(MATILDA O'DONNELL MACELROY PERSONAL NOTE)
"My debrief was also tape recorded as a back up and to add
clarification to the stenographic notes. I debriefed immediately
after my interview so that everything that was said was still fresh
in my mind.
When I recounted these stories to the gallery stenographer I was
still reeling a bit. The perspective on Earth history from the point
of view of The Domain is very strange, to say the least. I wasn't
sure if my uncomfortable feeling came from being disoriented, or if
it came from being re-oriented. Either way, I felt unsteady and
confused. Yet, at the same time, there was a ring of truth to it. I
was elated and incredulous at the same time!
The stenographer looked askance at me more than a few times as she
recorded the "history lesson" I passed on to her. I'm sure she
thought I was losing my mind! Maybe she was right. However, if my
mind had been filled with hypnotic suggestions and false memories by
the "Old Empire", as Airl suggested, perhaps losing my mind would be
a good idea!
I didn't have much time to ponder my own, personal thoughts about
these things at the time. It was my duty to get all of the
information I could from Airl and pass it on to the stenographer as
soon as Airl was finished. My job was not to analyze the
information, just report it as accurately as possible. The analysis
would be left to the men in the gallery, or whomever else was
receiving copies of the transcripts.
I also delivered a list of books and materials requested by Airl to
the agent in the gallery room so these could be gathered and
delivered to Airl. Each night after I left Airl, she spent the rest
of the night reading or "scanning" the materials which had been
delivered to her. The members of the gallery each received a
transcript of the stenographic dictation to study, each looking for
information that was of interest to them.
In the morning after
breakfast I reported back to the interview room to continue my
interviews or "lessons" with Airl."
(OFFICIAL TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW)
Official Transcript of the U.S. Army Air Force Roswell Army Air
Field, 50 9th Bomb Group
SUBJECT: ALIEN INTERVIEW, 28. 7. 1947, 1st
"The origins of this universe and life on Earth, as discussed in the
textbooks I have read, are very inaccurate. Since you serve your
government as a medical personnel, your duties require that you
understand biological entities. So, I am sure that you will
appreciate the value of the material I will share with you today.
The text of books I have been given on subjects related to the
function of life forms contain information that is based on false
memories, inaccurate observation, missing data, unproven theories,
For example, just a few hundred years ago your physicians practiced
bloodletting 188 (Footnote) as a means to release supposed
ill-humors from the body in an attempt to relieve or heal a wide
variety of physical and mental afflictions. Although this has been
corrected somewhat, many barbarisms are still being practiced in the
name of medical science.
In addition to the application of incorrect theories concerning
biological engineering, many primary errors that Earth scientists
make are the result of an ignorance of the nature and relative
importance of IS-BEs as the source of energy and intelligence which
animate every life form.
Although it is not a priority of The Domain to intervene in the
affairs of Earth, The Domain Communications Office has authorized me
to provide you with some information in an effort to provide a more
accurate and complete understanding of these things and thereby
enable you to discover more effective solutions to the unique
problems you face on Earth.
The correct information about the origins of biological entities has
been erased from your mind, as well as from the minds of your
mentors. In order to help you regain your own memory, I will share
with you some factual material concerning the origin of biological
I asked Airl if she was referring to the subject of evolution. Airl
said, "No, not exactly".
You will find "evolution" mentioned in the ancient Vedic Hymns.
189 (Footnote) The Vedic texts are like folk tales or common wisdoms and
superstitions gathered throughout the systems of The Domain. These
were compiled into verses, like a book of rhymes. For every
statement of truth, the verses contain as many half-truths,
reversals of truth and fanciful imaginings, blended without
qualification or distinction.
The theory of evolution assumes that the motivational source of
energy that animates every life form does not exist. It assumes that
an inanimate object or a chemical concoction can suddenly become
"alive" or animate accidentally or spontaneously. Or, perhaps an
electrical discharge into a pool of chemical ooze will magically
spawn a self-animated entity.
There is no evidence whatsoever that this is true, simply because it
is not true. Dr. Frankenstein did not really resurrect the dead into
a marauding monster, except in the imagination of the IS-BE who
wrote a fictitious story one dark and stormy night. 190 (Footnote)
No Western scientist ever stopped to consider who, what, where, when
or how this animation happens. Complete ignorance, denial or
unawareness of the spirit as the source of life force required to
animate inanimate objects or cellular tissue is the sole cause of
failures in Western medicine.
In addition, evolution does not occur accidentally. It requires a
great deal of technology which must be manipulated under the careful
supervision of IS-BEs.
Very simple examples are seen in the
modification of farm animals or in the breeding of dogs. However,
the notion that human biological organisms evolved naturally from
earlier ape-like forms is incorrect. No physical evidence will ever
be uncovered to substantiate the notion that modern humanoid bodies
evolved on this planet.
The reason is simple: the idea that human bodies evolved
spontaneously from the primordial ooze of chemical interactivity in
the dim mists of time is nothing more than a hypnotic lie instilled
by the amnesia operation to prevent your recollection of the true
origins of Mankind. Factually, humanoid bodies have existed in
various forms throughout the universe for trillions of years.
This was compounded by the fact that The Vedic Hymns were brought to
Earth 8,200 years ago by The Domain Expeditionary Force. While they
were based in the Himalaya Mountains, the verses were taught to some
of the local humans who memorized them. However, I should note that
this was not an authorized activity for the crew of The Domain
installation, although I am sure it seemed like an innocent
diversion for them at the time.
The verses were passed along verbally from one generation to the
next for thousands of years in the foothills and eventually spread
throughout India. No one in The Domain credits any of the material
in the Vedic Hymns as factual material, any more than you would use
"Grimm's Fairy Tales" 191 (Footnote) as a guide for rearing
children. However, on a planet where all of the IS-BEs have had
their memory erased, one can understand how these tales and
fantasies could be taken seriously.
Unfortunately, the humans who learned the Vedic verses passed them
along to others saying that they came from "the gods". Eventually,
the content of the verses were adopted verbatim as "truth". The
euphemistic and metaphorical content of the Veda were accepted and
practiced as dogmatic fact. The philosophy of the verses were
ignored and the verses became the genesis of nearly every religion
practice on the planet, especially Hinduism. 192 (Footnote)
As an officer, pilot and engineer of The Domain, I must always
assume a very pragmatic point of view. I could not be effective or
accomplish my missions if I were to use philosophical dogma or
rhetoric as my operations manual. Therefore, our discussion of
history is based on actual events that occurred long before any IS-BEs
arrived on Earth, and long before the "Old Empire" came
into power. I can relate part of this history from personal
Many billions of years ago I was a member of a very large biological
laboratory in a galaxy far from this one. It was called the "Arcadia
Regeneration Company". 193 (Footnote) I was a biological engineer
working with a large staff of technicians. It was our business to
manufacture and supply new life forms to uninhabited planets. There
were millions of star systems with millions of inhabitable planets
in the region at that time.
There were many other biological laboratory companies at that time
also. Each of them specialized in producing different kinds of life
forms, depending on the "class" of the planet being populated. Over
a long span of time these laboratories developed a vast catalogue of
species throughout the galaxies. The majority of basic genetic
material is common to all species of life. 194 (Footnote) Therefore,
most of their work was concerned with manipulating alterations of
the basic genetic pattern to produce variations of life forms that
would be suitable inhabitants for various planetary classes.
The "Arcadia Regeneration Company" specialized in mammals for
forested areas and birds for tropical regions. Our marketing staff
negotiated contracts with various planetary governments and
independent buyers from all over the universe. The technicians
created animals that were compatible with the variations in climate,
atmospheric and terrestrial density and chemical content. In
addition we were paid to integrate our specimens with biological
organisms engineered by other companies already living on a planet.
In order to do this our staff was in communication with other
companies who created life forms. There were industry trade shows,
publications and a variety of other information supplied through an
association that coordinated related projects.
As you can imagine, our research required a great deal of
interstellar travel to conduct planetary surveys. This is when I
learned my skills as a pilot. The data gathered was accumulated in
huge computer databases and evaluated by biological engineers. 195
A computer is an electronic device that serves as an artificial
"brain" or complex calculating machine. It is capable of storing
information, making computations, solving problems and performing
mechanical functions. In most of the galactic systems of the
universe, very large computers are commonly used to run the routine
administration, mechanical services and maintenance activities of an
entire planet or planetary system.
Based on the survey data gathered, designs and artistic renderings
were made for new creatures. Some designs were sold to the highest
bidder. Other life forms were created to meet the customized
requests of our clients.
The design and technical specifications were passed along an
assembly line through a series of cellular, chemical, and mechanical
engineers to solve the various problems. It was their job to
integrate all of the component factors into a workable, functional
and aesthetic finished product.
Prototypes of these creatures were then produced and tested in
artificially created environments. Imperfections were worked out,
modifications made and eventually the new life form was "endowed" or
"animated" with a life force or spiritual energy before being
introduced into the actual planetary environment for final testing.
After a new life form was introduced, we monitored the interaction
of these biological organisms with the planetary environment and
with other indigenous life-forms. Conflicts resulting from the
interaction between incompatible organisms were resolved through
negotiation between ourselves and other companies. The negotiations
usually resulted in compromises requiring further modification to
our creatures or to theirs or both. This is part of a science or art
you call "Eugenics". 196 (Footnote)
In some cases changes were made in the planetary environment, but
not often, as planet building is much more complex than making
changes to an individual life form.
Coincidentally, a friend and engineer with whom I used to work with
at the Arcadia Regeneration Company - a long time after I left the
company - told me that one of the projects they contracted to do,
in more recent times, was to deliver life forms to Earth to
replenish them after a war in this region of the galaxy devastated
most of the life on the planets in this region of space. This would
have been about seventy million years ago.
The skill required to modify the planet into an ecologically
interactive environment that will support billions of diverse
species was an immense undertaking. Specialized consultants from
nearly every biotechnology company in the galaxy were brought in to
help with the project.
What you see now on Earth is the
huge variety of life forms left
behind. Your scientists believe that the
fallacious "theory of
evolution" is an explanation for the existence of all the life forms
here. The truth is that all life forms on this and any other planet
in this universe were created by companies like ours.
How else can you explain the millions of completely divergent and
unrelated species of life on the land and in the oceans of this
planet? How else can you explain the source of spiritual animation
which defines every living creature? To say it is the work of "god",
is far too broad. Every IS-BE has many names and faces in many times
and places. Every IS-BE is a god. When they inhabit a physical
object they are the source of Life.
For example, there are millions of species
197 (Footnote) of
insects. About 350,000 of these are species of beetles. 198 (Footnote) There may be as many as
100 million species of life forms
on Earth at any given time. In addition, there are many times more
extinct species of life on Earth than there are living life forms.
Some of these will be rediscovered in the fossil or geological
records of Earth.
The current "theory of evolution" of life forms on Earth does not
consider the phenomena of biological diversity. Evolution by natural
selection is science fiction. One species does not accidentally, or
randomly evolve to become another species, as the Earth textbooks
without manipulation of genetic material by an IS-BE.
A simple example of IS-BE intervention is the selective breeding of
a species 200 (Footnote) on Earth. Within the past few hundred years
several hundred dog breeds and hundreds of varieties of pigeons and
dozens of Koi fish have been "evolved" in just a few years,
beginning with only one original breed. Without active intervention
by IS-BEs, biological organisms rarely change.
The development of an animal like the 'duck-billed platypus'
required a lot of very clever engineering to combine the body of a
beaver with the bill of a duck and make a mammal that lays eggs.
Undoubtedly, some wealthy client placed a "special order" for it as
a gift or curious amusement. I am sure the laboratory of some
biotechnical company worked on it for years to make it a
self-replicating life form!
The notion that the creation of any life form could have resulted
from a coincidental chemical interaction moldering up from some
primordial ooze is beyond absurdity! Factually, some organisms on
Earth, such as Proteobacteria, 201 (Footnote) are modifications of a
Phylum 202 (Footnote) designed primarily for "Star Type 3, Class C"
planets. In other words, The Domain designation for a planet with an
anaerobic atmosphere nearest a large, intensely hot blue star, 203
(Footnote) such as those in the constellation of Orion's Belt in
Creating life forms is very complex, highly technical work for IS-BEs
who specialize in this field. Genetic anomalies are very baffling to
Earth biologists who have had their memory erased.
the false memory implantations of the "Old Empire" prevent Earth
scientists from observing obvious anomalies.
The greatest technical challenge of biological organisms was the
invention of self-regeneration, or sexual reproduction. It was
invented as the solution to the problem of having to continually
manufacture replacement creatures for those that had been destroyed
and eaten by other creatures. Planetary governments did not want to
keep buying replacement animals.
The idea was contrived trillions of years ago as a result of a
conference held to resolve arguments between the disputing vested
interests within the biotechnology industry. The infamous "Council
of Yuhmi-Krum" was responsible for coordinating creature production.
A compromise was reached, after certain members of the Council were
strategically bribed or murdered, to author an agreement which
resulted in the biological phenomenon which we now call the "food
The idea that a creature would need to consume the body of another
life form as an energy source was offered as a solution by one of
the biggest companies in the biological engineering business. They
specialized in creating insects and flowering plants.
The connection between the two is obvious. Nearly every flowering
plant requires a symbiotic relationship with an insect in order to
propagate. The reason is obvious: both the bugs and the flowers were
created by the same company. Unfortunately, this same company also
had a division which created parasites and bacteria.
The name of the company roughly translated into English would be
"Bugs & Blossoms". They wanted to justify the fact that the only
valid purpose of the parasitic creatures they manufactured was to
aid the decomposition of organic material. There was a very limited
market for such creatures at that time.
In order to expand their business they hired a big public relations
firm and a powerful group of political lobbyists to glorify the idea
that life forms should feed from other life forms. They invented a
"scientific theory" to use as a promotion gimmick. The theory was
that all creatures needed to have "food" as a source of energy.
Before that, none of the life forms being manufactured required any
external energy. Animals did not eat other animals for food, but
consumed sunlight, minerals or vegetable matter only.
Of course, "Bugs & Blossoms" went into the business of designing and
manufacturing carnivores. Before long, so many animals were being
eaten as food that the problem of replenishing them became very
difficult. As a
'solution', "Bugs & Blossoms" proposed, with the help of some
strategically placed bribes in high places, that other companies
begin using 'sexual reproduction' as the basis for replenishing
life-forms. "Bugs & Blossoms" was the first company to develop
blueprints for sexual reproduction, of course.
As expected, the patent licenses for the biological engineering
process 205 (Footnote) required to implant stimulus-response mating,
cellular division and preprogrammed growth patterns for
self-regenerating animals were owned by "Bugs & Blossoms" too.
Through the next few million years laws were passed that required
that these programs be purchased by the other biological technology
companies. These were required to be imprinted into the cellular
design of all existing life-forms. It became a very expensive
undertaking for other biotechnology companies to make such an
awkward, and impractical idea work.
This led to the corruption and downfall of the entire industry.
Ultimately, the 'food and sex' idea completely ruined the
bio-technology industry, including "Bugs & Blossoms". The entire
industry faded away as the market for manufactured life forms
disappeared. Consequently, when a species became extinct, there is
no way to replace them because the technology of creating new life
forms has been lost.
Obviously, none of this technology was ever
known on Earth, and probably never will be.
There are still computer files on some planets far from here which
record the procedures for biological engineering. Possibly the
laboratories and computers still exist somewhere. However, there is
no one around doing anything with them. Therefore, you can
understand why it is so important for The Domain to protect the
dwindling number of creatures left on Earth.
The core concept behind 'sexual reproduction' technology was the
invention of a chemical/electronic interaction called "cyclical
stimulus-response generators". 206 (Footnote)
This is an programmed genetic mechanism which causes a seemingly
spontaneous, recurring impulse to reproduce. The same technique was
later adapted and applied to biological flesh bodies, including Homo
Another important mechanism used in the reproductive process,
especially with Homo Sapiens type bodies, is the implantation of a
"chemical-electrical trigger" mechanism 207 (Footnote) in the body.
The "trigger" which attracts IS-BEs to inhabit a human body, or any
kind of "flesh body", is the use of an artificially imprinted
electronic wave which uses "aesthetic pain" to attract
Every trap in the universe, including those used to capture IS-BEs
who remain free, is "baited" with an aesthetic electronic wave. The
sensations caused by the aesthetic wavelength are more attractive to
an IS-BE than any other sensation. When the electronic waves of pain
and beauty are combined together, this causes the IS-BE to get
"stuck" in the body.
The "reproductive trigger" used for lesser life forms, such as
cattle and other mammals, is triggered by chemicals emitted from the
scent glands, combined with reproductive chemical-electrical
impulses stimulated by testosterone, or estrogen. 208 (Footnote)
These are also interactive with nutrition levels which cause the
life form to reproduce more when deprived of food sources.
Starvation promoted reproductive activity as a means of perpetuating
survival through future regenerations, when the current organism
fails to survive. These fundamental principles have been applied
throughout all species of life.
The debilitating impact and addiction to the "sexual aesthetic-pain"
electronic wave 209 (Footnote) is the reason that the ruling class
of The Domain do not inhabit flesh bodies. This is also why officers
of The Domain Forces only use doll bodies. This wave has proven to
be the most effective trapping device ever created in the history of
the universe, as far as I know.
The civilizations of The Domain and the "Old Empire" both depend on
this device to "recruit" and maintain a work force of IS-BEs who
inhabit flesh bodies on planets and installations. These IS-BEs are
the "working class" beings who do all of the slavish, manual,
undesirable work on planets.
As I mentioned, there is a very highly regimented and fixed
hierarchy or "class system" for all IS-BEs throughout the "Old
Empire", and The Domain, as follows:
The highest class are "free" IS-BEs. That is, they are not
restricted to the use of any type of body and may come and go at
will, provided that they do not destroy or interfere with the
social, economic or political structure.
Below this class are many strata of "limited" IS-BEs who may or may
not use a body from time to time. Limitations are imposed on each
IS-BE regarding range of power, ability and mobility they can
Below these are the "doll body" classes, to which I belong. Nearly
all space officers and crew members of space craft are required to
travel through intergalactic space. Therefore, they are each
equipped with a body manufactured from light weight, durable
materials. Various body types have been designed to facilitate
specialized functions. Some bodies have accessories, such as
interchangeable tools or apparatus for activities such as
maintenance, mining, chemical management, navigation, and so forth.
There are many gradations of this body type which also serve as an
"insignia" of rank.
Below these are the soldier class. The soldiers are equipped with a
myriad of weapons, and specialized armaments designed to detect,
combat and overwhelm any imaginable foe. Some soldiers are issued
mechanical bodies. Most soldiers are merely remote controlled robots
with no class designation.
The lower classes are limited to "flesh bodies". Of course, it is
not possible for these to travel through space for obvious reasons.
Fundamentally, flesh bodies are far too fragile to endure the
stresses of gravity, temperature extremes, radiation exposure,
atmospheric chemicals and the vacuum of space. There are also the
obvious logistical inconveniences of food, defecation, sleep,
atmospheric elements, and air pressure required by flesh bodies,
that doll bodies do not require.
Most flesh bodies will suffocate in only a few minutes without a
specific combination of atmospheric chemicals.
After 2 or 3 days the bacteria which live internally and externally
on the body cause severe odors to be emitted. Odors of any kind are
not acceptable in a space vessel.
Flesh can tolerate only a very limited spectrum of temperatures,
whereas in space the contrast of temperatures may vary hundreds of
degrees within seconds. Of course flesh bodies are utterly useless
for military duty. A single shot from a hand-held, electronic blast
gun instantly turns a flesh body into a noxious vapor cloud.
IS-BEs who inhabit flesh bodies have lost much of their native
ability and power. Although it is theoretically possible to regain
or rehabilitate these abilities, no practical means has been
discovered or authorized by The Domain.
Even though space craft of The Domain travel trillions of "light
years" in a single day, 210 (Footnote) the time required to traverse
the space between galaxies is significant, not to mention the length
of time to complete just one set of mission orders, which may
require thousands of years.
Biological flesh bodies live for only a
very short time - only 60 to 150 years, at most - whereas doll
bodies can be re-used and repaired almost indefinitely.
The first development of biological bodies began in this universe
about seventy-four trillion years ago. It rapidly became a fad for
IS-BEs to create and inhabit various types of bodies for an
assortment of nefarious reasons: especially for amusement, this is
to experience various physical sensations vicariously through the
Since that time there has been a continuing "de-evolution" in the
relationship of IS-BEs to bodies. As IS-BEs continued to play around
with these bodies, certain tricks were introduced to cause IS-BEs to
get trapped inside a body so they were unable to leave again.
This was done primarily by making bodies that appeared sturdy, but
were actually very fragile. An IS-BE, using their natural power to
create energy, accidentally injured a body when contacting it. The
IS-BE was remorseful about having injured this fragile body. The next time
they encountered a body they began to be "careful" with them. In so
doing, the IS-BE would withdraw or minimize their own power so as
not to injure the body. A very long and treacherous history of this
kind of trickery, combined with similar misadventures eventually
resulted in a large number of IS-BEs becoming permanently trapped in
Of course this became a profitable enterprise for some IS-BEs who
took advantage of this situation to make slaves of others. The
resulting enslavement progressed over trillions of years, and
continues today. Ultimately the dwindling ability of IS-BEs to
maintain a personal state of operational freedom and ability to
create energy resulted in the vast and carefully guarded hierarchy
or class system.
Using bodies as a symbol of each class is used
throughout the "Old Empire", as well as The Domain.
The vast majority of IS-BEs throughout the galaxies of this universe
inhabit some form of flesh body. The structure, appearance,
operation and habitat of these bodies vary according to the gravity,
atmosphere, and climatic conditions of the planet they inhabit. Body
types are predetermined largely by the type and size of the star
around which the planet revolves, the distance from the star, the
geological, as well as the atmospheric components of the planet.
On the average, these stars and planets fall into gradients of
classification which are fairly standard throughout the universe.
For example, Earth is identified, roughly, as a "Sun Type 12, Class
7 planet". That is a heavy gravity, nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere
planet, 211 (Footnote) with biological life-forms, in proximity to a
single, yellow, medium-size, low-radiation sun or "Type 12 star".
The proper designations are difficult to translate accurately due to
the extreme limitations of astronomical nomenclature in the English
There are as many varieties of life forms as there are grains of
sands on the beach. You can imagine how many different creatures and
types of bodies have been manufactured by the millions of companies
such as "Bugs
& Blossoms" for all of the myriad planetary systems during the
course of seventy-four trillion years!"
(MATILDA O'DONNELL MACELROY PERSONAL NOTE)
"When Airl finished telling me this "story", there was a long,
silent pause while I muddled through all this in my mind. Had Airl
been reading science fiction books and fantasy stories during the
night? Why would she tell me something so incredibly far-fetched?
there had not been a 40 inch tall alien, with gray "skin", and three
fingers on each hand and foot sitting directly across from me, I
would not have believed a single word of it!
In retrospect, over the 60 years since Airl gave me this
information, Earth doctors have begun to develop some of the
biological engineering technology that Airl told me about right here
on Earth. Heart bypasses, cloning, test tube babies, organ
transplants, plastic surgery, genes, chromosomes, and so forth.
One thing is very sure: I have never looked at a bug or flower the
same way since then, not to mention my religious belief in Genesis."
188 "...Bloodletting... "
"Bloodletting is one of the oldest medical practices, having
been practiced among diverse ancient peoples, including the
Mesopotamians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Mayans, and the
Aztecs. In Greece, bloodletting was in use around the time of
Hippocrates, who mentions bloodletting but in general relied on
dietary techniques. Erasistratus, however, theorized that many
diseases were caused by plethoras, or overabundances, in the
blood, and advised that these plethoras be treated, initially,
by exercise, sweating, reduced food intake, and vomiting.
Herophilus advocated bloodletting. Archagathus, one of the first
Greek physicians to practice in Rome, practiced bloodletting
extensively and gained a most sanguinary reputation.
The popularity of bloodletting in Greece was reinforced by the
ideas of Galen, after he discovered the veins and arteries were
filled with blood, not air as was commonly believed at the time.
There were two key concepts in his system of bloodletting. The
first was that blood was created and then used up, it did not
circulate and so it could 'stagnate' in the extremities. The
second was that humoral balance was the basis of illness or
health, the four humours being blood, phlegm, black bile, and
yellow bile, relating to the four Greek classical elements of
air, water, earth and fire. Galen believed that blood was the
dominant humour and the one in most need of control. In order to
balance the humours, a physician would either remove 'excess'
blood (plethora) from the patient or give them an emetic to
induce vomiting, or a diuretic to induce urination.
Bloodletting was especially popular in the young United States
of America, where Benjamin Rush (a signatory of the Declaration
of Independence) saw the state of the arteries as the key to
disease, recommending levels of blood-letting that were high,
even for the time. George Washington was treated in this manner
following a horseback riding accident: almost 4 pounds (1.7
litres) of blood was withdrawn, contributing to his death by
throat infection in 1799."
189 "... you will find "evolution"
mentioned in the ancient Vedic Hymns..."
"The Vedas are very exhaustive scriptures. Each Veda contains
several sections and thousands of hymns. Some of the Vedic
hymns, especially the hymns of the Rig Veda, are considered to
be at least 6000-8000 years old.
The Vedas are believed to be revealed scriptures, because they
are considered to be divine in origin. Since they were not
written by any human beings but were only heard in deep
meditative states, they are commonly referred as srutis or those
that were heard."
"The Vedas (Sanskrit veda "knowledge") are a large corpus of
texts originating in Ancient India. They form the oldest layer
of Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism.
According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are "not human
compositions", being supposed to have been directly revealed,
and thus are called sruti ("what is heard"). Vedic mantras are
recited at Hindu prayers, religious functions and other
Philosophies and sects that developed in the Indian subcontinent
have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian
philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority
are classified as "orthodox" (astika). Other traditions, notably
Buddhism and Jainism, though they are (like the vedanta)
similarly concerned with liberation did not regard the Vedas as
divine ordinances but rather human expositions of the sphere of
higher spiritual knowledge, hence not sacrosanct."
190 "... the IS-BE who wrote a
fictitious story one dark and stormy night..."
Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by
the British author Mary Shelley. Shelley wrote the novel when
she was 18 years old. The first edition was published
anonymously in London in 1818. Shelley's name appears on the
revised third edition, published in 1831. The title of the novel
refers to a scientist, Victor Frankenstein, who learns how to
create life and creates a being in the likeness of man, but
larger than average and more powerful.
The story has had an influence across literature and popular
culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and
films. It is arguably considered the first fully realized
science fiction novel. The novel raises many issues that can be
linked to today's society.
During the rainy summer of 1816, the "Year Without a Summer,"
the world was locked in a long cold volcanic winter caused by
the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815. Mary Wollstonecraft
Godwin, age 19, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe
Shelley, visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva
in Switzerland. The weather was consistently too cold and dreary
that summer to enjoy the outdoor holiday activities they had
planned, so the group retired indoors until almost dawn talking
about science and the supernatural. After reading
Fantasmagoriana, an anthology of German ghost stories, they
challenged one another to each compose a story of their own, the
contest being won by whoever wrote the scariest tale.
Mary conceived an idea after she fell into a waking dream or
nightmare during which she saw "the pale student of unhallowed
arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together." Byron
managed to write just a fragment based on the vampire legends he
heard while travelling the Balkans, and from this Polidori
created The Vampyre (1819), the progenitor of the romantic
vampire literary genre. Two legendary horror tales originated
from this one circumstance.
Radu Florescu, in his book In Search of Frankenstein, argued
that Mary and Percy Shelley visited Castle Frankenstein on their
way to Switzerland, near Darmstadt along the Rhine, where a
notorious alchemist named Konrad Dippel had experimented with
191 "...Grimm's Fairy Tales... "
"The world famous collection of German origin fairy tales
Kinder- und Hausmarchen (KHM; English: Children's and Household
Tales), commonly known as Grimm's Fairy Tales, was first
published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers
Grimm. The brothers developed an interest in ancient fairy
tales. They started to collect and write down tales that they
alleged had been handed down for generations. On December 20,
1812 they published the first volume of the first edition,
containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed
The first volumes were much criticized because, although they
were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as
suitable for children, both for the scholarly information
included and the subject matter. Many changes through the
editions—such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition
in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel to a stepmother, were
probably made with an eye to such suitability. They removed
sexual references, such as Rapunzel's betraying the prince by
asking why her clothing no longer fit, and so revealing her
pregnancy, but in many respects, violence, particularly when
punishing villains, was increased.
The influence of these books was widespread. It ranks behind
only the Bible and the works of William Shakespeare in sales. W.
H. Auden praised it, during World War II, as one of the founding
works of Western culture. The tales themselves have been put to
many uses. The Nazis praised them as folkish tales showing
children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure
marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allied forces warned
against them. Writers about the Holocaust have combined the
tales with their memoirs."
"Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma, a Sanskrit
phrase meaning 'the eternal path" or "the eternal law".
Hinduism is the world's oldest major religion that is still
practiced. Its earliest origins can be traced to the ancient
Vedic civilization. A conglomerate of diverse beliefs and
traditions, Hinduism has no single founder. It is the world's
third largest religion following Christianity and Islam, with
approximately a billion adherents, of whom about 905 million
live in India and Nepal.
Hinduism is an extremely diverse religion. Although some tenets
of the faith are accepted by most Hindus, scholars have found it
difficult to identify any doctrines with universal acceptance
among all denominations. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs
include Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsara (The continuing cycle of
birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent
reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various
Yogas (paths or practices).
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning
monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism and
atheism. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (devotion
to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods),
but any such term is an oversimplification of the complexities
and variations of belief.
Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul—the true "self" of
every person, called the atman—is eternal."
193 "... Arcadia Regeneration
"One of the birthplaces reported for Zeus is Mount Lycaeum in
Arcadia. Lycaon, a cannibalistic Pelasgian king, was transformed
into a werewolf by Zeus. Lycaon's daughter was Callisto. It was
also said to have been the birthplace of Zeus' son, Hermes.
Arcadia remained a rustic, secluded area, and its inhabitants
became proverbial as primitive herdsmen leading simple pastoral
unsophisticated yet happy lives, to the point that Arcadia may
refer to some imaginary idyllic paradise.
The Latin phrase Et in Arcadia ego which is usually interpreted
to mean "I am also in Arcadia" or "I am even in Arcadia" is an
example of memento mori, a cautionary reminder of the transitory
nature of life and the inevitability of death. The phrase is
most often associated with a 1647 painting by Nicolas Poussin,
also known as "The Arcadian Shepherds". In the painting the
phrase appears as an inscription on a tomb discovered by
youthful figures in classical garb. It has been suggested that
the phrase is an anagram for the Latin phrase "I! Tego arcana
Dei", which translates to "Begone! I keep God's secrets."
194 "... the majority of basic
genetic material is common to all species... "
"The Genetic Core of the Universal Ancestor
J. Kirk Harris,
Scott T. Kelley,1 George B. Spiegelman,3 and Norman R. Pace1
1 Department of Molecular, Cellular
and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder,
Colorado 80309-0347, USA
2 Graduate Group in Microbiology,
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720,
USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3
Molecular analysis of conserved sequences in the ribosomal RNAs
of modern organisms reveals a three-domain phylogeny that
converges in a universal ancestor for all life. We used the
Clusters of Orthologous Groups database and information from
published genomes to search for other universally conserved
genes that have the same phylogenetic pattern as ribosomal RNA,
and therefore constitute the ancestral genetic core of cells.
Our analyses identified a small set of genes that can be traced
back to the universal ancestor and have coevolved since that
As indicated by earlier studies, almost all of these genes are
involved with the transfer of genetic information, and most of
them directly interact with the ribosome. Other universal genes
have either undergone lateral transfer in the past, or have
diverged so much in sequence that their distant past could not
be resolved. The nature of the conserved genes suggests
innovations that may have been essential to the divergence of
the three domains of life. The analysis also identified several
genes of unknown function with phylogenies that track with the
ribosomal RNA genes. The products of these genes are likely to
play fundamental roles in cellular processes."
-- Reference: http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/abstract/GR-6528v1?etoc
195 "... biological engineers..."
"Biomedical engineering is an application of engineering
principles and design to challenges in human health and
medicine. Bioengineering is related to Biological Engineering,
the latter including applications of engineering principles to
the full spectrum of living systems, from microbes and plants to
ecosystems. Bioengineering exploits new developments in
molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, and neurosciences
as well as sensing, electronics, and imaging, and applies them
to the design of medical devices, diagnostic equipment,
biocompatible materials, and other important medical needs.
Bioengineering couples engineering expertise with knowledge in
biological sciences such as genetics, molecular biology, protein
chemistry, cytology, neurobiology, immunology, physiology, and
pharmacology. Bioengineers work closely with, but are not
limited to, medical doctors and other health professionals to
develop technical solutions to current and emerging health
Bioengineering is not limited to the medical field. Bioengineers
have the ability to exploit new opportunities and solve problems
within the domain of complex systems. They have a great
understanding of living systems as complex systems which can be
applied to many fields including entrepreneurship."
196 "... Imperfections were worked
out, modifications made and eventually the new animal was
introduced into the actual planetary environment for final
"The basic ideals of Eugenics can be found from the beginnings
of Western civilization. The philosophy was most famously
expounded by Plato, who believed human reproduction should be
monitored and controlled by the state. The basic eugenic
principle from Plato's The Republic was, "The best men must have
intercourse with the best women as frequently as possible, and
the opposite is true of the very inferior."
However, Plato understood this form of government control would
not be readily accepted, and proposed the truth be concealed
from the public via a fixed lottery. Mates, in Plato's Republic,
would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of
the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of
high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of
high numbers. In theory, this would lead to predictable results
and the improvement of the human race.
However, Plato acknowledged the
failure of the "marriage number" since "gold soul" persons could
still produce "bronze soul" children. This might have been one
of the earliest attempts to mathematically analyze genetic
inheritance, which was not perfected until the development of
Mendelian genetics and the mapping of the human genome.
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome and Sparta, practiced
infanticide as a form of phenotypic selection. In Sparta,
newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the
fate of the infant. If the child was deemed incapable of living,
it was usually thrown from the Taygetus mountain. It was more
common for girls than boys to be killed this way. Trials for
babies which included bathing them in wine and exposing them to
the elements. To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest
survived and procreated. Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be
the first "Volkisch State," and much like Ernst Haeckel before
him, praised Sparta due to its primitive form of eugenics
practice of selective infanticide policy which was applied on
The 12 Tables of Roman Law, established early in the formation
of the Roman Republic, stated in the fourth table that deformed
children would be put to death. In addition, patriarchs in Roman
society were given the right to "discard" infants at their
discretion. This was often done by drowning undesired newborns
in the Tiber River.
Sir Francis Galton initially developed the ideas of eugenics
using social statistics. Sir Francis Galton systematized these
ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the
evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his
cousin Charles Darwin during the 1860s and 1870s. After reading
Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas
whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially
thwarted by human civilization.
He reasoned that, since many human
societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those
societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible
for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social
policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards
mediocrity," a phrase he first coined in statistics and which
later changed to the now common "regression towards the mean."
197 "...species... "
"In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological
classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined
as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing
fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is
adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used,
such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of
specific locally-adapted traits may further subdivide species
The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes
correspond to species: for example, "lion," walrus," and
"Camphor tree," each refers to a species. In other cases common
names do not: for example, "deer" refers to a family of 34
species, including Eld's Deer, Red Deer and Wapiti (Elk). The
last two species were once considered a single species,
illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased
Each species is placed within a single genus. This is a
hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other
species within its genus than to species of other genera. All
species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name
and specific name (or specific epithet). For example, Pinus
palustris (commonly known as the Longleaf Pine).
A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods
of identifying particular species are essential for stating and
testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity.
Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be
studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a
species. Extinct species known only from fossils are generally
difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to. A species which
has been described scientifically can be referred to by its
Nevertheless, as Charles Darwin remarked,
'I look at the term species as
one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set
of individuals closely resembling each other.... it does not
essentially differ from the term variety, which is given to
less distinct and more fluctuating forms. The term variety,
again in comparison with mere individual difference, is also
applied arbitrarily, and for mere convenience sake.'
Because of the difficulties with
both defining and tallying the total numbers of different
species in the world, it is estimated that there are anywhere
between 2 million and 100 million different species."
198 "...species of beetle..."
"Beetles are a group of insects which have the largest number of
species. They are placed in the order Coleoptera, which means
"sheathed wing" and contains more described species than in any
other order in the animal kingdom, constituting about
twenty-five percent of all known life-forms. Forty percent of
all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000
species), and new species are frequently discovered. Estimates
put the total number of species, described and undescribed, at
between 5 and 8 million.
Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known
to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They interact with
their ecosystems in several ways. They often feed on plants and
fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other
invertebrates. Some species are prey of various animals
including birds and mammals.
Certain species are agricultural
pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa
decemlineata, the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, the red flour
beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the mungbean or cowpea beetle
Callosobruchus maculatus, while other species of beetles are
important controls of agricultural pests. For example,
coccinellidae ("ladybirds" or "ladybugs") consume aphids, scale
insects, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage
199 "One species does not evolve to
become another species, as the Earth textbooks indicate, without
the intervention and manipulation of genetic material by an
"Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic
modification / manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms
applied to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes.
Genetic engineering is not to be confused with traditional
breeding where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly.
Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and
transformation. Genetic engineering endeavors have found some
success in improving crop technology, the manufacture of
synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria,
the manufacture of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary
cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such
as the onco-mouse (cancer mouse) for research.
Since a protein sequence is specified by a segment of DNA called
a gene, novel versions of that protein can be produced by
changing the DNA sequence of the gene. The companies that own
the modified genome are able to patent it. In the case of basic
crops, the companies gain control of foodstuffs, controlling
food production on a large scale and reducing agrobidiversity to
a few varieties. The only apparent interest in promoting this
tecnology appears to be purely economic, despite the claims of
seed companies such as
Monsanto and Novartis to solve the world food scarcity. It is
now popularly understood that it is not the lack of food on a
wholewide scale that is the main problem, but its distribution,
aggravated by prohibitive tariffs by rich nations. Genetically
modified crops do not reduce hunger. The majority of genetically
crops are destined for animal food to meet the high demand for
meat in developed countries. No genetic modification have yet to
serve the needs of mankind despite all the promises in this
However, even with regard to this technology's great potential,
some people have raised concerns about the introduction of
genetically engineered plants and animals into the environment
and the potential dangers of human consumption of GM foods. They
say that these organisms have the potential to spread their
modified genes into native populations thereby disrupting
natural ecosystems. This has already happened."
200 "...genetic manipulation of a
"How much genetic variation is there? Historical debate:
Classical school held that there was very little genetic
variation, most individuals were homozygous for a wild-type"
allele. Rare heterozygous loci due to recurrent mutation;
natural selection purges populations of their "load" of
mutations. Balance school held that many loci will be
heterozygous in natural populations and heterozygotes maintained
by "balancing selection" (heterozygote advantage). Selection
thus plays a role in maintaining variation.
How do we measure variation? To show that there is a genetic
basis to a continuously varying character one can study 1)
resemblance among relatives: look at the offspring of
individuals from parents in different parts of the distribution;
can estimate heritability (more later). 2) artificial selection:
pigeons and dogs show that there is variation present; does not
tell how much variation."
201 "... Proteobacteria... "
"The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They
include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia,
Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera.
Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria
responsible for nitrogen fixation. The group is defined
primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, and is
named for the Greek god Proteus (also the name of a bacterial
genus within the Proteobacteria), who could change his shape,
because of the great diversity of forms found in this group.
All Proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane
mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using
flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding.
The last include the myxobacteria, a unique group of bacteria
that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. There
is also a wide variety in the types of metabolism. Most members
are facultatively or obligately anaerobic and heterotrophic, but
there are numerous exceptions. A variety of genera, which are
not closely related to each other, convert energy from light
through photosynthesis. These are called purple bacteria,
referring to their mostly reddish pigmentation."
"In biological taxonomy, a 'phylum' is a taxonomic rank at the
level below Class and above Kingdom. "Phylum" is adopted from
the Greek (puAaf phylai, the clan-based voting groups in Greek
203 "...intensely hot blue star..."
"Blue stars are very hot and very luminous; in fact, most of
their output is in the ultraviolet range. These are the rarest
of all main sequence stars, constituting as few as 1 in
3,000,000 in the solar neighborhood. (Blue) stars shine with a
power over a million times our Sun's output. Examples: Zeta
Orionis, Zeta Puppis, Lambda Orionis, Delta Orionis"..
204 "... responsible for
coordinating creature production..."
Editor's Note: For detailed information on the organization that
controls the World Congress of the Biotechnology Industry, visit
their website at http://www.bio.org.
Here is a statement from their website about who they are and
what they do:
"BIO is the world's largest
biotechnology organization, providing advocacy, business
development and communications services for more than 1,150
members worldwide. Our mission is to be the champion of
biotechnology and the advocate for our member
organizations—both large and small.
BIO members are involved in the research and development of
innovative healthcare, agricultural, industrial and
environmental biotechnology technologies. Corporate members
range from entrepreneurial companies developing a first
product to Fortune 100 multinationals. We also represent
state and regional biotech associations, service providers
to the industry and academic centers. Visit the BIO Member
Directory to browse BIO members and Web site links as well
as BIO state and international affiliates. "
205 "... patent licenses for the
biological engineering process ..."
"A biological patent is a patent relating to an invention or
discovery in biology.
The 1970's marked the first time when scientists patented
methods on their biotechnological inventions with recombinant
DNA. It wasn't until 1980 that patents for whole-scale living
organisms was permitted. In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the Supreme
Court overturned a previous precedent allowing the patentability
of living matter. The subject for this particular case was a
bacterium that was specifically modified to help clean-up and
degrade oil spills.
Since legal changes have occurred starting in 1980, there has
been a general trend of patenting inventions on living matter.
More knowledge and data has become available in recent years
that have never before been available. However, for us to get to
the point where it is making a significant difference in
peoples' lives, a tidy sum of money needs to be invested.
Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in recent years have found
out how lucrative biological research can be.
These firms foster many research
opportunities by funding made possible only through the private
Patents have provided an impetus for research to be pursued in
that the end goal of money can be envisioned by companies with
the funding cash. Especially during the genomic era, more
patents were issued. Companies and organizations like the
University of California were patenting whole genomes.
In 1998, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) issued a
broad patent claiming primate (including human) embryonic stem
cells, entitled "Primate Embryonic Stem Cells" (Patent
5,843,780). On 13 March 2001, a second patent (6,200,806) was
issued with the same title but focused on human embryonic stem
Recently, there has been a slowdown and backlash against
patenting biological material worldwide.
Some feel that the increase in patenting biological information
leads to inefficiency in research. Many scientists are coming up
against patent thickets, which are masses of information that
they must obtain permission (and often pay large fees to
utilize) before they can ever work with the information.
Michael Heller and Rebecca Eisenberg (2005) explain that there
is a recent trend of patenting more and more steps along the
research path. This creates a 'tragedy of the anticommons,"
whereby "each upstream patent allows its owner to set up another
tollbooth on the road to product development, adding to the cost
and slowing the pace of downstream... innovation". A report
shows that notwithstanding escalating funding, in the past
half-decade biomedical innovation has slowed markedly.
The number of drugs approved by the
Food and Drug Administration has fallen below previous eras. The
technologies approved, it continues, are less influential than
previous innovations approved. The current trend of patenting
what previously were thought of as basic science insights have
raised the financial bar for other scientists wanting to use
such insight. The overall trend of more patents may be slowing
However, others point out that patents are necessary for
research. Without them, scientists would keep secret all
discoveries for fear of colleagues and others stealing their
ideas. There would also be little incentive for large-scale
investments from the private sector.
206 "..."cyclical stimulus-response
"Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) is an instinctive behavioral
sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion. Fixed
action patterns are invariant and are produced by a neural
network known as the innate releasing mechanism in response to
an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus or
A mating dance may be used as an example. Many species of birds
engage in a specific series of elaborate movements, usually by a
brightly colored male. How well they perform the "dance" is then
used by females of the species to judge their fitness as a
potential mate. The key stimulus is typically the presence of
Although fixed action patterns are most common in animals with
simpler cognitive capabilities, humans also demonstrate fixed
action patterns. For example, infants grasp strongly with their
hands as a response to tactile stimulus."
207 "...chemical-electrical trigger"
"A taxis (plural taxes) is an innate behavioral response by an
organism to a stimulus. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning
response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that
the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement
towards or away from the stimulus. It also differs from a
kinesis, a non-directional change in activity in response to a
stimulus that results in the illusion of directed motion due to
different rates of activity depending on stimulus intensity.
For example, flagellate protozoans of the genus Euglena move
towards a light source. Here the directional stimulus is light,
and the orientation movement is towards the light. This reaction
or behaviour is a positive one to light and specifically termed
"positive phototaxis", since phototaxis is a response to a light
stimulus, and the organism is moving towards the stimulus. If
the organism moves away from the stimulus, then the taxis is
Many types of taxis have been identified and named
using prefices to specify the stimulus that elicits the
response. These include anemotaxis (stimulation by wind),
barotaxis (pressure), chemotaxis (chemicals), galvanotaxis
(electrical current), geotaxis (gravity), hydrotaxis (moisture),
phototaxis (light), rheotaxis (fluid flow), thermotaxis
(temperature changes) and thigmotaxis (physical contact).
Chemotaxis is a migratory response elicited by chemicals.
Unicellular (e.g. protozoa) or multicellular (e.g. worms)
organisms are targets of the substances. A concentration
gradient of chemicals developed in a fluid phase guides the
vectorial movement of responder cells or organisms.
Electrotaxis is directional movement of motile cells in response
to a electric field. It has been suggested that by detecting and
orientating themselves toward the electric fields.
This notion is based on,
existence of measurable electric fields that naturally occur
during wound healing, development and regeneration; and
in cultures respond to applied electric fields by directional
208 "... reproductive
chemical-electrical impulses stimulated by testosterone or
"Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. In
mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of
males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are
also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male
sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The period of the early 1930's to the 1950's has been called
"The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry", and work during this
period progressed quickly. Research in this golden age proved
that this newly synthesized compound — testosterone — or rather
family of compounds (for many derivatives were developed in the
1940's, 50's and 60's), was a potent multiplier of muscle,
strength, and wellbeing.
In both men and women, testosterone plays a key role in health
and well-being as well as in sexual functioning.
The human hormone testosterone is produced in greater amounts by
males, and less by females. The human hormone estrogen is
produced in greater amounts by females, and less by males. On
average, an adult human male body produces about forty to sixty
times more testosterone than an adult female body.
Testosterone causes the appearance of masculine traits (i.e
deepening voice, pubic and facial hairs, muscular build, etc.)
Like men, women rely on testosterone to maintain libido, bone
density and muscle mass throughout their lives."
209 "The debilitating impact and
addiction to the "sexual aesthetic-pain" electronic wave... "
"The term Sexual addiction is used to describe the behavior of a
person who has an unusually intense sex drive or obsession with
sex. Sexual addiction, also called sexual compulsion is a form
of psychological addiction.
The behavior of sex addicts is comparable to behavior of
alcoholics and addicts, where sex functions like a drug. A
common definition of alcoholism is that a person has a
pathological relationship with this mood altering drug. It
provides a quick mood change, works every time and the user
loses control over their compulsion. Like alcoholics, sex
addicts' lives rotate around the constant desire for their
"drug" of choice."
210 "...space craft of The Domain
travel trillions of light-years in a single day..."
Using the Julian Calendar year (not Gregorian) of 365.25 days,
or exactly 31,557,600 seconds, gives the light-year an exact
value of 9,460,730,472,580,800 meters. ( A meter = 3.281 feet or
The distance to the nearest star from Earth is 4.24 light years!
Distances measured in fractions of a light-year usually involve
objects within a star system. Distances measured in light-years
include distances between nearby stars, such as those in the
same spiral arm or globular cluster.
One kilolight-year, abbreviated "kly", is one thousand
light-years, or about 307 parsecs. Kilolight-years are typically
used to measure distances between parts of a galaxy.
One megalight-year, abbreviated "Mly", is one million
light-years, or about 306,600 parsecs. Megalight-years are
typically used to measure distances between neighboring galaxies
and galaxy clusters.
One gigalight-year, abbreviation "Gly", is one billion
light-years — one of the largest distance measures used. One
gigalight-year is about 306.6 million parsecs.
211 "... a heavy gravity,
nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere planet..."
"The Earth s atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the
planet Earth and retained by the Earth's gravity. It contains
roughly (by molar content/volume) 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95%
oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of
other gases, and a variable amount (average around 1 %) of water
vapor. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. The
atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar
radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and
There is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer
space. It slowly becomes thinner and fades into space. Three
quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the
planetary surface. In the United States, people who travel above
an altitude of 80.5 km (50 statute miles) are designated
astronauts. An altitude of 120 km (~75 miles or 400,000 ft)
marks the boundary where atmospheric effects become noticeable
during re-entry. The Karman line, at 100 km (62 miles or 328,000
ft), is also frequently regarded as the boundary between
atmosphere and outer space.
The atmosphere of Mars is relatively thin, and the atmospheric
pressure on the surface varies from around 30 Pa (0.03 kPa) on
Olympus Mons's peak to over 1155 Pa (1.155 kPa) in the depths of
Hellas Planitia, with a mean surface level pressure of 600 Pa
(0.6 kPa), compared to Earth's 101.3 kPa. However, the scale
height of the atmosphere is about 11 km, somewhat higher than
Earth's 6 km.
The atmosphere on Mars consists of
95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon, and contains traces
of oxygen, water, and methane. The atmosphere is quite dusty,
giving the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface;
data from the Mars Exploration Rovers indicates the suspended
dust particles are roughly 1.5 micrometers across.
The atmosphere of Venus, the second planet from the Sun, is much
denser and hotter than that of Earth. The surface temperature
and pressure on Venus are 740 K (467°C) and 93 bar,
respectively. The Venusian atmosphere supports thick persistent
clouds made of sulfuric acid, which make optical observations of
the surface impossible. The information about surface features
on Venus has been obtained exclusively by radar imaging
conducted from the ground and Venera 15-16 and by Magellan space
probes. The main atmosphereric gases on Venus are carbon dioxide
and nitrogen, which make up 96.5% and 3.5% of all molecules.
Other chemical compounds are present only in trace amounts.
The atmosphere of Venus is in state of a vigorous circulation
and super-rotation. The whole atmosphere circles the planet in
just four days (super-rotation), which is a short time compared
with the sideral rotational period of 243 days. The winds
supporting super-rotation blow as fast as 100 m/s. Near the
poles of Venus anticyclonic structures called polar vortexes are
located. In them the air moves downward. Each vortex is double
eyed and shows a characteristic S-shaped pattern of clouds.
Only the ionosphere and thin induced magnetosphere separate
venusian atmosphere from the space. They shield the atmosphere
from the solar wind, which usually does not penetrate deep into
it. However they are incapable of preventing the loss of water,
which is continuously blown away by the solar wind through the
Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, at about a 50 km to
65 km level above the surface of the planet the atmospheric
pressure and temperature is nearly the same as that of the
Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in
the Solar System, even more so than the surface of Mars. Due to
the similarity in pressure, temperature and the fact that
breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas on
Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth."