Solfvin (Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, NJ, 1985), p. 48.
 H. E. Puthoff, "Calculator-Assisted Psi Amplification II:
Use of the Sequential-Sampling Technique as a Variable-Length
Majority-Vote Code," Research in Parapsychology 1985, edited by
D. Weiner and D. Radin (Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, NJ, 1986), p.
 H. E. Puthoff, "ARV (Associational Remote Viewing)
Applications," Research in Parapsychology 1984, edited by Rhea
White and J. Solfvin (Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, NJ, 1985), p.
 "The Real X-Files," Independent Channel 4, England (shown
27 August 1995); to be shown in the U.S. on the Discovery
 M. D. Mumford, A. M. Rose and D. Goslin, "An Evaluation of
Remote Viewing: Research and Applications," American Institutes
for Research (September 29, 1995).
More information about H. E. Puthoff
Following are abstracts from the Journal of Scientific
Exploration, Volume 10, Number 1, in which this article first
An Assessment of the
Evidence for Psychic Functioning
by Jessica Utts
Division of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 3.
Research on psychic functioning, conducted over a two decade
period, is examined to determine whether or not the phenomenon
has been scientifically established.
A secondary question is
whether or not it is useful for government purposes. The primary
work examined in this report was government sponsored research
conducted at Stanford Research Institute, later known as SRI
International, and at Science Applications International
Corporation, known as SAIC.
Using the standards applied to any
other area of science, it is concluded that psychic functioning
has been well established. The statistical results of the
studies examined are far beyond what is expected by chance.
Arguments that these results could be due to methodological
flaws in the experiments are soundly refuted. Effects of similar
magnitude to those found in government-sponsored research at SRI
and SAIC have been replicated at a number of laboratories across
the world. Such consistency cannot be readily explained by
claims of flaws or fraud.
The magnitude of psychic functioning
exhibited appears to be in the range between what social
scientists call a small and medium effect. That means that it is
reliable enough to be replicated in properly conducted
experiments, with sufficient trials to achieve the long-run
statistical results needed for replicability.
A number of other
patterns have been found, suggestive of how to conduct more
productive experiments and applied psychic functioning. For
instance, it doesn’t appear that a sender is needed.
Precognition, in which the answer is known to no one until a
future time, appears to work quite well.
suggest that if there is a psychic sense then it works much like
our other five senses, by detecting change. Given that
physicists are currently grappling with an understanding of
time, it may be that a psychic sense exists that scans the
future for major change, much as our eyes scan the environment
for visual change or our ears allow us to respond to sudden
changes in sound.
It is recommended that future experiments
focus on understanding how this phenomenon works, and on how to
make it as useful as possible.
There is little benefit to
continuing experiments designed to offer proof, since there is
little more to be offered to anyone who does not accept the
current collection of data.
a Program on Anomalous Mental Phenomena
by Ray Hyman
1227 University of Oregon, Department of Psychology, Eugene, OR
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 31.
Jessica Utts and I were commissioned to evaluate the research on
remote viewing and related phenomena which was carried out at
Stanford Research Institute (SRI) and Scientific Applications
International Corporation (SAIC) during the years from 1973
We focussed on the ten most recent experiments
which were conducted at SAIC from 1992 through 1994. These were
not only the most recent but also the most methodologically
sound. We evaluated these experiments in the context of
contemporary parapsychological research. Professor Utts
concluded that the SAIC results, taken in conjunction with other
parapsychological research, proved the existence of ESP,
My report argues that Professor Utts’
conclusion is premature, to say the least. The reports of the
SAIC experiments have become accessible for public scrutiny too
recently for adequate evaluation.
Moreover, their findings have
yet to be independently replicated. My report also argues that
the apparent consistencies between the SAIC results and those of
other parapsychological experiments may be illusory. Many
important inconsistencies are emphasized. Even if the observed
effects can be independently replicated, much more theoretical
and empirical investigation would be needed before one could
legitimately claim the existence of paranormal functioning.
Note: This article is followed by a response from
Viewing at Stanford Research Institute in the 1970s: A Memoir
by Russell Targ
Bay Research Institute, 1010 Harriet Street, Palo Alto, CA 94301
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 77.
Hundreds of remote viewing experiments were carried out at
Stanford Research Institute (SRI) from 1972 to 1986.
of some of these trials was to elucidate the physical and
psychological properties of psi abilities, while others were
conducted to provide information for our CIA sponsor about
current events in far off places.
We learned that the accuracy
and reliability of remote viewing was not in any way affected by
distance, size, or electromagnetic shielding, and we discovered
that the more exciting or demanding the task, the more likely we
were to be successful.
Above all, we became utterly convinced of
the reality of psi abilities. This article focuses on two
one is an exceptional, map-like drawing of
a Palo Alto swimming pool complex
the other is an
architecturally accurate drawing of a gantry crane located at a
Soviet weapons laboratory, and verified by satellite
photography (see above figure 4)
The percipient for both of these experiments was
Pat Price, a retired police commissioner who was one of the most
outstanding remote viewers to walk through the doors of
Institutes for Research Review of the Department of Defense’s
STAR GATE Program
by Edwin C. May
Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, 330 Cowper Street, Suite 200,
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 89.
As a result of a Congressionally Directed Activity, the Central
Intelligence Agency conducted an evaluation of a 24-year,
government-sponsored program to investigate ESP and its
potential use within the Intelligence Community. The American
Institutes for Research was contracted to conduct the review of
both research and operations. Their 29 September 1995 final
report was released to the public 28 November 1995.
As a result
of AIR’s assessment, the CIA concluded that a statistically
significant effect had been demonstrated in the laboratory, but
that there was no case in which ESP had provided data that had
ever been used to guide intelligence operations. This paper is a
critical review of AIR’s methodology and conclusions. It will be
shown that there is compelling evidence that the CIA set the
outcome with regard to intelligence usage before the evaluation
had begun. This was accomplished by limiting the research and
operations data sets to exclude positive findings, by
purposefully not interviewing historically significant
participants, by ignoring previous DOD extensive program
reviews, and by using the discredited National Research
Council’s investigation of parapsychology as the starting point
for their review.
While there may have been political and
administrative justification for the CIA not to accept the
government’s in-house program for the operational use of
anomalous cognition, this appeared to drive the outcome of the
As a result, they have come to the wrong conclusion
with regard to the use of anomalous cognition in intelligence
operations and significantly underestimated the robustness of
the basic phenomenon.
Anomalies in Group Situations
by R. D. Nelson, G. J. Bradish, Y. H. Dobyns,
B. J. Dunne, and R. G. Jahn
Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research, School of
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 111.
Portable random event generators with software to record and
index continuous sequences of binary data in field situations
are found to produce anomalous outputs when deployed in various
These "FieldREG" systems have been operated
under formal protocols in ten separate venues, all of which
subdivide naturally into temporal segments, such as sessions,
presentations, or days. The most extreme data segments from each
of the ten applications, after appropriate correction for
multiple sampling, compound to a collective probability against
chance expectation of 2 X 10^-4.
speculative at this point, but logbook notes and anecdotal
reports from participants suggest that high degrees of
attention, intellectual cohesiveness, shared emotion, or other
coherent qualities of the groups tend to correlate with the
statistically unusual deviations from theoretical expectation in
the FieldREG sequences.
If sustained over more extensive
experiments, such effects could add credence to the concept of a
consciousness "field" as an agency for creating order in random
Organization of Random Events by Group Consciousness: Two
by Dean I. Radin, Jannine M. Rebman, and Maikwe
Consciousness Research Laboratory, Harry Reid Center,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009
Volume 10 Number 1: Page 143.
Two experiments explored the hypothesis that when a group of
people focus their attention on a common object of interest,
order will arise in the environment.
An electronic random number
generator was used to detect these changes in order.
judged to be interesting to the group were called periods of
high coherence and were predicted to cause corresponding moments
of order in the random samples collected during those events;
uninteresting events were predicted to cause chance levels of
order in the random samples.
The first experiment was conducted
during an all-day Holotropic Breathwork workshop.
predictions were confirmed, with a significant degree of order
observed in the random samples during high group coherence
periods (p = 0.002), and chance order observed during low group
coherence periods (p = 0.43). The second experiment was
conducted during the live television broadcast of the 67th
Annual Academy Awards.
Two random binary generators, located 12
miles apart, were used to independently measure order. The
predictions were confirmed for about half of the broadcast
period, but the terminal cumulative probabilities were not
A post-hoc analysis showed that the strength of the
correlation between the output of the two random generators was
significantly related (r = 0.94) to the decline in the
television viewing audience.