The Knowledge of the Dogon

If you look up at the sky, the brightest star you can see is Sirius. Venus and Jupiter are often brighter but they are not stars; they are planets going round our own sun, which is a star itself. Now no astronomer will tell you there is any particular reason for intelligent life to be in the area of Sirius. The reason Sirius is so bright is that it is large and close, bigger than the sun and bigger than the handful of other nearby stars.


But an intelligent astronomer will tell you that perhaps the stars Tau Ceti or Epsilon Eridani, which are rather similar to our sun, have planets with intelligent life. It would be a good guess. But among the stars most frequently discussed as possibly harboring intelligent life, Sirius is not included. It is not a particularly 'obvious' choice.

Project Ozma in the spring of 1960, and, in more recent years, other radio searches for intelligent life in space, listened for meaningful signals from the stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. But none were detected. Not that that proves anything but that these two nearby stars were thought by some sensible astronomers to be possible locations of intelligent life in our neighborhood of space.1


Project Ozma only listened to these two stars to see if any signals were coming from them on a certain wavelength at a certain time with a lot of energy behind them. Nothing happened. Later such attempts have more realistically widened their scope somewhat, but the astronomers are fully aware that they are waltzing in the dark, and their efforts really take on the nature of a gesture which can only be described as bravado in the face of enormous odds. They cannot be certain that they are going about the task in the right way, but are doing what they hope is their best.


Since Project Ozma, the giant radio telescope at Arecibo in Puerto Rico, which is the largest in the world, has listened selectively to several stars - but not to Sirius.

It is the author's hope that the evidence presented in this book will be sufficient to stimulate an astronomical investigation of the Sirius system more thorough than all those to date, and build on the recent studies by Irving Lindenblad.2


I also believe that a program should be instituted at a major radio telescope to listen to the Sirius system for indications of any possible intelligent signals.

Now the basis of speculations about intelligent life in space is always going to include the possibility that contact with life on our planet has already been made by some more highly evolved society from elsewhere in the universe.3 It is the possibility that our planet has had contact with a culture apparently from the area of Sirius that this book will discuss. There seems to be substantial evidence that at some relatively recent time in the past - possibly between seven and ten thousand years ago - this may have happened, and any other interpretation of the evidence would not seem to make enough sense.

Before we come to the evidence, I should say a little more about Sirius. About the middle of the last century an astronomer was looking rather hard at Sirius over a period of time and got annoyed because it wasn't sitting still.4 It was wobbling. He had a difficult time figuring this out, but he finally concluded that an extremely heavy and massive star going around Sirius could make it wobble that way. The only trouble was that there wasn't any large star going around Sirius! Instead there turned out to be a tiny little thing going around it every fifty years, and so Sirius came to be called Sirius A and the little thing became Sirius B.

Sirius B was at that time unique in the universe as far as anyone knew. Over a hundred of these things have now been actually seen scattered around the sky and there are many thousands more which we cannot see even through our modern telescopes because they are so tiny and their light so feeble. They are called white dwarfs.5

White dwarfs are strange because although they are feeble they are strong. They do not give out much light, but they are fantastically powerful gravitationally. On a white dwarf we would not even be a fraction of an inch high. We would be flat, pulled in by the gravity.* You see, the 'big' star that was necessary to make Sirius A wobble turned out to be a little thing, but it still had to be as massive and heavy as an ordinary star of much more enormous size. It is, in short, a star so dense and closely packed that it is not even made out of regular matter.


* A cubic foot of the matter of Sirius B would weigh 2,000 tons. A match-box full of matter from the star would weigh a ton and a quarter. But a match-box full taken from the star's core would weigh approximately 50 tons. The star it 65,000 times denser than water, whereas our own Sun has a density about equal to that of water.

It is made out of what is called 'degenerate' matter or 'superdense' matter, where the atoms are pressed together and the electrons squashed. This matter is so heavy that it cannot be thought of in any familiar terms. There is nothing in our solar system, to our knowledge, comparable to this stuff. But physicists have considered it theoretically, and in this century we are making some progress towards understanding it.

It is even claimed by some astronomers that the Sirius system has a Sirius C, or a third star. Fox claimed to see it in 1920, and in 1926, 1928, and 1929 it was supposedly seen by van den Bos, Finsen, and others at the Union Observatory. But then for several years when it should have been seen, it was not. Zagar and Volet said it was there because there were wobbles that pointed to it. So perhaps it's there and perhaps it isn't.6

The most recent full study of the Sirius system by an astronomer has been carried out by Irving W. Lindenblad of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. He and I have corresponded, and he has sent me his publications (the latest appeared in 1973) and also the photograph in Plate 1, which was taken by him in 1970 after several years' preparation and is the first photograph ever taken of the star Sirius B, which in the photograph is a tiny spot of light near the main star Sirius A, which is 10,000 times brighter.

Lindenblad's accomplishment in getting a successful photograph is described in 'Notes to the Plates'. He has studied the Sirius system for seven years and has found no evidence of a third star, Sirius C. He says:7

'There is no astrometric evidence, therefore, of a close companion to either Sirius A or Sirius B'.

At the moment, as this book goes to press, a study of Sirius B is being carried out by Dr Paul G. Murdin of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, who is trying to measure the light from the tiny star.


He had still had no success by early 1974 when he and I entered into correspondence. Murdin has informed me that another astronomer, D. Lauterborn, believes there is a third star in the Sirius system.8 Murdin adds:

'Whether the unseen companion of A is the same star C in Aitken9 I cannot say' (from a letter to me of 12 February 1974).

Lindenblad's evidence is conclusive as far as it goes, but it is not at all clear that no Sirius C exists. This is an interesting point for further study, and may require observations of longer than Lindenblad's seven years (which were taking place during the seven years I was preparing this book).


As Lindenblad has written to me:

'Like Jacob's service for Rachel, the mysteries of Sirius appear to require seven years of labour; then we hope not to have received Leah!'

But also like Jacob, the seven years may be just a prelude.

Now we see that the Sirius system is rather interesting and complicated. Only in this century have we advanced towards knowing about degenerate matter and understanding white dwarfs through our researches into nuclear physics. So we would be surprised, would we not, if someone without our modern science had known as much about the Sirius system as we do?

At this point I want to quote from an interesting book entitled Intelligent Life in the Universe by two eminent astronomers, Carl Sagan, of Cornell and formerly of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and I. S. Shklovskii of the Soviet Academy of Science. (Sagan saw a book by Shklovskii and extensively rewrote it in English, and this is the book referred to.)


In a very sensible chapter called 'Possible Consequences of Direct Contact' Sagan says:10

[Matters of human evolution], while difficult for us to reconstruct from a distance of millions of years, would have been much clearer to a technical civilization greatly in advance of the present one on Earth, which visited us every hundred thousand years or so to see if anything of interest was happening lately. Some 25 million years ago, a Galactic survey ship on a routine visit to the third planet of a relatively common G dwarf star [our Sun] may have noted an interesting and promising evolutionary development: Proconsul [the ancestor of homo sapiens, or modern man].


The information would have filtered at the speed of light slowly through the Galaxy, and a notation would have been made in some central information repository, perhaps at the Galactic center. If the emergence of intelligent life on a planet is of general scientific or other interest to the Galactic civilizations, it is reasonable that with the emergence of Proconsul, the rate of sampling of our planet should have increased, perhaps to once every ten thousand years.


At the beginning of the most recent post-glacial epoch, the development of social structure, art, religion, and elementary technical skills should have increased the contact still further. But if the interval between sampling is only several thousand years, there is then a possibility that contact with an extraterrestrial civilization has occurred within historical times.

This is a very interesting prelude to our own story, and I believe Sagan and Shklovskii's attitude is broadly true of the entire astronomical profession. I have certainly never met an astronomer of today who seriously doubted that there must be countless numbers of intelligent civilizations scattered throughout the universe on other planets which are orbiting around other stars.11


Any people who still believe human beings are unique as intelligent life in the universe are seriously out of touch with reliable and informed estimates by scientists and astronomers. An attitude which asserts that man is the only intelligent life form in the universe is intolerably arrogant today, though as little as twenty years ago it was probably common belief.


But anyone who holds such an opinion today is, fortunately for those who like to see some progress in human conceptions, something of an intellectual freak equivalent to a believer in the Flat Earth Theory. I mention that theory because I once met a woman who appeared quite sane and yet who was a member of a cult who believe the Earth is flat. This was one of the more startling experiences anyone can have, and a salutary education to me. It taught me never to underestimate the power of the human mind to believe what it wants to believe despite any amount of evidence.

Dr Melvin Calvin, of the Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, has said:

'There are at least 100,000,000 planets in the visible universe which were, or are, very much like the earth.... this would mean certainly that we are not alone in the universe. Since man's existence on the earth occupies but an instant of cosmic time, surely intelligent life has progressed far beyond our level on some of these 100,000,000 planets.'12

Dr Su-Shu Huang of the Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, has written:

'... planets are formed around the main-sequence stars of spectral types later than F5. Thus, planets are formed just where life has the highest chance to flourish. Based on this view we can predict that nearly all single stars of the main sequence below F5 and perhaps above K5 have a fair chance of supporting life on their planets. Since they compose a few per cent of all stars, life should indeed be a common phenomenon in the universe.'13

Dr A. G. W. Cameron, Professor of Astronomy at Yeshiva University, has discussed the stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani, which are considered the two likeliest localities for intelligent life within our immediate neighborhood of space (within five 'parsecs' of us, a parsec being an astronomical unit of distance). He has then said, however:

'But there are about 26 other single stars of smaller mass within this distance, each of which should have a comparable probability of having a life-supporting planet according to the present analysis'.14

Dr R. N. Bracewell of the Radio Astronomy Institute, Stanford University, has said:15

As there are about one billion stars in our galaxy, the number of planets would be about 10 billion... Now not all of these would be habitable, some would be too hot and some too cold, depending on their distance from their central star; so that on the whole we need only pay attention to planets situated as our earth is with respect to the sun. Let's describe such a situation as being within the habitable zone.


This is not to imply that no life would be found outside the habitable zone. There may very well be living things existing under most arduous physical conditions... After elimination of frozen planets and planets sterilized by heat, we estimate that there are about 1010 [ten thousand million] likely planets in the galaxy [for life].

Of the 1010 likely planets, we frankly do not know how many of them support intelligent life. Therefore, we explore all possibilities, beginning with the possibility that intelligent life is abundant and in fact occurs on practically every planet. In this case, the average distance from one intelligent community to the next is 10 light-years. For comparison, the nearest star, of any kind, is about 1 light-year away.

Ten light-years is a very large distance. A radio signal would take 10 years to cover the distance... Consequently, communicating with someone 10 light-years away would not be like a telephone conversation ... are we sure that we can send a radio signal as far as 10 light-years? A definite answer can be given to this question.

There is no need for me to continue marshalling quotations from distinguished scientists and astronomers in support of the possibility of intelligent life in space, as the situation is by now obvious. The odds against intelligent life occurring fairly frequently within our galaxy are impossible ones.


Since this is established, we are faced with yet another factor: in our own history, technological development has been rapid within a short space of time.


When civilizations all over the universe reach 'take-off point', they have a technological explosion. It is familiar to older members of our species today that when they were young there were no airplanes, automobiles, rockets, satellites, electricity, radio, or atom bombs. People were dying of diseases which today we do not take seriously, no one with a toothache could obtain modern dental treatment, the concept of elementary hygiene was a novelty. I am not reciting all these wonders merely as a ritual incantation to our new god of progress.


The point to be grasped is the sudden combustible nature of progress of this kind. In the lifetime of a single person all this can come about.

'Take-off point' is probably a universal phenomenon. Intelligent societies all over the universe will probably have experienced it, or are due to. Now the lifetime of a single person is of no consequence on the great universal time scale for the development of civilizations, not to mention the formation of planets. Therefore any society in advance of our own is certain to be very much in advance of ours.


Once intelligent societies reach take-off point, they rush so quickly upward in technological competence that a comparison between them and non-technological societies is almost absurd. It would be foolish for us to suppose that any society more advanced than ours would be just a few years ahead of us. It would more likely be just a few tens of thousands of years ahead of us.


And the technology and nature of such a society are beyond our abilities to imagine. The intelligent societies existing in the universe, then, are going to be of two kinds: less advanced than ourselves, 'primitive'; and fantastically more advanced than ourselves, 'magical'.


To be at the point where we are now, at the watershed between 'primitive' and 'magical', is such a rare event in the universal history, that we may be the only intelligent society in the entire galaxy which is at this moment experiencing such a stage in our evolution. We therefore should feel privileged to be witnesses of it. Of course, the nature of time comes in again with the impossibility of talking sensibly about simultaneity in the galaxy at all. But that is another subject, and one which we may ignore here.

A further thought follows upon the above observations. Granted that there are two forms of society in the universe aside from our own bizarre transition stage, the 'primitive' societies are obviously only of interest to those more advanced than themselves, for they are incapable of communicating with anybody else. They are like we were as little as a hundred years ago: provincial, quiet, probably quite murderous, and smug, with the occasional visionary who is burned at the stake or crucified causing a moral ripple.


But they cannot send or receive messages between the stars. In our transition stage, aptly enough, we can receive such messages with existing equipment, but could not send any unless we constructed expensive and special means to do so. Now that means that the only societies carrying on an interstellar dialogue of any kind are the 'magical' societies.


These societies will be so advanced that they probably have emerging primitives like ourselves 'taped'. They certainly have standard sets of procedures for dealing with the likes of us, and may already have commenced their operations with the long-range intent of bringing us into their club. But just as no London gentlemen's club wishes to have a savage in a g-string waving his spear and poisoned arrows about in the members' lounge, so the interstellar club is unlikely to plug us straight into the circuits as a fully-fledged member.

But what I am getting at is not merely to impress upon the reader that a pecking order is likely to exist in the interstellar club of any galaxy, at least to the extent of having restrictions on novices, but to make the point which emerges from this. And the point is, that such highly advanced societies have possibly developed to such a pitch of technological expertise that interstellar travel has become possible for them, whereby they can physically transport themselves over at least modest interstellar distances of a few light- years to their near neighbors.


And if that is the case, then our own planet, which any half-witted extraterrestrial astronomer in the neighborhood could assume as a likely place for life to exist, has almost certainly been physically visited by extraterrestrials in their travels.


This could have happened at any time in our lengthy history as a planet. No doubt, at the very least, our distant ancestors the cave-men would have been observed by extraterrestrial probes, who would have made a note that something was happening on this planet slowly happening, but nevertheless actually happening.


And as Sagan and Shklovskii said in the quotation from their book:

'It is reasonable that ... the rate of sampling of our planet should have increased, perhaps to once every ten thousand years.... But if the interval between sampling is only several thousand years, there is then a possibility that contact with an extra-terrestrial civilization has occurred within historical times.'16

If this were so, it would certainly have left some impact upon man and been incorporated somehow into his traditions. But if several thousand years had elapsed between that time and the present, the traces of the impact on man's culture would have been mostly dissipated and, it would seem, nearly impossible to elucidate. Unless some specific and unmistakable survival were found to exist, in circumstances which would probably be unusual, it seems that the hope of reconstructing scattered clues and fragments of the original tradition would be futile.


That there would be something there if you could find the key seems certain.


Let us return to a continuation of that passage from Sagan and Shklovskii for suggestions as to how a memory of an extraterrestrial contact might have been preserved from prehistoric or early historic times on Earth, through comparison with a verifiable story of French contact made with certain American Indians in 1786, as it was told to a modern anthropologist in the form of a tribal myth :17

There are no reliable reports of direct contact with an extraterrestrial civilization during the last few centuries, when critical scholarship and non- superstitious reasoning have been fairly widespread. Any earlier contact story must be encumbered with some degree of fanciful embellishment, due simply to the views prevailing at the time of the contact. The extent to which subsequent variation and embellishment alters the basic fabric of the account varies with time and circumstance.


[An example] relevant to the topic at hand is the native account of the first contact with the Tlingit people of the northeast coast of North America with European civilization an expedition led by the French navigator, La Perouse, in 1786. The Tlingit kept no written records; one century after the contact, the verbal narrative of the encounter was related to the American anthropologist G. T. Emmons by a principal Tlingit chief. The story was overlaid with the mythological framework in which the French sailing vessels were initially interpreted.


But what is very striking is that the true nature of the encounter had been faithfully preserved. One blind old warrior had mastered his fears at the time of the encounter, had boarded one of the French ships, and exchanged goods with the Europeans. Despite his blindness, he reasoned that the occupants of the vessels were men. His interpretation led to active trade between the expedition of La Perouse and the Tlingit.


The oral rendition contained sufficient information for later reconstruction of the true nature of the encounter, although many of the incidents were disguised in a mythological framework - for example, the ships were described as immense black birds with white wings.

As another example, the people of sub-Saharan Africa, who had no written language until the colonial period, preserved their history primarily through folklore. Such legends and myths, handed down by illiterate people from generation to generation, are in general of great historical value.

I don't know why the people of sub-Saharan Africa - with whom our initial evidence deals - are mentioned at this point in the Sagan book, for they do not crop up again in this chapter and it is something of a coincidence that they are mentioned out of the blue like this.


Sagan goes on to discuss some fascinating creatures credited with founding the Sumerian civilization (which sprang up out of nowhere, as many Sumerian archaeologists will unhappily admit).


They are described in a classical account by Alexander Polyhistor as amphibious.


He says they were happier if they could go back to the sea at night and return to dry land in the daytime. All the accounts describe them as being semi-demons, personages, or animals endowed with reason, but they are never called gods.


They were 'superhuman' in knowledge and length of life and they eventually returned in a ship 'to the gods' carrying with them representatives of the fauna of the earth. I discuss these traditions particularly in Chapter Eight, and the surviving accounts of them are to be found in Appendix II, reprinted here in their entirety for the first time since 1876.

The Sumerian culture is very important. We shall be discussing it later in this book. It formed the original basis of that Mesopotamian civilization which is better known to most people through the much later Babylonians and Assyrians who inherited much of the Sumerian culture. The actual language of the Sumerians was superseded rather early by the Akkadian language (which is Semitic; Sumerian is non-Semitic and seems to have no linguistic affinities at all).


The Akkadians and the Sumerians intermingled and eventually formed a meld like that which now exists between what once were the separate Normans and Anglo-Saxons in Britain, except that the Akkadians were Semitic and the Sumerians were not, and with considerable physical differences between them. Then the city of Babylon with its Babylonians and the region of Assyria with its Assyrian warriors to the north - and later the distant region of Fars with its Persians to the east - commanded the Mesopotamian area.


From the Sumerian-Akkadian milieu also evolved those Semites known as Hebrews or Jews.

It should be more widely realized that when those famous Biblical figures Noah and Abraham 'lived' there was no such thing as a Hebrew yet in existence. Indeed, Noah is merely a Hebrew name for a much more ancient flood hero discussed in ancient texts which we have now recovered from early Sumer.18 It is these Sumerians to whom Sagan has just referred, with their legend of an amphibious creature who founded their civilization. But all this does not concern us quite yet. I will just add that the Jews and the Arabs are both traditionally said to be descendants of Abraham, and Abraham was neither a Jew nor an Arab.

Now the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa are the source of our first arresting information. The particular people are called the Dogon, and they live in the present state of Mali. The nearest cities to them are Timbuctoo, Bamako, and Ouagadougou in Upper Volta. Initial research by me on the Dogon turned up an article in an anthropological journal by the French anthropologists Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen.19


The article was written in French and an English translation of it is published, for the first time, as sequel to Part One of this book. I decided to publish the article in full because of the difficulty most interested readers would find in locating the French journal in which the original article appeared. And, of course, the original article could only be read by those who know French.


The complete article, with its footnotes and all its illustrations, and in English, is therefore available for anyone who wishes to read it for himself. It is thus not necessary for me to summarize its contents.

When I first read the article, which is entitled 'A Sudanese Sirius System' (and refers to the French Sudan area, not the Republic of Sudan over a thousand miles to the east below Egypt), I could hardly believe what I saw. For here was an anthropological report of four tribes, the Dogon and three related ones, who held as their most secret religious tradition a body of knowledge concerning the system of the star Sirius, including specific information about that star system which it should be impossible for any primitive tribe to know.

The Dogon consider that the most important star in the sky is Sirius B, which cannot be seen. They admit that it is invisible. How, then, do they know it exists? Griaule and Dieterlen say:

'The problem of knowing how, with no instruments at their disposal, men could know the movements and certain certain characteristics of virtually invisible stars has not been settled, nor even posed.'

But even in saying this, Griaule and Dieterlen imply that Sirius B is only 'virtually invisible', whereas we know it is totally invisible except through a powerful telescope.


What, then, is the answer?


Griaule and Dieterlen make clear that the large and bright star of Sirius is not as important to the Dogon as the tiny Sirius B, which the Dogon call po tolo (tolo meaning 'star'). Po is a cereal grain commonly called 'fonio' in West Africa, and whose official botanical name is Digitaria exilis.


In speaking of the po star, Griaule and Dieterlen call it 'the star Digitaria', or just simply 'Digitaria'. What is significant about the po grain is that it is the smallest grain known to the Dogon, being extremely minute, and unknown as food in Europe or America. To the Dogon, this tiny grain represents the tiny star, and that is why the star is called po, after the grain.

In the article we read:

'Sirius, however, is not the basis of the system: it is one of the foci of the orbit of a tiny star called Digitaria, po tolo ... which ... hogs the attention of male initiates.'

Now, this is a most unsettling statement.


The casual reader may not notice just how unusual it is for an African tribe to put it quite this way. But the orbit of Digitaria, which the Dogon elsewhere describe as egg-shaped or elliptical (see also Figures 6 and 7, as well as the illustrations to the article), is specifically described as having the main star Sirius as 'one of the foci of [its] orbit'.

Of course, the technical term 'focus' has here been supplied by the anthropologists. But they were faithfully rendering the meaning of what the Dogon said in their own language. And what the Dogon were saying, and which they also make quite clear graphically in their drawings (see Figures 2 and 6), is that the orbit of Sirius B around Sirius A is of a kind which obeys one of Kepler's laws of planetary motion, extended to other orbiting bodies.


It was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) who first proposed that heavenly bodies do not move in perfect circular paths.


He hit upon the brilliant insight that the planets in their motions around the sun were moving in elliptically shaped orbits, with the sun at one of the two foci of each ellipse. Most people I speak to have no idea that the planets don't go in circles around the sun. Even if they were taught the truth at school, they have long since forgotten about things like that. And many people honestly don't know what an ellipse is unless you show them one.

An ellipse is a kind of 'stretched' circle. You can conceive of grabbing the centre of a circle and ripping the centre into two pieces, and then pulling those two portions away from each other. This would naturally make the circle flatten at the top and the bottom and bulge at the two sides, and the two pieces of the centre would fall along a straight line joining the two most distant points.


These two fragments of centre each then have the name of focus, and the two together are 'the foci of the ellipse.' If you could get your hands on that ellipse and push at the bulging ends, you might force it back together again and make it a proper circle.

But what I ask all readers to take note of is this:

  • How did the Dogon tribe, who had no access to the theories of Kepler or his successors, know about matters like this?

  • How did they even get the idea in the first place that elliptical orbits existed, rather than circular - much less apply this idea to some invisible star way out in space ?

  • And also to get it right by saying that Sirius A was at one of the foci, rather than just somewhere in the ellipse ?

  • And not at the centre ?

  • Wouldn't the natural primitive idea seem to be, even if you wanted to say the orbit was elliptical, still to have Sirius itself at the centre ?

But no.


They knew too much to make a mistake like that. For the whole point about Kepler's Law is that not only are the orbits ellipses, but the sun must always be at one of the foci; otherwise nothing will work. Now, in order to know about all this, you need not have had Kepler.


Elliptical orbits are a universal truth, as true here as they are on the other side of the galaxy, or even in some other galaxy. Kepler merely discovered a natural principle. He didn't invent it. So there was no need for the Dogon to know about Kepler personally. All that is required is an explanation of how they could have learned the universal principle from any other source, considering that they exist on this planet, and we don't know of anyone else on this planet, living in Africa, say, who has discovered any of these things.

In Fig. 6 below, I compare the Dogon drawings of the orbit of Sirius B around Sirius with the modern astronomical diagrams of the same (which have just been confirmed as accurate at this scale by Lindenblad's latest work); also there is a comparison of the same information, tribal and modern, as seen in a linear perspective, stretched through time. I do not need to claim any perfect scientific accuracy for the Dogon drawings.


The similarity is so striking that the most untrained eye can immediately see that the general picture is identical, in each instance. There is no need for perfectionists to get out their slide rules or measuring tapes.


The fact is demonstrated, and it is that the Dogon have an accurate general knowledge of the most unobvious and subtle principles of the orbiting of Sirius B around Sirius A.

The Dogon also know the actual orbital period of this invisible star, which is fifty years. Referring to the sacred Sigui ceremony of the tribe, Dieterlen and Griaule tell us:

'The period of the orbit is counted double, that is, one hundred years, because the Siguis are convened in pairs of "twins", so as to insist on the principle of twin-ness'.

The Dogon also say that Sirius B rotates on its axis, demonstrating that they know a star can do such a thing. In reality, all stars really do rotate on their axes. How do the Dogon know such an extraordinary fact?


In the article, the Dogon are recorded as saying:

'As well as its movement in space, Digitaria also revolves upon itself over the period of one year and this revolution is honored during the celebration of the bado rite'.

It is not known to modern astronomy what the period of rotation of Sirius B is; the star is so small we think we are doing well to see it at all.


I asked one astronomer, G. Wegner, of Oxford's Department of Astrophysics and the University Observatory, whether one year might be a sensible estimate of the rotation period of Sirius B. He naturally replied that we had no way of determining it, but that a year could be right; in other words, it cannot be ruled out, which was all I was seeking to establish.

The Dogon describe Sirius B as 'the infinitely tiny'. As we know, Sirius B is a white dwarf and the tiniest form of visible star in the universe.


But what is really the most amazing of all the Dogon statements is this:

'The star which is considered to be the smallest thing in the sky is also the heaviest: "Digitaria is the smallest thing there is. It is the heaviest star." It consists of a metal called sagala which is a little brighter than iron and so heavy "that all earthly beings combined cannot lift it". In effect the star weighs the equivalent of.... all the seeds, or of all the iron on the earth ...'

(all this from the following article by Griaule and Dieterlen).

So we see the Dogon presenting a theory of Sirius B which fits all known scientific facts, and even some which are not known it presents as well. They know that the star is invisible, but they know it is there nevertheless. They know that the star's orbital period is fifty years, which it really is. They know that Sirius A is not at the centre of its orbit, which it is not.


They know that Sirius A is at one of the foci of Sirius B's elliptical orbit, which it is. They know that Sirius B is the smallest kind of star, which it is (barring totally invisible collapsing neutron stars). They know that Sirius B is composed of a special kind of material which is called sagala, from a root meaning 'strong', and that this material does not exist on the earth.


They know that this material is heavier than all the iron on earth, etc., all of which is perfectly true. For Sirius B is in reality made of super-dense matter of a kind which exists nowhere on earth.

All this forms the most sacred and most secret tradition known to the Dogon, the basis of their religion and of their lives. Connected with all this are statements they make about the existence of a third star in the Sirius system, which they call the emme ya star which, in comparing it to Digitaria, they say is,

'four times as light (in weight), and travels along a greater trajectory in the same direction and in the same time as it (fifty years). Their respective positions are such that the angle of their radii is at right angles.'

This last star has a satellite, indicating that the Dogon appreciate that bodies other than stars are satellites of stars.


Of emme ya itself, they say:

'It is the "the sun of women" ... "a little sun" ... In fact it is accompanied by a satellite which is called the "star of women" ... or Goatherd ... as the guide of (emmeyd).'

Around the astronomical facts of this extraordinary system, the Dogon have a complicated system of mythology. Sirius B they see as 'relentlessly revolving around Sirius . . and never capable of reaching it'. All these facts have mythological tales and personages connected with them. I have tried to extract the bare facts from the article and present them here for the reader. But the reader will by now see quite clearly why I have included the entire article in this book, for the information is so incredible that I thought the reader would simply think I had made it all up unless I presented the source for him to read through himself.

But let us move beyond the Griaule and Dieterlen article 'A Sudanese Sirius System'.


Let us now consider a later and fuller publication of book length, which is obviously too bulky to include within this book as an appendix. I refer to the book Le Renard Pale (The Pale Fox) published in 1965. This book, by Griaule and Dieterlen, was produced ten years after the death of Marcel Griaule himself.


It contains Mme Dieterlen's latest reflections on the Sirius system of the Dogon. In this definitive compendium20 of much of the joint findings of herself and Marcel Griaule (it is only the first such volume of theirs to appear in a planned series summing up their work), Mme Dieterlen has actually added a brief appendix on pages 529-31 which gives information about Sirius and its companion star in the form of an extract from an article by Dr P. Baize which appeared in the September 1931 issue of Astronomic.


She says:

'The excerpts concern the discovery, orbit, period and density of the Companion of Sirius'.21

Her curiosity has obviously developed since 1950 and the publication of 'A Sudanese Sirius System'.


But like a true professional, Mme Dieterlen merely cites the astronomical facts in this way in a short appendix at the back of her book22 without drawing any conclusions or even indicating the connection of this subject with the Dogon's traditions. In fact, lest the reader assume otherwise, I must make clear that neither Marcel Griaule nor Mme Dieterlen has at any time (to my knowledge) made any claim of extraterrestrial contact to do with the Dogon.


They have not even made any direct comments on the extraordinary impossibility of the Dogon knowing all the things which they know. I could never have made discoveries such as those of Griaule and Dieterlen and merely said (as in the article):

'The problem of knowing how ... has not been settled, nor even posed.'

I do believe such restraint calls for a medal; it is so phenomenal that it is the greatest factor in favor of Griaule and Dieterlen's discoveries. If they had trumpeted their findings, I suppose I would never have taken them seriously. I would have thought them unreliable. Such are the ironies by which information can be revealed - by almost disappearing through diffidence.

I sat down and rewrote this book in the light of Le Renard Pale (I have not been able to discover whether this has been published in English; I read the translation in manuscript), with its more complete information. Much of this will be found in the context of a more advanced discussion in Chapter Eight.

In Le Renard Pale it is possible to learn much more of the Dogon beliefs and knowledge relating to astronomy and the Sirius system. Of the moon, they say it 'is dry and dead like dry dead blood'.23 Their drawing of the planet Saturn has a ting around it, and is reproduced as Figure 10 in this book. They know that the planets revolve around the sun. Planets are called tolo tanaze, 'stars that turn (around something)'.24


But this does not mean turning around the Earth. The Dogon specifically say, for instance:

'Jupiter follows Venus by turning slowly around the sun.'25

The various positions of Venus are recalled on a very large geographical space by a series of altars, raised stones, or arrangements in caves or shelters.28 The positions of Venus determine a Venus calendar.27 In fact, the Dogon have four different kinds of calendar.


Three of them are liturgical calendars: a solar calendar, a Venus calendar, and a Sirius calendar. Their fourth is an agrarian one, and is lunar.28


The Dogon know of the existence of four other invisible heavenly bodies Sirius B and its possible companions in the Sirius system. These other four bodies are in our own solar system. For the Dogon know of the four major 'Galilean' moons of Jupiter.


These four moons are called 'Galilean' because Galileo discovered them when he began to use the telescope. The other moons of Jupiter are small and insignificant, having formerly been asteroids which were captured by Jupiter's gravitation at some unknown time in the past. (They are thought to have come from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter which some astronomers think once constituted a planet which exploded.)


The Dogon say:

'The mutilation (the Fox) suffered was still bloody. The blood of his genitals fell on the ground, but Amma made it ascend to heaven as four satellites that turn around dana tolo, Jupiter,... "The four little stars are Jupiter wedges" ... When Jupiter is represented by a rock, it is wedged in with four stones.'29

A Dogon drawing of Jupiter with its four moons is reproduced in Figure 9 in this book. Griaule and Dieterlen describe this drawing as follows:30

This figure represents the planet - the circle - surrounded by its four satellites in the collateral directions and called dana tolo unum 'children of dana tolo (Jupiter)'. The four satellites, associated to the four varieties of sene (acacia), sprang from the drops of blood from the Fox's mutilated genitals.

'The four small stars are Jupiter's hulls' ....

The sectors between the satellites represent the seasons. They turn around Jupiter and their movements will favor the growth of the sene leaves, for the sene moves on the ground at night like the stars in the sky; they turn on their own axes (in a year) like the satellites.

They add in a footnote that 'the trunks of certain varieties of sene are spiraled. A house is not built with sene wood, which would make the house "turn". The "movements" of the sene at night are supposed to attract the souls of the dead who "change place".' A

As for Saturn, drawn in Figure 10, the Dogon specifically describe its famous halo, which is only visible through a telescope. According to Griaule and Dieterlen:31

'... the Dogon affirm there is a permanent halo around the star, different from the one sometimes seen around the moon ... the star is always associated to the Milky Way.'

Saturn is known as32 'the star of limiting the place' in association somehow with the Milky Way. The meaning is unclear, and the anthropologists say the subject must be pursued further,33 but it would seem they may be trying to Convey the idea that Saturn 'limits the place' of the solar system, separating it from and acting as link with, the Milky Way itself, in which the solar system Is situated.


Saturn being the outermost planet which the Dogon mention, this may be their intended meaning.


The Dogon realize that the Milky Way contains the earth:34

'... the Milky Way ... is in itself the image of the spiraling stars inside the "world of spiraling stars" in which the Earth is found. In this "world of stars", the axis ("Amma's fork") around which they move, links the Polar Star ... ' and so on.

The Milky Way is described as the 'more distant stars' - that is, than the planets.

We are told that35,

'For the Dogon an infinite number of stars and spiraling worlds exist'.

They carefully differentiate the three kinds of tolo or 'stars':

"The fixed stars are a part of the "family of stars that doesn't turn" (around another star) ... the planets belong to the "family of stars that turns" (around another star) . .. the satellites are called tolo gonoze" stars that make the circle".'36

The heavenly motions are likened to the circulation of the blood. The planets and satellites and companions are 'circulating blood'.37


And this brings us to the extraordinary point that the Dogon do know about the circulation of the blood in the body from their own tradition. In our own culture, the Englishman William Harvey (1578—1657) discovered the circulation of the blood. Strange as it may seem to us now, before his time the notion seems not to have occurred to anyone.


John Aubrey, author of Brief Lives, knew Harvey well, and tells us:38

'I have heard him say, that after his Book of the Circulation of the Blood came out, that ... 'it was believed by the vulgar that he was crack-brained ...'.

However, the same theory does not seem to arouse among the Dogon notions that their wise men are crack-brained. Here is an account of the theory by the Dogon themselves and recorded in their own words:39

The movement of the blood in the body which circulates inside the organs in the belly, on the one hand 'clear' blood, and on the other the oil, keeps them both united (the words in man): that is the progress of the word. The blood-water -or clear- goes through the heart, then the lungs, the liver and the spleen; the oily blood goes through the pancreas, the kidneys, the intestines and the genitals.

The Dogon say:

'... the food you eat, the beverage you drink, that Amma changes into red blood; white blood is a bad thing'.40

They also say:

'The essence of nourishment passes into the blood'.41

They know that the blood passes into the internal organs 'starting with the heart'.42 The Dogon even seem to understand the role of oxygen - or at least, air - entering the bloodstream. For they equate air with 'the word' which they say enters the bloodstream bringing 'nourishment of the interior' by 'the impulse raised by the heart'.



'integration of the "word" (air) into the body also has to do with the food nourishing the blood. All the organs of respiration and digestion are associated with this integration.'43

The Milky Way, likened as I said to a circulation of the blood, is described further:

'... the term yalu ulo designates the Milky Way of our galaxy, which sums up the stellar world of which the Earth is a part, and which spins in a spiral.....(it encompasses) the multiplication and the development, almost infinite, of the spitaloid stellar worlds that Amma created ... (there are) spiraling worlds that fill the universe - infinite and yet measurable.'44

Amma is the chief god, the creator, of the universe, to the Dogon. There is an interesting account of Amma and the creation:

'The active role of fermentation at the time of the creation is recalled in the present brewing of beer.... the fermentation of the liquid constitutes a "resurrection" of the cereals destroyed in the brewing... . Life ... is comparable to a fermentation. "Many things were fermenting inside Amma" ' at the creation.48

And 'Spinning and dancing, Amma created all the spiraling worlds of the stars of the universe.'46

'... Amma's work realized the universe progressively, it was made up of several stellar worlds spiraling around.'47

The Dogon have no difficulty in conceiving of intelligent life all over the universe.


They say:48

The worlds of spiraling stars were populated universes; for as he created things, Amma gave the world its shape and its movement and created living creatures. There are creatures living on other 'Earths' as well as on our own; this proliferation of life is illustrated by an explanation of the myth, in which it is said: man is on the 4th earth, but on the 3rd there are 'men with horns' inneu gammurugu, on the 5th, 'men with tails' inneu dullogu, on the 6th, 'men with wings' inneu bummo, etc. This emphasizes the ignorance of what life is on the other worlds but also the certainty that it exists.

The Dogon know that the Earth turns on its own axis. When the fox walks over the tables of divination which have been drawn in the sand,

'the planet begins to turn under the action of (the fox's) paws'.4


'When the only traces that are visible are made by the tail, the image is likened to the movement of the Earth turning on its own axis; it is said:

"The Fox turned with his tail; the Earth turned on its own axis".'50

'So the divination table represents the Earth "which turns because of the action of the Fox's paws" as he moves along the registers; while the instruction table represents the space in which the Earth moves, as well as the sun and the moon, which were placed by Amma out of his reach.'51

The instruction table here referred to has twelve registers and constitutes a lunar calendar, with each register representing a month. It is Figure 96 in Le Renard Pale. These twelve months, then, are 'the space in which the Earth moves' - that is, one year's orbit around the sun. And within this orbit, the Earth's rotations on its own axis every day take place. The orbit around the sun is 'the Earth's space'.

The Dogon know perfectly well that it is the turning of the Earth on its axis which makes the sky seem to turn round. They speak of... the apparent movement of the stars from east to west, as men see them'.52


The Dogon are thus free from the illusions of our European ancestors, who thought the sky and stars wheeled round the Earth (though there was an exception to such primitive notions in Europe which no historian of science has ever reported, at least as far as I have been able to discover after a great deal of searching. I have summarized this 'secret' tradition in Appendix 1, and pointed out its connection with the Sirius mystery).

The placenta is used by the Dogon as a symbol of a 'system' of a group of stars or planets. Our own solar system seems to be referred to as 'Ogo's placenta',53 whereas the system of the star Sirius and its companion star and satellites, etc., is referred to as 'Nommo's placenta'.54


Nommo is the collective name for the great culture-hero and founder of civilization who came from the Sirius system to set up society on the Earth. Nommo - or, to be more precise, the Nommos - were amphibious creatures, and are to be seen in the two tribal drawings in Figure 32 and Figure 34 in this book. These Nommos are more or less equivalent with the Sumerian and Babylonian tradition of Oannes.


All of this subject is discussed in Chapter Eight, where it is necessary to consider details of what kind of creatures may live on a planet in the Sirius system. For the moment we are really more concerned with the Dogon astronomical and other scientific knowledge. Their descriptions of 'spacemen' and landings of 'spaceships' - or at least what seem to be such - are left to Chapter Eight.

Here is the way in which Griaule and Dieterlen record the Dogon beliefs about the two cosmic placentas I have just mentioned:55

Two systems, that are sometimes linked together, intervene, and are at the origin of various calendars, giving a rhythm to the life and activities of man... . One of them, nearest to the Earth, will have the sun as an axis, the sun is the testament to the rest of Ogo's placenta, and another, further away, Sirius, testament to the placenta of the Nommo, monitor of the Universe.

The movements of the bodies within these 'placentas' are likened to the circulation of blood in the actual placenta, and the bodies in space are likened to coagulations of blood into lumps. This principle is also applied to larger systems: 'In the formation of the stars, we recall that the "path of the blood" is represented by the Milky Way ...',56


'... the planets and satellites (and companions) are associated to the circulating blood and to the "seeds" ... that with the blood.'57

The system of Sirius, which is known as 'land of the fish,58 and is the placenta of Nommo, is specifically called the 'double placenta in the sky',59 referring to the fact that it is a binary star system. The 'earth' which is in the Sirius system is 'pure earth', whereas the 'earth' which is in our solar system is 'impure earth'.60

The landing of Nommo on our Earth is called

'the day of the fish',61 and the planet he came from in the Sirius system is known as the '(pure) earth of the day of the fish ... not (our) impure earth . . ,'62

In our own solar system all the planets emerged from the placenta of our sun. This is said of the planet Jupiter,63 which 'emerged from the blood which fell on the placenta'. The planet Venus was also formed from blood which fell on the placenta.64 (Venus 'was blood red when she was created, her color fading progressively'.65)


Mars, too, was created from a coagulation of 'blood'.66 Our solar system is, as we have noted, called the placenta of Ogo, the Fox, who is impure. Our own planet Earth is, significantly,

'the place where Ogo's umbilical cord was attached to his placenta ... and recalls his first descent'.67

In other words, the Earth is where Ogo 'plugged in', as it were, to this system of planets. What Ogo the Fox seems to represent is man himself, an imperfect intelligent species who 'descended' or originated on this planet, which is the planet in our solar system to which the great umbilical cord is attached. Ogo is ourselves, in all our cosmic impurity. It comes as a shock to realize that we are Ogo, the imperfect, the meddler, the outcast.


Ogo rebelled at his creation and remained unfinished. He is the equivalent of Lucifer in our own tradition in the Christian West. And in order to atone for our impurity it is said over and over by the Dogon that the Nommo dies and is resurrected, acting as a sacrifice for us, to purify and cleanse the Earth. The parallels with Christ are extraordinary, even extending to Nommo being crucified on a tree, and forming a eucharistic meal for humanity and then being resurrected.


But these religious elements are not the subject with which I propose to deal. Let each reader pursue them as he sees fit, on his own initiative. I only raise the subject that, as Ogo, we may be cosmic pariahs, because I only hope that we must not always remain so. The Dogon seem to hold out hope of 'redemption' just as Jesus Christ did in his great message to the world.


Redemption can mean what you want it to mean. But perhaps it would be more sensible to view 'sin' less as a sort of infraction of social rules and more as a form of impurity such as Ogo represents. The perversions of Christianity have always seemed to me to incorporate a perversion of the notion of 'sin' and the means by which 'sin' can be exploited as a means of temporal blackmail over other human beings. To rid ourselves of some impurity may be closer to what is needed, and those writers who have speculated that we suffer from a genetic fault may even be correct.


If so, are we actually in cosmic quarantine at this moment ?

We are told that the Nommo will come again. A certain 'star' in the sky will appear once more68 and will be the 'testament to the Nommo's resurrection'. When the Nommo originally landed on Earth, he 'crushed the Fox, thus marking his future domination over the Earth which the Fox had made'.69 So perhaps man's brutish nature has already been sufficiently subdued in our distant past.


Perhaps it was those visitors whom the Dogon call the Nommos who really did 'crush the Fox' in us, who all but destroyed Ogo, and have given us all the best elements of civilization which we possess. We remain as a curious mixture of the brute and the civilized, struggling against the Ogo within us.

The Dogon seem to have come to terms with life, amid the bewildering multiplicity of heavenly motions in which they exist.

'... the Earth turns on its own axis ... and makes a great circle (around the Sun) ... The moon turns Eke a conical spiral around the earth. The Sun distributes light in space and on the earth with its rays.'70 The sun is 'the remainder of Ogo's placenta' 71 and the centre of our system.

For some reason, which they say is the visitation to earth of the amphibious bringers of civilization from there, the Dogon centre their life and religion not on all this glorious panoply of solar and planetary activity of which they know, but on the system of a nearby star and its invisible companions.


Why ? Can it really be for the reason they say ? And if so, will the Nommo come again ?


We should really investigate the details of the Dogon knowledge as fully as possible, for a start. In Le Renard Pale, as opposed to the earlier article reproduced here, it is said, for instance, that the star emmeya in the system of Sirius may have an orbital period of thirty-two years instead of the fifty years which others maintain. It is larger than Sirius B and 'four times lighter'. In relation to Sirius B, 'Their positions are straight'.


It is watched over by Sirius B and acts as an intermediary, transmitting Sirius B's 'orders'.72

  • Does such a body exist?

  • Can we treat Dogon prognostications as evidence to be tested?

Dr Lindenblad says he cannot find evidence of a Sirius C of the kind which was presumed earlier by astronomers.

  • But can evidence be found of the kind of Sirius C suggested by the Dogon ?

  • And if such a discovery were made, would it conclusively establish the validity of the Dogon claims ?

Among the Dogon, an allusion to the great Creator's immortality and stability is expressed in good wishes of greetings or farewell that are addressed to a friend or relative:

'May the immortal Amma keep you seated'.73

It is just as well that we keep our seats, for we are about to launch into the dark waters of our planet's past, which may bring quite an alteration of our normal conceptions of it. For beyond the fact that a culture contact between ourselves and an alien civilization from outer space may have taken place, of which we may find some evidence from our own ancient cultures, we may discover that the ancient world, the further back one goes in time, tends to develop a more and more odd flavor.


The mysteries become denser, the strangeness thicker and more viscous. Just as in tracing the origins of sugar one goes from lighter syrup back to the thick and pungent molasses which develops, it seems, qualities far removed from one's expectations at the beginning, so with the past.


Its doors encrusted with almost solid cobwebs give off the stench of air last breathed by ancestors forgotten by us all.


Back to Contents




1. Cameron, A. G. W., ed., Interstellar Communication, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1963. See p. 75 (Calvin), p. 88 (Huang), p. 110 (Cameron), and particularly p. 176 (Drake).
2. For account see Sky and Telescope, June 1973, p. 354. Publications: Lindenblad, Irving, ‘Relative Photographic Positions and Magnitude Difference of the Components of Sirius’ in Astronomical Journal, 75, no. 7 (September 1970), pp. 841-8, and ‘Multiplicity of the Sirius System’ in Astronomical Journal, 78, no. 2 (March 1973), pp. 205-7.
3. Sagan, C. and Shklovskii, I. S., Intelligent Life in the Universe, Dell Publishing Co., New York, 1966, pp. 437, 440-64.
4. The astronomer Johann Friedrich Bessei in 1834. Just before his death in 1844 he decided Sirius must be a binary system. In 1862 the American Alvan Clark looked through the largest telescope then existing and saw a faint point of light where Sirius B should be, confirming its existence. In 1915 Dr W. S. Adams of Mt Wilson Observatory made the necessary observations to learn the temperature of Sirius B, which is 80000, half as much again as our sun’s. It then began to be realized that Sirius B was an intensely hot star which radiated three to four times more heat and light per square foot than our sun. It then became possible to calculate the size of Sirius B, which is only three times the radius of the Earth, yet its mass was just a little less than that of our sun. A theory of white dwarfs then developed to account for Sirius B, and other white dwarfs were later discovered.
5. See previous note.
6. Aitken, R. G., The Binary Stars, Dover Publications, New York, 1964, pp. 240-1. The account of Sirius extends from p. 237 to p. 241.
7. ‘Multiplicity of the Sirius System,’ art. cit. (see above, Note 2).
8. Mass Loss and Evolution in Close Binaries, Copenhagen University, 1970, pp. 190-4. (A seminar held in Elsinore Castle, with Lauterborn as a participant.)
9. Op. cit. (Note 6 above).
10. Op. cit. (Note 3 above) Chapter 33.
11. See for instance the book Interstellar Communication, op. cit. (Note 1 above), an anthology with contributions from nineteen astronomers and scientists.
12. Ibid., p. 75.
13. Ibid., p. 92.
14. Ibid., p. no.
15. Ibid., pp. 232-5.
16. Op. cit. (Note 3 above), pp. 440-64.
17. Ibid.
18. See for instance Pritchard, J. B., Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, Princeton University Press, 1955, p. 42, the introductory remarks to trans, of ‘The Deluge’ and also pp. 93-5, account of the Flood.
19. Griaule, M., and Dieterlen, G., ‘Un Systeme Soudanais de Sirius’, Journal de la Societe des Africainistes, Tome XX, Fascicule 1, 1950, pp. 273-94. An English translation of this article follows Chapter One in this book.
20. Griaule, Marcel, and Dieterlen, Germaine. Le Renard Pale (Tome I, Fascicule 1), Institut d’Ethnologie, Musee de l’Homme, Palais de Chaillot, Place du Trocadeio, Paris 16* (75016 Paris), 1965. 544 pp.
21. Ibid., p. 529.
22. Nine references are given to Baize’s publications, extending to 1938, and one given to Schatzman in L’Astronomie, 1956, pp. 364-9
23. Le Renard Pale, p. 478.
24. Ibid., pp. 480-1.

25. Ibid., pp. 480-1.

26. Ibid., p. 486.
27. Ibid., p. 481.

28. Ibid., p. 226.

29. Ibid., p. 264.
30. Ibid., p. 329.

31. Ibid., p. 292.

32. Ibid., p. 291.
33. Ibid., p. 292.

34. Ibid., p. 321.

35. Ibid., p. 321.
36. Ibid., p. 323.

37. Ibid., p. 323.
38. Aubrey, J., Brief Lives, Penguin, London, 1972. See entry for Harvey, William, pp. 290-1.
39. Le Renard Pale, p. 348.
40. Ibid., p. 287 n. 1.

41. Ibid., p. 141.

42. Ibid., p. 141.
43. Ibid., p. 141.

44. Ibid., pp. 102-4.

45- Ibid., p. 128.
46. Ibid., p. 163.

47. Ibid., p. 168.

48. Ibid., p. 170 n. 2.
49. Ibid., p. 276.

50. Ibid., p. 279, inc. n. 4.

51. Ibid., p. 280.
52. Ibid., p. 335.

53. Ibid., p. 470.

54. Ibid., p. 470.
55. Ibid., p. 470.

56. Ibid., p. 489.

57. Ibid., p. 323.
58. Ibid., p. 384.

59. Ibid., p. 384.

60. Ibid., p. 381.
61. Ibid., p. 381.

62. Ibid., p. 381.

63. Ibid., p. 287.
64. Ibid., p. 248.

65. Ibid., pp. 248-9.

66. Ibid., p. 249.
67. Ibid., p. 219.

68. Ibid., p. 440.

69. Ibid., p. 440.
70. Ibid., p. 477.

71. Ibid., p. 477.

72. Ibid., p. 475.
73. Ibid., p. 499 n. 2.