(MATILDA O'DONNELL MACELROY PERSONAL NOTE)
"My instruction with Airl continued through the night until dawn of
the next morning. I must say, that I was fascinated, skeptical,
shocked, alarmed, dismayed and disgruntled by the "lesson" I was
getting from Airl. I could never have imagined any of what she was
telling me - not even in my wildest dreams and nightmares!
The next afternoon, after I had slept, showered and eaten, I was
debriefed about my interview session the previous evening by members
of the gallery who recorded my account of what Airl told me. There
was a stenographer present for this session, as usual, to whom I
debriefed after each interview, and there were also 6 or 7 men who
asked for clarification of my statements.
As always, there was
constant pressure applied to me to use my influence with Airl to
persuade her to answer specific questions prompted by members of the
gallery. I did my best to reassure everyone that I would give my
very best efforts to do so.
Nevertheless, only three things happened every day thereafter:
Airl resolutely refused to answer any questions that she sensed
had been posed by or suggested to me by the gallery.
Airl continued to "instruct" me in subject matter of her own
Every evening after my interview with, or instruction from Airl,
she would give me a new list of subject matter about which she
wanted more information.
Each evening I presented this list to the
gallery. The next day Airl received a large stack of books,
magazines, articles, and so forth. She would study all of these
during the night while I slept. This pattern repeated every day
during the remainder of the time I spent with her.
The subject matter of my next interview, or lesson, from Airl
continued with a brief history of Earth, our solar system and nearby
space, from the perspective of The Domain."
(OFFICIAL TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW)
Official Transcript of the U.S. Army Air Force Roswell Army Air
Field, 509th Bomb Group
SUBJECT: ALIEN INTERVIEW, 25. 7. 1947, 1st
"Before you can understand the subject of history, you must first
understand the subject of time. Time is simply an arbitrary
measurement of the motion of objects through space.
Space is not linear. Space is determined by the point of view of an
IS-BE when viewing a object. The distance between an IS-BE and the
object being viewed is called "space".
Objects, or energy masses, in space do not necessarily move in a
linear fashion. In this universe, objects tend to move randomly or
in a curving or cyclical pattern, or as determined by agreed upon
History is not only a linear record of events, as many authors of
Earth history books imply, because it is not a string that can be
stretched out and marked like a measuring tool. History is a
subjective observation of the movement of objects through space,
recorded from the point of view of a survivor, rather than of those
Events occur interactively and concurrently, just as
the biological body has a heart that pumps blood, while the lungs
provide oxygen to the cells, which reproduce, using energy from the
sun and chemicals from plants, at the same time as the liver strains
toxic wastes from the blood, and eliminates them through the bladder
and the bowels.
All of these interactions are concurrent and simultaneous. Although
time runs consecutively, events do not happen in an independent,
linear stream. In order to view and understand the history or
reality of the past, one must view all events as part of an
interactive whole. Time can also be sensed as a vibration which is
uniform throughout the entire physical universe.
Airl explained that IS-BEs have been around since before the
beginning of the universe. The reason they are called "immortal", is
because a "spirit" is not born and cannot die, but exists in a
personally postulated perception of "is - will be". She was careful
to explain that every spirit is not the same. Each is completely
unique in identity, power, awareness and ability.
The difference between an IS-BE like Airl and most of the IS-BEs
inhabiting bodies on Earth, is that Airl can enter and depart from
her "doll" at will. She can perceive at selective depths through
matter. Airl and other officers of The Domain can communicate
telepathically. Since an IS-BE is not a physical universe entity it
has no location in space or time. An IS-BE is literally,
They can span great distances of space instantly.
They can experience sensations, more intensely than a biological
body, without the use of physical sensory mechanisms. An IS-BE can
exclude pain from their perception. Airl can also remember her
"identity", so to speak, all the way back into the dim mists of
time, for trillions of years!
She says that the existing collection of suns in this immediate
vicinity of the universe have been burning for the last 200 trillion
years. The age of the physical universe is nearly infinitely old,
but probably at least four quadrillion 62 (Footnote) years since its
Time is a difficult factor to measure as it depends on the
subjective memory of IS-BEs and there has been no uniform record of
events throughout the physical universe since it began. As on Earth,
there are many different time measurement systems, defined by
various cultures, which use cycles of motion, and points of origin
to establish age and duration. 63 (Footnote)
The physical universe itself is formed from the convergence and
amalgamation of many other individual universes 64 (Footnote), each
one of which were created by an IS-BE or group of IS-BEs. The
collision of these illusory universes commingled and coalesced and
were solidified to form a mutually created universe. Because it is
agreed that energy and forms can be created, but
not destroyed, 65 (Footnote) this creative process has continued to
form an ever-expanding universe of nearly infinite physical
Before the formation of the physical universe there was a vast
period during which universes were not solid, but wholly
illusionary. You might say that the universe was a universe of
magical illusions which were made to appear and vanish at the will
of the magician. In every case, the "magician" was one or more IS-BEs.
Many IS-BEs on Earth can still recall vague images from that period.
Tales of magic, sorcery and enchantment, fairy tales and mythology
speak of such things, 66 (Footnote) although in very crude terms.
Each IS-BE entered into the physical universe when they lost their
own, "home" universe. That is, when an IS-BE's "home" universe was
overwhelmed by the physical universe, or when the IS-BE joined with
other IS-BEs to create or conquer the physical universe.
On Earth, the ability to determine when an IS-BE entered the
physical universe is difficult for two reasons:
the memory of IS-BEs on Earth have been erased, and
IS-BEs arrival or invasion into the physical universe took place
at different times, some 60 trillion years ago, and others only 3
trillion. Every once in a short while, a few million years, an area
or planet will be taken over by another group of IS-BEs entering
into the area.
Sometimes they will capture other IS-BEs as slaves.
They will be forced to inhabit bodies to perform menial, or manual
work - especially mining mineral ores on heavy-gravity planets,
such as Earth.
Airl says that she has been a member of
The Domain Expeditionary
Force for more than 625 million years, when she became a pilot for a
biological survey mission which included occasional visits to Earth.
She can remember her entire career there, and for a very long time
She told me that Earth scientists do not have an accurate measuring
system to gauge the age of matter. They assume that because certain
types of materials seem to deteriorate rather quickly, such as
carbon-based matter, that there is a deterioration of matter. It is
not accurate to measure the age of stone, based on the measurement
of the age of wood or bone.
This is a fundamental error. Factually,
matter does not deteriorate. It cannot be destroyed. Matter may be
altered in form, but it is never truly destroyed.
The Domain has conducted a periodic survey of the galaxies in this
sector of the universe since it developed space travel technologies
about 80 trillion years ago. A review of changes in the complexion
of Earth reveal that mountain ranges rise and fall, continents
change location, the poles of the planet shift, ice caps come and
go, oceans appear and disappear, rivers, valleys and canyons change.
In all cases, the matter is the same. It is always the same sand.
Every form and substance is made of the same basic material, which
(MATILDA O'DONNELL MACELROY PERSONAL NOTE)
("I cannot even begin to imagine how advanced a civilization may
have become, technically, and mentally, after trillions of years!
Just think of how advanced our own country has become, compared to
only 150 years. Only a few generations ago transportation was on
foot, horseback or boat, reading was done by candle light, heating
and cooking were done over a fireplace, and there wasn't any indoor
(OFFICIAL TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW)
"Airl described the abilities of an IS-BE officer of The Domain to
me, and she demonstrated one to me when she contacted -
telepathically - a communications officer of The Domain who is
stationed in the asteroid belt. 68 (Footnote)
The asteroid belt is composed of thousands of broken up pieces of a
planet that once existed between Mars and Jupiter. It serves as a
good low-gravity jumping off point for incoming space craft
traveling toward the center of our galaxy.
She requested that this officer consult information stored in the
"files" of The Domain, concerning the history of Earth. She asked
the communications officer to "feed" this information to Airl. The
communications officer immediately complied with the request. Based
on the information stored in the files of The Domain, Airl was able to
give me a brief overview or "history lesson".
This is what Airl told
me that The Domain had observed about the history of Earth:
She told me that The Domain Expeditionary Force first entered into
the Milky Way galaxy very recently - only about 10,000 years ago.
Their first action was to conquer the home planets of the "Old
Empire" (this is not the official name, but a nick-name given to the
conquered civilization by The Domain Forces) that served as the seat
of central government for this galaxy, and other adjoining regions
of space. These planets are located in the stars systems in the tail
of the Big Dipper constellation. 69 (Footnote) She did not mention
which stars, exactly.
About 1,500 years later The Domain began the installation bases for
their own forces along the path of invasion which leads toward the
center of this galaxy and beyond. About 8,200 years ago The Domain
forces set up a base on Earth in the Himalaya Mountains near the
border of modern Pakistan and Afghanistan. This was a base for a
battalion of The Domain Expeditionary Force, which included about
They set up a base under or inside the top of a mountain. The
mountain top was drilled into and made hollow to create an area
large enough to house the ships and personnel of that force. An
electronic illusion of the mountain top was then created to hide the
base by projecting a false image from inside the mountain against a
The ships could then enter and exit through the
force screen, yet remain unseen by homo sapiens.
Shortly after they settled there the base was surprised by an attack
from a remnant of the military forces of the "Old Empire".
Unbeknownst to The Domain, a hidden, underground base on Mars,
operated by the "Old Empire", had existed for a very long time. The
Domain base was wiped out by a military attack from the Mars base
and the IS-BEs of The Domain Expeditionary Force were captured.
You can imagine that The Domain was very upset about losing such a
large force of officers and crew, so they
sent other crews to Earth to look for them. Those crews were also
attacked. The captured IS-BEs from The Domain Forces were handled in
the same fashion as all other IS-BEs who have been sent to Earth.
They were each given amnesia, had their memories replaced with false
pictures and hypnotic commands and sent to Earth to inhabit
biological bodies. They are still a part of the human population
After a very persistent and extensive investigation into the loss of
their crews, The Domain discovered that "Old Empire" has been
operating a very extensive, and very carefully hidden, base of
operations in this part of the galaxy for millions of years. No one
knows exactly how long. Eventually, the space craft of the "Old
Empire" forces and The Domain engaged each other in open combat in
the space of the solar system.
According to Airl, there was a running battle between the "Old
Empire" forces and The Domain until about 1235 AD, when The Domain
forces finally destroyed the last of the space craft of the "Old
Empire" force in this area. The Domain Expeditionary Force lost many
of its own ships in this area during that time also.
About 1,000 years later the "Old Empire" base was discovered by
accident in the spring of 1914 AD. The discovery was made when the
body of the Archduke of Austria, 70 (Footnote) was "taken over" by
an officer of The Domain Expeditionary Force. This officer, who was
stationed in the asteroid belt, was sent to Earth on a routine
mission to gather reconnaissance.
The purpose of this "take over" was to use the body as a "disguise"
through which to infiltrate human society in order to gather
information about current events on Earth. The officer, as an IS-BE,
having greater power than the being inhabiting the body of the
Archduke, simply "pushed" the being out and took over control of the
However, this officer did not realize how much the Hapsburgs were
hated by feuding factions in the country, so he was caught off guard
when the body of the Archduke was assassinated by a Bosnian student.
The officer, or IS-BE, was suddenly "knocked out" of the body when
it was shot by the assassin. Disoriented, the IS-BE inadvertently penetrated one of the "amnesia force screens" and was
Eventually The Domain discovered that a wide area of space is
monitored by an "electronic force field" 71 (Footnote) which
controls all of the IS-BEs in this end of the galaxy, including
Earth. The electronic force screen is designed to detect IS-BEs and
prevent them from leaving the area.
If any IS-BE attempts to penetrate the force screen, it "captures"
them in a kind of "electronic net". The result is that the captured
IS-BE is subjected to a very severe "brainwashing" treatment which
erases the memory of the IS-BE. This process uses a tremendous
electrical shock, just like Earth psychiatrists use "electric shock
therapy" to erase the memory and personality of a "patient" and to
make them more "cooperative". 72 (Footnote)
On Earth this "therapy" uses only a few hundred volts of
electricity. However, the electrical voltage 73 (Footnote)
used by the "Old Empire" operation against IS-BEs is on the order of
magnitude of billions of volts!
This tremendous shock completely
wipes out all the memory of the IS-BE. The memory erasure is not
just for one life or one body. It wipes out the all of the
accumulated experiences of a nearly infinite past, as well as the identity of the IS-BE!
The shock is intended to make it impossible for the IS-BE to
remember who they are, where they came from, their knowledge or
skills, their memory of the past, and ability to function as a
spiritual entity. They are overwhelmed into becoming a mindless,
After the shock a series of post hypnotic suggestions
are used to install false memories, and a false time orientation in
each IS-BE. This includes the command to "return" to the base after
the body dies, so that the same kind of shock and hypnosis can be
done again, and again, again - forever. The hypnotic command also
tells the "patient" to forget to remember.
What The Domain learned from the experience of this officer is that
the "Old Empire" has been using Earth as a "prison planet" for a very long time
- exactly how long is
unknown - perhaps millions of years.
So, when the body of the IS-BE dies they depart from the body. They
are detected by the "force screen", they are captured and "ordered"
by hypnotic command to "return to the light". The idea of "heaven"
and the "afterlife" are part of the hypnotic suggestion
- a part of
the treachery that makes the whole mechanism work (read "The Invisible College
- War in Heaven - A Completely New And Revolutionary Conception
of The Nature of Spiritual Reality").
After the IS-BE has been shocked and hypnotized to erase the memory
of the life just lived, the IS-BE is immediately "commanded",
hypnotically, to "report" back to Earth, as though they were on a
secret mission, to inhabit a new body. Each IS-BE is told that they
have a special purpose for being on Earth. But, of course there is
no purpose for being in a prison - at least not for the prisoner.
Any undesirable IS-BEs who are sentenced to Earth were classified as
"untouchable" 75 (Footnote) by the "Old Empire".
This included anyone that the "Old Empire" judged to be criminals
who are too vicious to be reformed or subdued, as well as other
criminals such as sexual perverts, or beings unwilling to do any
An "untouchable" classification of IS-BEs also includes a wide
variety of "political prisoners" 76 (Footnote). This includes IS-BEs
who are considered to be noncompliant "free thinkers" or
"revolutionaries" who make trouble for the governments of the
various planets of the "Old Empire". Of course, anyone with a
previous military record against the "Old Empire" is also shipped
off to Earth.
A list of "untouchables" include artists, painters, singers,
musicians, writers, actors, and performers of every kind. For this
reason Earth has more artists per capita than any other planet in
the "Old Empire".
"Untouchables" also include intellectuals, inventors and geniuses in
almost every field. Since everything the "Old Empire" considers
valuable has long since been invented or created over the last few
trillion years, they have no further use for such beings. This
includes skilled managers also, which are not needed in a society of
obedient, robotic citizens.
Anyone who is not willing or able to submit to mindless economic,
political and religious servitude as a tax-paying worker in the
class system of the "Old Empire" are "untouchable" and sentenced to
receive memory wipe-out and permanent imprisonment on Earth.
The net result is that an IS-BE is unable to escape because
can't remember who they are, where they came from, where they are.
They have been hypnotized to think they are someone, something,
sometime, and somewhere other than were they really are.
The Domain officer who was
"assassinated" while in the body of
Archduke of Austria was,
likewise, captured by the "Old Empire" force. Because this
particular officer was a high powered IS-BE, compared to most,
he was taken away to a secret "Old Empire" base under the
surface of the planet Mars. They put him into a special
electronic prison cell and held him there.
Fortunately, this Domain officer was able to escape from the
underground base after 27 years in captivity. When he escaped from
the "Old Empire" base, he returned immediately to his own base in
the asteroid belt. His commanding officer ordered that a battle
cruiser be dispatched 77 (Footnote) to the coordinates of the base,
provided by this officer, and to destroy that base completely. This
"Old Empire" base was located a few hundred miles north of the
on Mars in the Cydonia region.
Although the military base of the "Old Empire" was destroyed,
unfortunately, much of the vast machinery of the IS-BE force
screens, the electroshock / amnesia / hypnosis machinery continues
to function in other undiscovered locations right up to the present
moment. The main base or control center for this "mind control
prison" 79 (Footnote) operation has never been found. So, the
influences of this base, or bases, are still in effect.
The Domain has observed that since the "Old Empire" space forces
were destroyed there is no one left to actively prevent other
planetary systems from bringing their own "untouchable" IS-BEs to
Earth from all over this galaxy, and from other galaxies nearby.
Therefore, Earth has become a universal dumping ground for this
entire region of space.
This, in part, explains the very unusual mix of races, cultures,
languages, moral codes, religious and political influences among the
IS-BE population on Earth. The number and variety of heterogeneous
societies on Earth are extremely unusual on a normal planet. Most
"Sun Type 12, Class 7" planets are inhabited by only one humanoid
body type or race, if any.
In addition, most of the ancient civilizations of Earth, and many of
the events of Earth have been heavily influenced by the hidden,
hypnotic operation of the "Old Empire" base. So far, no one has
figured out exactly where and how this operation is run, or by whom
because it is so heavily protected by screens and traps.
Furthermore, there has been no operation undertaken to seek out,
discover and destroy the vast and ancient network of electronics
machinery that create the IS-BE force screens at this end of the
galaxy. Until this has been done, we are not able to prevent or
interrupt the electric shock operation, hypnosis and remote thought
control 80 (Footnote) of the "Old Empire" prison planet.
Of course all of the crew members of The Domain Expeditionary Force
now remain aware of this phenomena at all times while operating in
this solar system space so as to prevent detection and the capture
by "Old Empire" traps."
61 "... electromagnetic force..."
"In physics, the Lorentz force is the force on a point charge
due to electromagnetic fields. Lorentz introduced this force in
1892. However, the discovery of the Lorentz force was before
Lorentz's time. In particular, it can be seen at equation (77)
in Maxwell's 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. Later,
Maxwell listed it as equation "D" of his 1864 paper, A Dynamical
Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, as one of the eight
original Maxwell's equations.
In this paper the equation was
written as follows:
A is the magnetic vector potential
ǿ is the electrostatic potential
H is the magnetic field H
μ is magnetic permeability
Although this equation is obviously
a direct precursor of the modern Lorentz force equation, it
actually differs in two respects:
It does not contain a factor of
q, the charge. Maxwell didn't use the concept of charge. The
definition of E used here by Maxwell is unclear. He uses the
term electromotive force. He operated from Faraday's
electro-tonic state A, which he considered to be a momentum
in his vortex sea. The closest term that we can trace to
electric charge in Maxwell's papers is the density of free
electricity, which appears to refer to the density of the
aethereal medium of his molecular vortices and that gives
rise to the momentum A. Maxwell believed that A was a
fundamental quantity from which electromotive force can be
The equation here contains the
information that what we nowadays call E, which today can be
expressed in terms of scalar and vector potentials according
The fact that E can be expressed
this way is equivalent to one of the four modern Maxwell's
equations, the Maxwell-Faraday equation.
Despite its historical origins in the original set of eight
Maxwell's equations, the Lorentz force is no longer considered
to be one of "Maxwell's equations" as the term is currently used
(that is, as reformulated by Heaviside). It now sits adjacent to
Maxwell's equations as a separate and essential law.
Significance of the Lorentz force
While the modern Maxwell's equations describe how
electrically charged particles and objects give rise to electric
and magnetic fields, the Lorentz force law completes that
picture by describing the force acting on a moving point charge
q in the presence of electromagnetic fields. The Lorentz force
law describes the effect of E and B upon a point charge, but
such electromagnetic forces are not the entire picture. Charged
particles are possibly coupled to other forces, notably gravity
and nuclear forces. Thus, Maxwell's equations do not stand
separate from other physical laws, but are coupled to them via
the charge and current densities. The response of a point charge
to the Lorentz law is one aspect; the generation of E and B by
currents and charges is another.
In real materials the Lorentz force is inadequate to describe
the behavior of charged particles, both in principle and as a
matter of computation. The charged particles in a material
medium both respond to the E and B fields and generate these
fields. Complex transport equations must be solved to determine
the time and spatial response of charges, for example, the
Boltzmann equation or the Fokker-Planck equation or the Navier-Stokes
equations. For example, see magnetohydrodynamics, fluid
dynamics, electrohydrodynamics, superconductivity, stellar
An entire physical apparatus for
dealing with these matters has developed. See for example,
Green-Kubo relations and Green's function (many-body theory).
Although one might suggest that these theories are only
approximations intended to deal with large ensembles of "point
particles", perhaps a deeper perspective is that the
charge-bearing particles may respond to forces like gravity, or
nuclear forces, or boundary conditions."
62 "... quadrillion..."
"Quadrillion may mean either of the two numbers:
1,000,000,000,000,000 (one thousand million million; 1015; SI
prefix peta) - increasingly common meaning in English language
SI prefixyotta) -increasingly rare meaning in English language
63 "...points of origin to establish
age and duration."
"So far scientists have not found a way to determine the exact
age of the Earth directly from Earth rocks because Earth's
oldest rocks have been recycled and destroyed by the process of
plate tectonics. If there are any of Earth's primordial rocks
left in their original state, they have not yet been found.
Nevertheless, scientists have been able to determine the
probable age of the Solar System and to calculate an age for the
Earth by assuming that the Earth and the rest of the solid
bodies in the Solar System formed at the same time and are,
therefore, of the same age.
The ages of Earth and Moon rocks and
of meteorites are measured by the decay of long-lived
radioactive isotopes of elements that occur naturally in rocks
and minerals and that decay with half lives of 700 million to
more than 100 billion years to stable isotopes of other
elements. These dating techniques, which are firmly grounded in
physics and are known collectively as radiometric dating, are
used to measure the last time that the rock being dated was
either melted or disturbed sufficiently to rehomogenize its
64 "... The physical universe itself
is formed from the convergence and amalgamation of many other
individual universes... "
"A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-religious story or
explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth,
life, and the universe (cosmogony), usually as a deliberate act
of "creation" by a supreme being. Many accounts of creation
share broadly similar themes. Common motifs include the
fractionation of the things of the world from a primordial
chaos; the separation of the mother and father gods; land
emerging from an infinite and timeless ocean; or creation ex
nihilo (Latin: out of nothing)."
65 "... energy and forms can be
created, but not destroyed..."
"In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the
total amount of energy in any isolated system remains constant
but cannot be recreated, although it may change forms, e.g.
friction turns kinetic energy into thermal energy. In
thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics is a statement
of the conservation of energy for thermodynamic systems, and is
the more encompassing version of the conservation of energy. In
short, the law of conservation of energy states that energy can
not be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one
form to another."
66 "... Tales of magic, sorcery and
enchantment, fairy tales and mythology speak of such things... "
Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that
asserts human ability to control the natural world (including
events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through
mystical, paranormal or supernatural means.
The term can also
refer to the practices employed by a person asserting this
influence, and to beliefs that explain various events and
phenomena in such terms. In many cultures, magic is under
pressure from, and in competition with, scientific and religious
Adherents to magic believe that it may work by one or more of
the following basic principles:
Natural forces that cannot be
detected by science at present, and in fact may not be
detectable at all. These magical forces are said to exist in
addition to and alongside the four fundamental forces of
nature: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force and the
Intervention of spirits similar
to these hypothetical natural forces, but with their own
consciousness and intelligence. Believers in spirits will
often describe a whole cosmos of beings of many different
kinds, sometimes organized into a hierarchy.
Aleister Crowley preferred the
spelling magick, defining it as 'the science and art of causing
change to occur in conformity with the will." By this, he
included "mundane" acts of will as well as ritual magic.
Magick in Theory and Practice,
Chapter XIV, Crowley says:
"What is a Magical Operation? It
may be defined as any event in nature which is brought to
pass by Will. We must not exclude potato-growing or banking
from our definition. Let us take a very simple example of a
Magical Act: that of a man blowing his nose."
-- Reference: Wikipedia.org
67 "...they will capture other IS-BEs
"The word slave in the English language originates from the
Middle English sclave, from the Old French esclave, the Medieval
Latin sclavus, the early Greek sklabos, from sklabenoi, Slavs,
of Slavic origin; akin to Old Russian Slovene, an East Slavic
tribe. The term sclavus originally referred to the Slavs of
Eastern and Central Europe, as many of these people had been
captured and then sold as slaves by Otto the Great and his
successors. The former Latin word for "slave" was servus (cf.
The evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be
found in almost all cultures and continents. Slavery can be
traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in
Mesopotamia (~1800 BC), which refers to slavery as an already
established institution. In important exception occurred under
the reign of the Achaemenid Empire in Persia in 500 BC. The
forced labor of women in some ancient and modern cultures may
also be identified as slavery. Slavery, in this case, includes
Historically, most slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped in
isolated raids, but some persons were sold into slavery by their
parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme
conditions. Most slaves were born into that status, to parents
who were enslaved. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for
prisoners and their families, who were either killed, ransomed
or sold as slaves. Captives were often considered the property
of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of
Slavery may originally have been
more humane than simply executing those who would return to
fight if they were freed, but the effect led to widespread
enslavement of particular groups of people. Those captured
sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race
from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors.
The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them
into slaves with little fear of suffering the like fate.
The possibility always existed of
reversals of fortune, as when Seneca warned, at the height of
the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves,
anyone might find himself enslaved."
68 "...asteroid belt..."
"The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located
roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It
is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called
asteroids or minor planets. More than half the mass within the
main belt is contained in the four largest objects: Ceres, 4
Vesta, 2 Pallas, and 10 Hygiea. All of these have mean diameters
of more than 400 km, while Ceres, the main belt's only dwarf
planet, is about 950 km in diameter. The remaining bodies range
down to the size of a dust particle. The asteroid material is so
thinly distributed that multiple unmanned spacecraft have
traversed it without incident."
69 "... the Big Dipper
"Within Ursa Major the stars of the Big Dipper have Bayer
designations in consecutive Greek alphabetical order from the
bowl to the handle.
Near Mizar is a star called Alcorr
and together they are informally known as the Horse and Rider.
At magnitude 4.1, Alcor would normally be relatively easy to see
with the unaided eye, but its proximity to Mizar renders it more
difficult to resolve, and it has served as a traditional test of
sight. In the 17th century, Mizar itself was discovered to be a
binary star system — the first telescopic binary found.
The component stars are known as
Mizar A and Mizar B. In 1889, Mizar A was discovered to in fact
be a binary as well, the first spectroscopic binary discovered,
and with the subsequent discovery that Mizar B itself is also a
binary, in total Mizar currently is known to be at least a
quadruple star system."
70 "... the body of the Archduke of Austria..."
"Franz Ferdinand (December 18, 1863 - June 28, 1914) was an
Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria and Prince
Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death,
heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His
assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the Austrian declaration
of war. This caused countries allied with Austria-Hungary (the
Central Powers) and countries allied with Serbia (the Entente
Powers) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.
In 1889, Franz Ferdinand's life changed dramatically. His cousin
Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide at his hunting lodge in
Mayerling, leaving Franz Ferdinand's father, Archduke Karl
Ludwig, as first in line to the throne. However his father
renounced his succession rights a few days after the Crown
Prince's death. Henceforth, Franz Ferdinand was groomed to
On June 28, 1914, at approximately 11:15 am, Franz Ferdinand and
his wife were killed in Sarajevo, the capital of the
Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo
Princip, a member of Young Bosnia and one of several (a few)
assassins organized by The Black Hand (UpHa pyKa/Tsrna Ruka).
The event, known as the Assassination in Sarajevo, triggered
World War I.
Franz and Sophie had previously been attacked when a bomb was
thrown at their car. It missed them, but many civilians were
injured. Franz and Sophie both insisted on going to see all
those injured at the hospital. As a result of this, Princip saw
them and shot Sophie in the abdomen. Franz was shot in the
jugular and was still alive when witnesses arrived to his aid,
but it was too late; he died within minutes.
The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism,
imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system all contributed
to the beginning of World War I, which began less than two
months after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's
declaration of war against Serbia."
71 ..."force field"...
"Originally a term coined by Michael Faraday to provide an
intuitive paradigm, but theoretical construct, for the behavior
of electromagnetic fields, the term force field refers to the
lines of force one object (the "source object") exerts on
another object or a collection of other objects. An object might
be a mass particle or an electric or magnetic charge, for
example. The lines do not have to be straight, in the Euclidean
geometry case, but may be curved. Faraday called these
theoretical connections between objects lines of force because
the objects are most directly connected to the source object
along this line.
Examples of force fields:
A local Newtonian gravitational
field near Earth ground typically consists of a uniform
array of vectors pointing in one direction—downwards,
towards the ground; its force field is represented by the
Cartesian vector, where points in a direction away from the
ground, and m refers to the mass, and g refers to the
acceleration due to gravity.
A global Gravitational field
consists of a spherical array of vectors pointing towards
the center of gravity. Its classical force field, in
spherical coordinates, is represented by the vector, , which
is just Newton's Law of Gravity, with the radial unit vector
pointing towards the origin of the sphere (center of the
A conservative Electric field
has an electric charge (or a smeared plum pudding of
electric charges) as its source object. In the case of the
point charges, the force field is represented by, where is
the position vector that represents the straightest line
between the source charge and the other charge.
A static Magnetic field has a
magnetic charge (a magnetic monopole or a charge
The electromagnetic force is
given by the Lorentz force formula, which in SI units is...
-- Reference: Wikipedia.org
"The story of electric shock began in 1938, when Italian
psychiatrist Ugo Cerletti visited a Rome slaughterhouse to see
what could be learned from the method that was employed to
butcher hogs. In Cerletti's own words, "As soon as the hogs were
clamped by the [electric] tongs, they fell unconscious,
stiffened, then after a few seconds they were shaken by
convulsions.... During this period of unconsciousness (epileptic
coma), the butcher stabbed and bled the animals without
"At this point I felt we could venture to experiment on man, and
I instructed my assistants to be on the alert for the selection
of a suitable subject."
Cerletti's first victim was provided by the local police - a man
described by Cerletti as "lucid and well-oriented." After
surviving the first blast without losing consciousness, the
victim overheard Cerletti discussing a second application with a
higher voltage. He begged Cerletti, "Non una seconda!
Mortifierel" ("Not another one! It will kill me!")
Ignoring the objections of his assistants, Cerletti increased
the voltage and duration and fired again. With the "successful"
electrically induced convulsion of his victim, Ugo Cerletti
brought about the application of hog-slaughtering skills to
humans, creating one of the most brutal techniques of
'Electric shock is also called electro-convulsive "therapy" or
treatment (ECT), electroshock therapy or electric shock
treatment (EST), electrostimulation, and electrolytic therapy (ELT).
All are euphemistic terms for the same process: sending a
searing blast of electricity through the brain in order to alter
Today Electroshock therapy (ECT) is most often used as a
treatment for severe major depression which has not responded to
other treatment, and is also used in the treatment of mania,
catatonia, schizophrenia and other disorders. It first gained
widespread use as a form
of treatment in the 1940s and 50s. Today, an estimated 1 million
people worldwide receive ECT every year, usually in a course of
6-12 treatments administered 2 or 3 times a week.
Electroconvulsive therapy has "side-effects" which include
confusion and memory loss for events around the time period of
treatment. ECT have been shown to cause persistent memory loss.
It is the effects of ECT on long-term memory that give rise to
much of the concern surrounding its use. The acute effects of
ECT include amnesia.
Registered nurse Barbara C. Cody reports in a letter to the
Washington Post that her life "was forever changed by 13
outpatient ECTs I received in 1983. Shock 'therapy' totally and
permanently disabled me. "EEGs [electroencephalograms] verify
the extensive damage shock did to my brain. Fifteen to 20 years
of my life were simply erased; only small bits and pieces have
returned. I was also left with short-term memory impairment and
serious cognitive deficits. "Shock 'therapy' took my past, my
college education, my musical abilities, even the knowledge that
my children were, in fact, my children."
Ernest Hemingway, American author, committed suicide shortly
after Electric Shock treatment at the Menninger Clinic in 1961.
He is reported to have said to his biographer, "Well, what is
the sense of ruining my head and erasing my memory, which is my
capital, and putting me out of business? It was a brilliant cure
but we lost the patient...."
73 "...electric voltage..."
"The general public may consider household mains circuits
(100-250 V AC), which carry the highest voltages they normally
encounter, to be high voltage. For example, an installer of
heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment may be
licensed to install 24 Volt control circuits, but may not be
permitted to connect the 240 volt power circuits of the
Voltages over approximately 50 volts can usually cause dangerous
amounts of current to flow through a human being touching two
points of a circuit.
Voltages of greater than 50 V are capable of producing heart
fibrillation if they produce electric currents in body tissues
which happen to pass through the chest area. The electrocution
danger is mostly determined by the low conductivity of dry human
skin. If skin is wet, or if there are wounds, or if the voltage
is applied to electrodes which penetrate the skin, then even
voltage sources below 40 V can be lethal if contacted."
74 "...Post hypnotic suggestions..."
"The ability of a human to be induced into a form of behavior or
thinking pattern after coming out of the hypnotic state. Post
hypnotic suggestions are administered by the hypnotist and may
optionally include a time scope. An altered sense of perception
or behavioral pattern may be "programmed" into the person under
hypnosis. Certain sequences of events may be set as triggers to
enter or exit the post-hypnotic pattern. The behavior patterns
resemble conditioned reflexes, though administered without
classical behavior alteration techniques.
Any number, color, object, etc. may
be induced to be ignored by the patient after full
consciousness. A certain keyword starts the suggestion and a
different word ends it. The patient will not know nor use the
item to be ignored. He/she may state that the sea is colored
red, if suggested to ignore the color blue. A count of eleven
may be achieved if asked to count ones fingers if a number -say
5- is suggested to be ignored. Thus the patient counts
Different type of behavior patterns may be induced such as
forcing the patient to recite a certain sentence whenever anyone
says out loud the special keyword. The patient is fully aware of
the conditioned action but it is very difficult, if not
impossible, to restrain from doing it. Sweating, loss of
coordination and full lack of concentration plagues the patient
until he/she performs the programmed action.
An object may be set to be perceived as invisible and it will be
fully ignored and evaded during the period of suggestion.
Experiments may be performed with a coffee mug, induced to be
invisible. If the mug is put on top of a page with writing, the
patient will only read the parts not covered by the mug. Even
though the sentences may make no sense, nothing is seemingly
wrong to the suspected. It is difficult to suggest an object be
invisible, yet stay tactile. Usually the object is completely
ignored by all senses. Thus, the mug in the example will
reportedly not exist, even when the patient is touching it.
Stage hypnotists will sometimes perform shows in which they
hypnotize participants to think they are some celebrity and
behave exactly like them. John Mohl, stage hypnotist and member
of The National Guild of Hypnotists, says that he has often
hypnotized people to become someone else! Mohl noticed that
adults often became a celebrity while Middle or High School
students usually become something much more creative or
75 "... Untouchables..."
"In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an
untouchable, or an outcaste, is a person who according to
traditional Hindu belief does not have any 'varnas". Varna
refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly
created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha.
The part from which a varna was
supposedly created defines a person's social status with regard
to issues such as whom they may marry and which professions they
may hold. Dalits fall outside the varnas system and have
historically been prevented from doing any but the most menial
jobs. (However, a distinction must be made between lower-caste
people and Pariahs.) Included are leather-workers (called chamar),
carcass handlers (called mahar), poor farmers and landless
labourers, night soil scavengers (called bhangi or chura),
street handicrafters, folk artists, street cleaners, dhobi, etc.
Traditionally, they were treated as pariahs in South Asian
society and isolated in their own communities, to the point that
even their shadows were avoided by the upper castes.
Discrimination against Dalits still exists in rural areas in the
private sphere, in ritual matters such as access to eating
places and water sources. It has largely disappeared, however,
in urban areas and in the public sphere, in rights of movement
and access to schools. The earliest rejection of discrimination,
at least in spiritual matters, was made as far back as the
Bhagavada Gita, which says that no person, no matter what, is
barred from enlightenment There are an estimated 160 million
Dalits in India."
"Human rights abuses against these people, known as Dalits, are
legion. A random sampling of headlines in mainstream Indian
newspapers tells their story: "Dalit boy beaten to death for
plucking flowers"; "Dalit tortured by cops for three days"; "Dalit
'witch' paraded naked in Bihar"; "Dalit killed in lock-up at
Kurnool"; '7 Dalits burnt alive in caste clash"; "5 Dalits
lynched in Haryana"; "Dalit woman gang-raped, paraded naked";
"Police egged on mob to lynch Dalits".
"Dalits are not allowed to drink from the same wells, attend the
same temples, wear shoes in the presence of an upper caste, or
drink from the same cups in tea stalls," said Smita Narula, a
senior researcher with Human Rights Watch, and author of Broken
People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables."
Rights Watch is a worldwide activist organization based in New
York. India's Untouchables are relegated to the lowest jobs, and
live in constant fear of being publicly humiliated, paraded
naked, beaten, and raped with impunity by upper-caste Hindus
seeking to keep them in their place. Merely walking through an
upper-caste neighborhood is a life-threatening offense. Nearly
90 percent of all the poor Indians and 95 percent of all the
illiterate Indians are Dalits."
76 "...political prisoners... "
"A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise
detained, perhaps under house arrest, for his/her involvement in
political prisoners are arrested and tried with a veneer of
legality, where false criminal charges, manufactured evidence,
and unfair trials are used to disguise the fact that an
individual is a political prisoner. This is common in situations
which may otherwise be decried nationally and internationally as
a human rights violation and suppression of a political
dissident. A political prisoner can also be someone that has
been denied bail unfairly, denied parole when it would
reasonably have been given to a prisoner charged with a
comparable crime, or special powers may be invoked by the
Particularly in this latter situation, whether an individual is
regarded as a political prisoner may depend upon subjective
political perspective or interpretation of the evidence.
Governments typically reject assertions that they hold political
In the Soviet Union, dubious psychiatric diagnoses were
sometimes used to confine political prisoners. In Nazi Germany,
"Night and Fog"prisoners were among the first victims of fascist
repression. In North Korea, entire families are jailed if one
family member is suspected of anti-government sentiments."
77 "... His commanding officer
ordered that a battle cruiser be dispatched..."
Editor's Note: The only Wikipedia.org reference to the term
"battle cruiser" is a US or British Navy ships. Another
interesting and entertaining reference is as follows:
"The Honorverse is the
semi-official name for the setting of a military science
fiction series of stories by David Weber featuring Honor
Harrington, the Nelsonesque heroine in a series reminiscent
of C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower book series. The
books are popular in the United States and new releases
regularly make The New York Times Best Seller list.
The following list refers to starship classes within
different areas of Honorverse.
These starship classes are in
the People's Republic of Haven:
Program 13-class: LAC
Frigate-class l: light
Charles Wade Pope-class:
Mars-A-class: heavy cruiser
Mars-B-class: heavy cruiser
Sword-class: heavy cruiser
dreadnought - Formally thought to be the New
Sovereign of Space-class:
Astra-class: LAC Carrier
Aviary-class: LAC Carrier"
-- Reference: Wikipedia.org
78 "...a few hundred miles north of
the equator on Mars in the Cydonia region."
This statement was made by Airl in 1947. The following
photographs of this area were not taken by NASA satellites in
(The following internet links shows maps of a complex of
artificial looking structures which some people have referred to
a the "Pyramid Complex, The Face on Mars, and other geological
features that are strikingly similar to symbols and architecture
found in Mesoamerican and Egyptian pyramid civilizations. Notice
how the "pyramids and face structures look as though they have
been partially destroyed! Had there been an "Old
Empire" base at this location, which was destroyed by a cruiser
attack from The Domain Force, it base would have been
"In addition, a team of scientists from the United States
Geological Survey reported at the recent annual Lunar and
Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, that images
taken by NASA s Mars-orbiting spacecraft Mars Odyssey show what
appear to be cave entrances where primitive life forms - "past
or present microbial life" - could have been sheltered, and
where water could exist in liquid form.
A more detailed perusal of the report reveals that the
spacecraft actually photographed, in both visual and infrared,
puzzling dark circular structures associated with these caves
-structures ranging in size from 100 to 250 meters (330 to 825
feet). Picking up the hardly-noticed story in its June 2007
issue, the prestigious journal Scientific American has now
provided additional information: Seven such "football size"
caverns were identified; they are 425 feet deep. "
79 "... mind control... "
"Mind control (or "brainwashing") refers to a broad range of
psychological tactics able to subvert an individual's control of
his own thinking, behavior, emotions, or decisions. The concept
is closely related to hypnosis, but differs in practical
William Sargant connected Pavlov's findings (the Russian
researcher who experimented on stimulus-response mechanism with
dogs) to the ways people learned and internalized belief
systems. Conditioned behavior patterns could be changed by
stimulated stresses beyond a dog's capacity for response, in
essence causing a breakdown. This could also be caused by
intense signals, longer than normal waiting periods, rotating
positive and negative signals and changing a dog's physical
condition, as through illness. Depending on the dog's initial
personality, this could possibly cause a new belief system to be
held tenaciously. Sargant also connected Pavlov's findings to
the mechanisms of brain-washing....
"Though men are not dogs, they should humbly try to remember how
much they resemble dogs in their brain functions, and not boast
themselves as demigods. They are gifted with religious and
social apprehensions, and they are gifted with the power of
reason; but all these faculties are physiologically entailed to
the brain. Therefore the brain should not be abused by having
forced upon it any religious or political mystique that stunts
the reason, or any form of crude rationalism that stunts the
religious sense." (p. 274)
Psychologist Margaret Singer describes six conditions
which would create an atmosphere in which thought reform is
Singer states that these conditions
involve no need for physical coercion or violence.
Keep the victim unaware of what
is going on and how he is being changed a step at a time.
Control the victim's social
and/or physical environment; especially control the victim's
Systematically create a sense of
powerlessness in the victim. This is accomplished by getting
victims away from their normal social support group for a
period of time and into an environment where the majority of
people are already group members.
The victims serve as models
of the attitudes and behaviors of the group and speak an
in-group language. o Strip victims of their main
occupation (quit jobs, drop out of school) or source of
income or have them turn over their income (or the
majority of) to the group.
Once stripped of your usual
support network, your confidence in your own perception
As your sense of
powerlessness increases, your good judgment and
understanding of the world are diminished. (ordinary
view of reality is destabilized)
As group attacks your
previous worldview, it causes you distress and inner
confusion; yet you are not allowed to speak about this
confusion or object to it -- leadership suppresses
questions and counters resistance.
This process is sped up if
you are kept tired.
Manipulate a system of rewards,
punishments and experiences in such a way as to inhibit
behavior that reflects the victim's former social identity.
Manipulation of experiences
can be accomplished through various methods of trance
induction, including leaders using such techniques as
paced speaking patterns, guided imagery, chanting, long
prayer sessions or lectures, and lengthy meditation
Your old beliefs and
patterns of behavior are defined as irrelevant or evil.
Leadership wants these old patterns eliminated, so the
victims must suppress them.
Victims get positive
feedback for conforming to the group's beliefs and
behaviors and negative feedback for old beliefs and
Manipulate a system of rewards,
punishments, and experiences in order to promote learning
the group's ideology or belief system and group-approved
Good behavior, demonstrating
an understanding and acceptance of the group's beliefs,
and compliance are rewarded while questioning,
expressing doubts or criticizing are met with
disapproval, redress and possible rejection. If one
expresses a question, he or she is made to feel that
there is something inherently wrong with them to be
The only feedback victims
get is from the group, they become totally dependent
upon the rewards given by those who control the
Victims must learn varying
amounts of new information about the beliefs of the
group and the behaviors expected by the group.
The more complicated and
filled with contradictions the new system is and the
more difficult it is to learn, the more effective the
conversion process will be.
Esteem and affection from
peers is very important to new recruits. Approval comes
from having the new victim's behaviors and thought
patterns conform to the models (victims). Victims'
relationship with peers is threatened whenever they fail
to learn or display new behaviors. Over time, the easy
solution to the insecurity generated by the difficulties
of learning the new system is to inhibit any display of
doubts -- new recruits simply acquiesce, affirm and act
as if they do understand and accept the new ideology.
Put forth a closed system of
logic and an authoritarian structure that permits no
feedback and refuses to be modified except by leadership
approval or executive order.
The group has a top-down,
pyramid structure. The leaders must have verbal ways of
never losing. o Victims are not allowed to question,
criticize or complain -- if they do, the leaders allege
that the victim is defective -- not the organization or
The individual is always
wrong - the system, its leaders and its belief are
Remolding of the individual
victim happens in a closed system. As victims learn to
modify their behavior in order to be accepted in this
closed system, they change -- begin to speak the
language -- which serves to further isolate them from
their prior beliefs and behaviors."
Social psychology tactics
A contemporary view of mind control sees it as an intensified
and persistent use of well researched social psychology
principles like compliance, conformity, persuasion, dissonance,
reactance, framing or emotional manipulation.
One of the most notable proponents of such theories is social
psychologist Philip Zimbardo, former president of the American
"I conceive of mind control as a
phenomena encompassing all the ways in which personal,
social and institutional forces are exerted to induce
compliance, conformity, belief, attitude, and value change
"Mind control is the process by which individual or
collective freedom of choice and action is compromised by
agents or agencies that modify or distort perception,
motivation, affect, cognition and/or behavioral outcomes. It
is neither magical nor mystical, but a process that involves
a set of basic social psychological principles."
In Influence, Science and
Practice, social psychologist Robert Cialdini argues that
mind control is possible through the covert exploitation of the
unconscious rules that underlie and facilitate healthy human
He states that common social rules
can be used to prey upon the unwary, and he titles them as
"Reciprocation: The Old Give and
"Commitment and Consistency:
Hobgoblins of the Mind"
"Social Proof: Truths Are Us"
"Liking: The Friendly Thief"
"Authority: Directed Deference"
"Scarcity: The Rule of the Few"
Using these six broad categories, he
offers specific examples of both mild and extreme mind control
(both one on one and in groups), notes the conditions under
which each social rule is most easily exploited for false ends,
and offers suggestions on how to resist such methods."
80 "... remote thought control... "
EDITOR'S NOTE: If "hypersonic sound" (see reference below) can
already be used on Earth, which has been using electricity for
only 150 years, imagine a technology that has been refined over
millions of years, that could transmit thoughts that are
precisely targeted to an individual person across millions of
miles of space.
"The lunatic is in my head," sang
Pink Floyd on their landmark "Dark Side of the Moon" album
released 35 years ago. "There's someone in my head but it's not
In 2008, there is a chance that the voice inside your head may
be trying to sell you something. Advertisers are using a new
acoustic technology to project advertising slogans directly into
your head. And not everyone is happy about the aural intrusion.
In fact, the space between your ears may be the newest
battleground in the conflict between privacy and technology. The
technique is called hypersonic sound and it was created by
inventor Woody Norris. Hypersonic sound (HSS) projection enables
sound to be directed precisely to one individual without any
In tandem with an ultrasonic emitter and a signal
processor/amplifier, HSS projects a column of modulated
ultrasonic frequencies into the air. The ultrasonic frequencies
are inaudible by themselves, but the interaction of the
frequencies with the air create sounds that can be heard by
anyone inside the column. Hypersonic sound can direct sound as
precisely as a laser beam can direct light.
One only needs to be standing in the path of an HSS beam in
order to hear the sound. However, the sensation to those hearing
is that the sound is being projected from inside their skull.
Pretty cool, thinks inventor Norris. Or pretty creepy if you
don't know what's going on. It is already being done from a
billboard on Prince Street in New York City.
Advertising for a television show called "Paranormal State,"
which airs on the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), has been
sent through HSS to unsuspecting pedestrians who trigger a
sensor as they stroll by. The sound that is emitted can be heard
only by them.
Science and technology writer Clive Thompson, has written about
the Prince Street billboard for Wired magazine. He experienced
HSS himself, writing that it felt "creepy" to hear a woman's
voice whisper, "Who's there? Who's there?"
It used to be that we could at least be guaranteed privacy in
the space between our ears. That is no longer true, thanks to
the invention of "in-head advertising."
The freedom to think our own thoughts without artificial
manipulation from outside sources may be our latest civil rights
By RUTH N. GELLER
April 2, 2008
-- Reference: http://humaniststudies.org/enews/?id=342&showAll=true