CHAPTER 10 - The Lunar Connection

Dione and Iapetus both have been subjected to the burning fury of visitation from an electromagnetic vehicle.


Each has experienced topographical structuring caused by various emissions which these high-potential units possess. In the case of Iapetus, structuring can be deduced to be much more than a surface phenomenon.


In being subjected to the observed electro-potential field, electrical currents enter Iapetus, converge within the interior, then exit.


Surface-distributed entry currents combine to reach a large magnitude near the center. Consequently, a situation is established wherein considerable heating of the core occurs, perhaps to the extent of producing a molten constituency.


Simultaneously, a situation also is created whereby extraneous material is shedded at the surface as current shafts enter the satellite. This latter situation is supported by photographic observations of dark material on the periphery of Iapetus where current paths have been found to enter.

Besides deposits, visitations are evidenced by a wide assortment of surface scars. Most familiar are craters of widely ranging diameters. Other scars are in the form of rills, ridges and thermo-set areas having surfaces of indistinct features.


Dione exhibits mostly distinct craters, rills and ridges whereas Iapetus displays a dimpled surface with indistinct features. Differences can be attributed to the particular vehicle component creating the scar and the amount of attendant heating. For a given electromagnetic vehicle, the maximum diameter for a round scar (e.g., a crater) would be a size approximating vehicle body diameter.


Because these spacecraft have long-range cruise capability, any solar-system body becomes a suspect candidate for having experienced visitations.

A generalized scientific concept must fit circumstances other than the particulars from which it derives. Additional situations involving Saturn and environs act mainly to augment particulars. Moreover, available topographical imagery is rather sketchy and too wanting in overall detail for demonstrating application using other Saturnian satellites.


Earth's Moon, on the other hand, enjoys the most complete and highly detailed mapping of all the celestial bodies.


Furthermore, remote independency exists with respect to the Saturnian complex Consequently, earth's moon makes an ideal candidate with which to test the concept of vehicle-created surface scars.

Of all the lunar scars, those of Mare Orientale or Eastern Sea rank among the most spectacular and noteworthy. This lunar feature is not familiar to most earth inhabitants because of its unfavorable location for viewing.

Plate 43

Mare Orientale as portrayed

on an official NASA moon globe.


Specifically, Mare Orientale sits astride the western limit of moon visibility from earth, with only eastern ridges of its huge basin barely exposed to sight.


Compound surface scars can be comprehended best by viewing them in global perspective. As an aid, Plate 43 presents Mare Orientale as portrayed on an official moon globe.*


The central region consists of two concentric, near-circular ridges stretching bi-laterally across the western visibility limit, (1).



* Manufactured by the Geographical Globe Division of Meredith Corporation, Chicago, Illinois, this globe simulates lunar topography as depicted by photography from various NASA circumlunar missions.



The outer ridge, (2) , has a diameter of about 965 km (600 mi); and the inner ridge, (3), has a diameter of about 550 km (340 mi).


These ridges surround a center pit, (4), whose breadth is of the order of 240 km (150 mi). Photographic mosaics of the area reveal that this pit is a deep hole, and not a smooth continuum of a broad basin. The floor of the hole is reported to contain patches of dark basaltic material. Additionally, the mosaics show a glazed surface, (5), around the eastern periphery.


Radially disposed markings of rills and ridges, (6), occur on the northern and southern sides.


In the north and south, these radial markings are found within an included angle of about 100 degrees. In the east and west though, radial markings definitely are absent within the remaining angular area. Instead, different markings prevail. Incomplete radial symmetry negates meteor impact in that a hit should produce full-circle radial splash marks.

Surface scars and markings on celestial bodies long have been used as indicators of earlier events. Typically, craters have been cited as evidence that meteors, or showers of meteors, have impacted in prehistoric times. Thus, scars and markings are, in themselves, informational data; and interpretation of their geometry and contents has become acceptable practice.


Now, let us examine Mare Orientale without preconceived notions regarding its formation, and permit the configuration to speak for itself.

Plate 44 presents a configuration interpretation of lunar markings at Mare Orientale utilizing an official NASA moon globe. In the plate, region (1) delineates the central hole, and circles (2) and (3) the inner and outer ridges, respectively.


Rook Mountains is the name which has been given to the inner ridge and Cordillera Mountains, to the outer ridge. Line (4) circumscribes the southernmost exhibit of radial markings. This exhibit is separated by a serpentine strip, (5) which terminates at the south pole about 1600 km (1000 mi) distant. Another interpretation in pattern occurs at the southern extremity of the Cordillera Mountains.


There, a short section of mountain range deviates significantly from a circular contour.



Plate 44

Configuration interpretation of lunar markings at Mare Orientale

utilizing an official NASA moon globe.



Accordingly, the outer- ridge circle can be described as having a "trough" in it due to this deviation.


An "inverted trough" is formed above by small rills and ridges between the inner and outer ridges. The resulting enclosure, which approximates an oblate ellipse, (6), encompasses surface which is relatively smooth compared with surface outside the oblate enclosure.

Due north of the outer ridge, a bulbar band of terrain, (7), is outlined longitudinally by two undulating lines. Terrain between these two lines exhibits surface features which change rather abruptly across the boundaries.


For example, there are radial markings terminating just inside the boundary line on the right; on the left, there is a smooth rippled surface changing to a pitted one; and in the middle, there are numerous closely-packed and overlapped craters. This localized admixture of non-homogeneous surfaces suggests that simultaneous events of common origin are needed to produce the topography shown.

A physical mechanism which could create the bulbar-shaped region portrayed in Plate 44 is an overlying impinging high-temperature pinched-plasma flow. Centrally within band boundaries, closely-packed and overlapped craters would be formed by electrical-current arcs which jump repeatedly from the pinched-plasma flow to ground (i.e., to the surface).


That the central region should be most cratered is consistent with this area being the shortest electrical route between the impinging flow and the surface.


Adjacent to the eastern and western sides of the outer ridge, the terrain displays a knurled character and includes some small rills and ridges. Propitious location of this latter terrain with relation to the Mare basin "facial" outline suggests the terminology "eastern ear", (8), and "western ear" (9).


Unenclosed markings, (10), consisting of rills, ridges, rivulets and small craters in tandem, radiate outward and upward from these ears. All patterns heretofore described reasonably are interpretable as being family- related with respect to the Mare central hole and basin.

Collectively viewed in perspective, composite diagnostic markings of the Mare Orientale moonscape pictorially describe an elementary frontal image of an electromagnetic vehicle. Reality of the extraordinarily broad Mare Orientale vehicle-caused imprint can be comprehended with visual assistance from a combination model of moon and vehicle.

Plate 45 shows a model electromagnetic vehicle and a NASA official moon globe co-scaled and positioned to illustrate formation of Mare Orientale as developed pictorially in Plate 44.


The nose end of the vehicle model appears at the right positioned to have center-to-center alignment with the Mare Orientale hole and basin.


Plate 45

An electromagnetic vehicle and a NASA moon globe

co-scaled and positioned to illustrate formation of Mare Orientale.

Body diameter, to the scale of the lunar globe, is 965 km (600 mi).


This small-scale model is a highly simplified replica of the vehicle identified near Iapetus in Plate 38. Component-item details have been sculptured to simulate those suggested by imagery of Plates 30 and 38. Direct correspondence between specific lunar-surface areas and particular vehicle components becomes apparent when the two bodies are co-aligned as shown.


Table II correlates individual Mare Orientale surface-area elements, pictorialized and delineated in Plate 44, with their respective formative vehicle components.



Correlation of Specific Mare Orientale Lunar-Surface Areas

with Formative Components of an Electromagnetic Vehicle

as Depicted by 180 mi/inch Scale Models



In addition to the preceding 9 major items of matching surface and body configuration, some minor items also fall into place.


For example, random crater formations within any lunar surface-area element can arise from spurious electrical currents which arc from vehicle to surface. Also, numerous tiny craters can be pierced by branches from constituent strands comprising larger currents.


Patches of "foreign" material can be deposited in various topographical patterns by electro-chemical processes due to presence of an electropotential field.


Further, intense heat from the axial-exhaust core can explain an apparent glazed surface which surrounds the central hole. Thus, wide-scope consistency prevails concerning formative characteristics of Mare Orientale. Broad consistency, such as found here, usually is a mark of correct analysis.

Ancient lunar presence of an electromagnetic vehicle at Marie Orientale can resolve other perplexities concerning the moon. One of these perplexities is that a significant magnetic field, according to evidence, must have existed on the moon about 3 to 4 billion years ago Interestingly, the age of Mare Orientale independently has been pegged at about 3 to 4 billion years.


Discovery that the unorthodox sectorial illumination of Iapetus is attributable directly to the presence of an encompassing electro-potential field leads to a tentative conclusion about the long-extinct lunar magnetic field.


Specifically, the conclusion is reached that the moon has, at some time, experienced the same treatment as Iapetus. According to Plates 44 and 45, an identifiable time at which the moon has undergone magnetizing influences is from an electromagnetic vehicle while forming Mare Orientale.


Co-supportive ages of Mare Orientale and ancient lunar magnetism inferentially age-dates the mechanism responsible. Specifically, the conclusion can be drawn that electromagnetic vehicles themselves have been around for a long time - at least 3 to 4 billion years.

That electromagnetic vehicles are connected anciently to lunar formations distinctly opens a strong possibility of a past intimacy with earth.


Implications to this effect already have been signaled by terrestrial rocks which date back to about the same birth date as Mare Orientale. A lunar connection with electromagnetic vehicles neither abrogates nor conflicts with data obtained from moon-orbiter missions and landing excursions.


This integral posture is much more substantial than concepts which explain prehistoric data only for narrow circumstances.


Back to Moon's Origin and Purpose




CHAPTER 11 - Electromagnetic Vehicles - A Perspective

Existence of extraterrestrial space vehicles of enormous size and power is a fact, the significance of which is difficult to grasp, let alone assess. Departing now from the tedious fact-development process, this chapter stands back and takes a philosophical look at findings.

In the foreground is an immediate question,

"Are there extraterrestrial beings?"

A short answer is,


All photograph negatives examined by the author have revealed no direct evidence of beings.


However, a strong implication that extraterrestrials do exist arises from electromagnetic vehicles being positionable. A source of intelligence is required to accomplish stability and control for positioning. This observation is a fall out from noting that the inner and outer diameters of Saturn's A, B, and C rings have remained substantially, but not identically, the same over a period of years.


From a design viewpoint, electromagnetic vehicles represent ultrasuperlative achievements in nuclear physics, aeronautics, astronautics, magnetohydrodynamics and engineering. Inferentially, such attainments only could be achieved by a long-term, goal-oriented, non-self-destructing society.

Electromagnetic vehicles possess obvious devastational capabilities which might evoke fear and anxiety in some people.


These discomforting emotions can be alleviated upon realization that these powerful vehicles have been around for many, many centuries; and the human race still continues. In terms of a clear and present danger, man-made nuclear bombs pose more of an immediate large- scale threat to human life. In contrast, an apparent long-term commitment by electromagnetic vehicles to the continuance of the human life chain is comforting.

To anticipate, though, a perpetually unmarred status quo in the character of our earthly habitat is really an unreasonable expectation.


To illustrate, a sudden change in the surface of the Earth occurred 30 June 1908. On this day, a violent thunderous explosion rocked an area near Tunguska in Central Siberia, USSR. Twelve hundred square miles became devastated. Small villages and wildlife disappeared during this blast. A large forest was flattened. According to eye-witness

accounts, a flaming cylindrical object was sighted in the vicinity just prior to the explosion. After years of intensive study and scientific research, a firm conclusion has been drawn that the devastation had been caused by an aerial nuclear explosion. Supporting this conclusion is the Hiroshima nuclear-bomb destruction which produced a surface-devastation pattern similar to that recorded at Tunguska.


Some scientists go farther with an assertion that the devastation had been caused by an extraterrestrial spaceship which exploded. After all nuclear bombs had not been invented at the time of the 1908 explosion; and furthermore, they submit, there were eyewitnesses.

The Tunguska story affirms the existence of cylindrical vehicles and their nuclear character. This affirmation is quite important in that science now harbors bona fide repeat observations of these ultra-high- energy units in the solar system. A concentrated presence of them appears at Saturn, thereby introducing the interesting speculation that the planet serves as an operational base.

Ultra-superlative intellect is implied by the existence of these highly sophisticated electromagnetic vehicles. Not only do these units demonstrate mastery of nuclear power and massive electro-potential force fields, but also they show an ability to modify extensive surface areas of large celestial bodies. Indeed, a realistic possibility is raised that good-sized celestial bodies can be moved about.


These capabilities clearly place the human race at a comparative disadvantage.


To cite a practical example, the Tunguska explosion demonstrates that an electromagnetic vehicle, should it elect to strike a densely populated area, could inflict massive human termination.


While wide-spread catastrophic destruction in the past may have occurred, such as that which wiped out the dinosaurs, presently a compassionate policy of forbearance seems to be in effect.

Forbearance of catastrophic destruction does not imply forbearance of lesser destruction. That is, narrowly spread destruction might be occurring continually. Several possibilities present themselves. Quite conceivably, electromagnetic vehicles could be generators of tornadoes and hurricanes. In certain instances, inexplicable, sudden, intense fires also might be attributable to these space-craft.


A likely simple example is transformer fires at the top of power poles. A much more subtle possibility might be electromagnetic alteration of human body tissues inasmuch as electrical fields attendant with vehicles can extend over thousands of miles. Of these possibilities, weather is the easiest with which to relate.

With the advent of television, various components of weather have become common knowledge. For example, continental high- and low-temperature distributions, hot- and cold-air masses or fronts, barometric pressure variations, and dynamic cloud formations have become terminology familiar to most newscast viewers.


Wind, rain, snow, humidity, lightning and thunder showers are explained using the aforesaid terminology. Weather terminology permits dialogue concerning what is transpiring, but it does not get to the root of weather inception. Were weather inception understood, weather would be predictable. As is well known, weather is not predictable. Despite all the technical dissertations and theories over the years, inception of Earth weather remains a mystery.

At least part of Earth's weather no longer is a mystery. A new weather component termed "dry lightning" has crept quietly into weather descriptions. Prior to invention of this term, lightning had been associated only with the presence of cloud formations.


This situation has changed. Lightning is being reported in clear blue sky absolutely devoid of clouds. Thus, lightning in waterless sky is called dry lightning. Categorically, illuminated electrical currents around Iapetus qualify as dry lightning in that these currents occur in absence of water clouds.


Saturnian lightning shown in Plate 16 also qualifies. Interestingly, electrical currents of Iapetus and Saturnian lightning bolts are generated by electromagnetic vehicles. These findings support a proposition that dry lightning in Earth's atmosphere is a proximity indicator of one or more of these powerful bodies.

Electromagnetic vehicles might be viewed as superimposing their weather-making influences upon Earth's inherent weather components or alternatively, as weather instigators. Both concepts are regarded as posing no conflict with weather-model efforts.


Rather, knowledge of vehicle presence can aid modeling efforts. For example, a reason becomes available for adding or subtracting energy in order to secure a global heat balance. Measured shrinking of the Antarctic ice cap is a case in point. Heretofore, a heat source has not been available to account for known melting.


Long-term addition of heat by vehicular sources opens new avenues for modeling weather and global heat balance.

On each extremity of Saturn's rings, cylindrical bodies have been photographed spewing emissions. These emissions assume complicated patterns while contributing compositional material for the rings. A time-varying appearance of Saturn's disc is a natural consequence of this process.


The B ring and inner- and outer-A rings are separate entities because different vehicles fabricate these rings, intervening spaces, such as the Cassini and Enke divisions, are safety-buffer regions to preclude vehicle collisions.


Therefore, nothing needs to "scoop out" these divisions in order to create open space. Indeed the Cassini and Enke gaps may contain something or nothing at all depending on whether emissions are permitted to intrude.

A number of vehicles have been identified within Saturn's ring disc. In a sense, Saturn's disc can be considered a huge, polluted parking lot or rendezvous, for extraterrestrial spacecraft. Density and thickness of this pollution can vary considerably according to the number of craft present, their positioning and modes of operation.


Presence of electromagnetic vehicles near other planets is intimated by a finding of rings, the signature left by exhaust and emission products persisting in orbit.


These sophisticated pollutants trigger a realization that man-made products and processes may not be the sole cause of Earth's dirty atmosphere. For example, electromagnetic vehicles might provide a partial answer regarding why acid rain sometimes occurs in regions having no terrestrial acid-rain-making capabilities.


Quite possibly, a challenging new era may lie ahead concerning governmental management efforts to maintain environmentally clean air.

During the flyby of Saturn and its moons, Voyager 1 observed 15 satellites. Except for one, Titan, these satellites have been identified as being covered with water ice, either wholly or partially. Water ice even is postulated to be a major constituent of Saturn's rings. Such extraordinary prevalence of common ice is quite significant.


Icy Iapetus is a case in point, as positive identification has been made of a cylindrical vehicle positioned nearby.


This situation justifies an assertion that the icy surface may be a result of water having been generated by an electromagnetic vehicle and shaped later in a frozen state by directed heat applications. Ice-skate-rink smoothness could be attained by heat application from suitable body components such as axial exhaust flame.


Icy constituency of Saturn's satellites possibly indicates that Earth obtained its polar ice caps by extraterrestrial means.

Some scientists claim that Earth is progressing into another ice age. Others note definite increases in global mean sea level and receding glaciers and claim a significant warming trend which has caused massive discharge of melted polar ice. In observing these global changes, a reduction in Earth's rotational velocity also has been detected. Only three-fourths of this reduction in angular velocity can be accounted for.


It is conceivable that the other one-fourth might be accounted for by a cylindrical vehicle flying within Earth's magnetic field. Such flight would give rise to electromagnetic drag operating on the craft.


Then, in accordance with the Newtonian principle that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, a drag on Earth's rotation is imputed. Once again, a new variable exists which possibly might fill a gap in scientific thought.

Electromagnetic vehicles represent extreme, ultra-high technology. Earth has nothing remotely comparable with which to compete. So far, development of a competing technology is not an obviously compelling need. What is compelling, however, is the need for a much deeper and broader understanding.


To illustrate, on 22 September 1979 a U.S. satellite recorded a bright flash aloft between South Africa and Antarctica.


After prolonged analysis of the data, federal laboratories concluded that the satellite saw a nuclear blast. During the study, the high-level White House blue-ribbon analysis committee ultimately became divided into believers and non-believers.


Believers think that data from the event match known signatures of nuclear blasts. Nonbelievers think that some natural event induced the satellite to make an erroneous report. Both groups can be correct when the blast is attributed to action by an electromagnetic vehicle. A potentially grave hazard is posed. Specifically, an international nuclear exchange inadvertently could be triggered by nuclear events originated by an extraterrestrial third party.


Electromagnetic vehicles will hold the balance of power for centuries to come. Lest extraterrestrial interlopers unsuspectingly induce nuclear warfare, a unified world should be a matter for serious consideration.


Moreover, catastrophic extinction of the human race is a realistic threat which needs to be addressed.

Researchers have established that Earth has experienced catastrophic large-scale life extinctions about every 26 million years. One of these extinctions, that of dinosaurs, is theorized to have been caused by impact of a huge meteor striking Earth. Other possibilities are a comet or an electromagnetic vehicle.


Had Comet 1979 XI, detected by U.S. Navy satellite F-78-1, hit Earth instead of the sun on 30 August 1979, a catastrophic extinction no doubt would have occurred. Close inspection of the before-collision photographs suggests a long body having emissions closely resembling those pictured in Plates 7 and 8!

Comets actually may be directed electromagnetic vehicles traveling at high speed. This assertion is supported by a satellite picture of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983). One equilibration is that the nucleus of this comet can be construed to have a fineness ratio of about 12 to 13. Another equilibration is that the nucleus possesses features similar to the body shown in Plate 6.


To wit, part of the slender-body nucleus is intensely white, and the remainder a darker color.


Moreover, other comets, specifically Kohoutek (1973-74) and Bennett (1970) can be interpreted as an electromagnetic vehicle projecting a fire-ball ahead of the body. As has been shown, electromagnetic vehicles have fire-ball generating capability.


These bodies most certainly are suitable mechanisms for causing catastrophic extinctions, with an attendant possibility that their missions are controlled. Collisions may not be a necessary condition for catastrophe; a near-miss might well be sufficient.

Planetary rings are an indicator of past, or current, presence of electromagnetic vehicles. Jupiter and Uranus both are known to have rings. The sun has been discovered to have a ring of globular matter surrounding it. Our own asteroid belt is a ring. Even a ring around the solar system is believed to exist. Discovery of others practically is a certainty.


For example, no surprise should occur if planetary nebula NGC 6781 were found to emanate from, and be a property of, a superbly large electromagnetic vehicle. This concept poses no conflict with the notion that the nebula ring results from radial expansion of matter from a central source.

Jupiter, Uranus and NGC 6781 are far away. Therefore, one might submit that events at such remote places have no importance to human beings. Maybe. Though also far away, activity at the sun more readily is acceptable as a concern.


An example might be that some solar flares are highly correlatable with anomalous terrestrial weather. Generally, any major interference with solar functioning, such as by object 1979 XI, operates temporarily to alter Earth weather. These occasions are marked on the sun by abnormal electrical-field patterns which interact with those of Earth.


Anomalous sun activity, by triggering weather changes, in turn can occasion severe down-stream socio-economic impacts. Electromagnetic vehicles also may operate quite remotely from the sun, yet directly exert significant physical effects on Earth. Severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flooding, droughts and certain types of fires all might be symptomatic.


Even less obvious might be subtle effects exerted on the human body by innocent exposure to focused electro-potential fields.

Photographic data recorded impersonally by satellite stand on their own without having to doubt a human photographer. No need exists for a protective requirement that several independent cameras witness the same thing as a condition precedent to credibility.


For a sighting of an unidentified flying object, an analyst may require three or more observers of the same object as a condition precedent to credibility-information output, though small and tending toward high quality, still is inadequate compared with hard data provided by remotely procured photographs.


Unidentified flying objects (UFO's) being on a soft data base incomparable with a hard base for the electromagnetic vehicles (E.M.V.'s) reported herein, they necessarily must be, and are, excluded from discussion.

As a practical matter, technical discussion of UFO's virtually is never possible even with absolutely valid information.


The fact is that there are, and there always will be, UFO's. The reason simply is that substantially all witnesses are equipped inadequately to describe or interpret what they see in terms of a physical discipline.


Consequences of this limitation can be illustrated by an hypothetical early 1940's scenario. In this scenario, a German pilot and an American pilot are flying adversarial combat missions against one another. Piloting the first operational jet-powered airplane, the German forces the American into escape maneuvers.


Fortuitously returning from the engagement, the American reports to headquarters that he had encountered a UFO. He substantiates his position by stating that the high-speed object matches nothing he had been briefed on or taught to recognize. His account documents that the object had no propellers. He notes that engine-driven propellers are the only known method for sustaining aerial flight.


The point is that insufficient information is available to the pilot for resolving identity. In contrast, identity of the propeller-less object quite likely would have been resolved as a jet- powered airplane had the encounter been experienced and reported by Sir Frank Whittle. Sir Frank is the Englishman knighted in 1948 for his invention of the jet engine.

That identification and resolution capability lags behind developed knowledge is exemplified by the first-jet-airplane scenario.


This lag is substantiated by the 1908 Tunguska, Siberia explosion. Terrible destruction of the land, extraordinary human-tissue burns and widespread obliteration of wild life could not be explained at first. Knowledge gained years later from the 1945 Hiroshima explosion shed light on a myriad of puzzlements.


Similarity of topographical destruction in the two events clinches conviction that the Tunguska blast came from a nuclear explosion aloft. Terrestrial nuclear-explosion knowledge, coming as it did 37 years later, inescapably pinpoints the source to one of extraterrestrial origin.

Though the Tunguska analysis is substantial and thorough some scientists, without cause, choose not to recognize the conclusions. By doing so, in effect they position themselves to promulgate their own party line. Substituting for years of painstaking investigation, an unsubstantiated allegation is made that the Tunguska event results from impact of a huge meteor.


A meteor impact simply does not fit all known facts sufficiently well to render the allegation credible.


This incongruent situation serves to focus attention on a possible need to interrogate vigorously perpetuated explanations for certain aspects of the solar system and the universe. Repetitious publication tends to cause unqualified explanations to become accepted without challenge.


The role of science, starting with Copernicus and Galileo, has been to ascertain physical truth.


This long-standing scientific approach should continue to be pursued. Pursuance of the approach may lead to devaluation of personal property, such as that represented by publications; but unfortunately, such abrogation is a hazard of the scientific process of correcting and updating understanding.

M ore aeronautical history of the 1940's will serve to illustrate some lessons pertinent to advancing state-of-the-art in astronomy and aerospace science.

A theory exists which says that a physical body can never reach the speed of light because an infinite force is required. The same theoretical argument was made for airplanes relative to the speed of sound in the 1940's. Aerodynamic theory holds that for a finite wing inclined in an airstream, lift and drag approach infinity near the speed of sound.


With drag infinitely large, "breaking-the-sound-barrier" theoretically is impossible because, again, an infinite force is required.

Despite a theoretical limit on the speed of flight in air, Frank Whittle believed that were sufficient finite force applied to an object, it would move faster than the speed of sound.


Application of Sir Frank Whittle's jet engine to airplanes confirmed this belief.


The same contention that Sir Frank made for exceeding the speed of sound also can be made for exceeding the speed of light. After all, the basic electromagnetic equations are identical to the aerodynamic equations, except for magnitude of the constants of proportionality.


In this context, the speed of light simply is a reference speed analogous to, and greater in magnitude than, the speed of sound. Speed of light is very close to six orders of magnitude greater than the speed of sound under standard atmospheric conditions.

Considering the evidenced ultra-high nuclear technology, flight speeds for E.M.V.'s greater than the speed of light technically is a realistic expectation.


Successful operational achievement is keyed fundamentally to development of a low-weight engine in relation to the propulsive force delivered. This development is exactly the same one Sir Frank Whittle attained on behalf of supersonic flight. With supersonic flight as a comparable historical precedent, superlumenal flight definitely should be regarded as being within the domain of reality.

Potential reality of superlumenal flight permits ideas to be considered which heretofore have been excluded. For example, the universe is believed to contain much more mass than can be accounted for visually.


A simple explanation might be that the "missing" mass has superlumenal speed and, therefore, cannot be seen. The situation can be considered analogous to an observer being unable to hear a supersonic airplane approaching. In this aerodynamic analogy, a mass indeed is present; but in terms of a sonic reference, the mass is "missing".

Presence of electromagnetic vehicles in the solar system introduces likelihood for analogous similarities in the universe.


When an enlightened attitude is taken toward E.M.V.'s advancement of not only the Sciences but also the Arts and Humanities appears to be filled with new excitement.


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