Please note that the
following discussion builds on concepts set forth in
The Talk of the Galaxy
and therefore is best understood if you have already
read the book. Alternatively, see the essay "The
Forgotten Challenge: Pulsars" for an overview
of some of the book's ideas.
Further Evidence for an ETI Origin
The map charting the sky locations of pulsars (figures 9 and 13
in the first edition of The Talk of the Galaxy) has now been revised
and no longer shows a clump or pulsars positioned adjacent to the
Galactic one-radian point. When The Talk of the Galaxy was first
published in 2000, a total of 1100 pulsars had been cataloged.
the end of 2007, this number has risen to 1775. Most of the new
pulsar additions have southern hemisphere locations, having been
located in the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey. With the new data
set, a galactic longitude histogram that shows the distribution of
pulsars along the galactic equator no longer shows a decline in
pulsar population extending from the one-radian longitude (l ~
57.3°) toward the Galactic center.
This is because most of the newly
discovered pulsars lie in the central part of the Galaxy and hence
the profile showing their distribution as a function of galactic
longitude now absorbs this former clump. However, the sharp cut off
in pulsar population just beyond the one-radian longitude is still
present and, as before, is not easily explained as being due to any
natural cause or selection effect.
In September 2005 Dr. LaViolette made several new discoveries
which along with other findings described in The Talk of the Galaxy
strongly support the interpretation that pulsar beacons have an
extraterrestrial intelligence origin.
The two fastest pulsars in the sky, the
Millisecond Pulsar and
the Eclipsing Binary Millisecond (EBM) Pulsar, not only are among
the closest pulsars to the one-radian longitude (as pointed out in
2000), but their longitude positions accurately portray the 1-to-2p
relation. That is, if one takes the angular deviation of the
Millisecond Pulsar longitude from the Galactic one-radian longitude
and divides by the deviation in longitude between the Millisecond
Pulsar and the EBM Pulsar, the ratio so obtained is within 0.1% of
being exactly equal to 1/2p. In other words, through their sky
positions, these two pulsars express the one-radian concept --
portraying the fraction of a circle's circumference that is
represented by a one-radian arc.
If one takes the longitudinal deviation of the Millisecond Pulsar
from the Galactic one-radian longitude, bisects this arc and adds
the result to the angular deviation between the longitudes of these
two millisecond pulsars, then divides the sum by 57.2958° to express
the angle in radians, one obtains 3.1809%. This is within 0.09% of
equaling 3.1837%, the fractional amount that the period of the EBM
Pulsar deviates from the period of the Millisecond Pulsar. (It is
logical to use the Millisecond Pulsar period as the base reference
since it is not only the second fastest pulsar in the sky but also
the closest to the Galaxy's equatorial one-radian longitude point.
The ratios described in both a) and b) would have been exact if
the pulsar positions were observed between 1750 and 1800 AD. The
ratios are less exact today since the longitude sky position of the EBM Pulsar is gradually changing due to the pulsar's proper motion
toward the Galactic center.
Since 2000, a new eclipsing binary pulsar has been discovered
(J1953+1846A), which lies in the vicinity of the one-radian
longitude. It has almost the same angular separation from the Gamma Sagittae pointer star as the EBM Pulsar. Its close sky position
proximity to both the EBM pulsar and to Gamma Sagittae is quite
surprising since only 14 eclipsing binary pulsars are known to
exist, less than one percent of the pulsar population.
Interestingly, if one takes the period of this pulsar (4.8883
milliseconds) and divides by that of the Millisecond Pulsar
(1.5578), one obtains 3.1380, which is within 0.1% of being exactly
equal to p.
All of the above is best understood within the context of the
arguments and perspective carefully set forth in The Talk of the
Galaxy. Needless to say, the apparent sky positions of these pulsars
which exhibit these pi ratios can be seen as such only from our
particular viewing perspective.
We are led to conclude that this
one-radian message is intentionally targeted toward our solar