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IF the earth be hollow, what is expected of the compass? Anyone knowing anything about a compass knows that as soon as a ship begins to turn, the needle will tip up as far as it can. To satisfy himself, let the reader take any compass and tip it toward the south. The needle will drop as far as it can. Then tip it north, and see how quickly it will rise to the glass at the top. If a compass will work like that in New York, why should it not do the same near the poles? As soon as the curve begins, which is probably about 55 to 60 degs. latitude, the compass will try to follow north, and, in order to do so, will rise to the glass at the top, or as far as the adjustment permits.
Greely proved that when the needle was suspended on an untwisted silken thread, it stood pointing nearly straight up. That
was at latitude 85 degs.; at 90 degs. it would be erect. That is just what would be expected if they were nearly at the turning, or at farthest point north. On the explanation that the earth is hollow, the needle worked just as it should have, and if it worked differently, would have been wrong.
A compass, or magnetic needle, is con-trolled by one of the laws of the universe, and when in order works accurately. If it does not seem right, it is better to halt and see if the fault be not elsewhere. The fact that the compass does not work, as some suppose, is one of the strongest arguments in favor of the theory that the earth is hollow; for, had it pointed to the supposed north, it could well be claimed that if the earth was hollow, the needle would not have pointed as it did. What seems; therefore, to be a defective compass, turns out to be one of the powerful proofs necessary to substantiate a great truth. Man had nothing to say about making the earth: that was given to an Allwise Creator; and if, in His wisdom, it was
made double, or hollow, it was for some wise purpose.
As Greely's trip was for scientific purposes, great attention was paid to every branch of it. Let us note right here the observation of the magnetic needle, and see if we can account for the unruly conduct of this little metal servant that has always proved such a faithful friend to man. If the earth be hollow, and sailing in a direction that seems to be north--but, as a matter of fact, down--while holding that course you sail round the farthest point north, you gradually pass into the interior, and your head will soon be toward the north, and your feet toward the south: this would be the exact position when a ship or individual is half-way in or around the curve. The needle would then have to point straight up. What did it do? Greely says on page 127:
"For the uninitiated it should be said that the object of these readings was to note the declination of the magnetic needle. In the greater part of the world the compass does not point to the geographical
pole, and the saying, 'true as the needle to the pole,' is only an inaccurate simile. The magnetic declination of any place is the difference between the geographical pole and the quarter to which the needle actually points, and is measured in degrees to east or west. For instance, where the needle points to the true west, the declination is said to be 90 degs. W., and when pointing to the southwest, to be 135 degs. W. At Fort Conger, in 1882, the magnetic needle pointed between the west and southwest, the declination being 100 degs. 13 min. W.
"In the magnetometer a small magnet, freely suspended by a single fibre of untwisted silk, swings readily in any horizontal direction. This magnet, at Conger, was never quiet, not even on what are technically known as calm days, but swung to and fro in a restless, uneasy way, which at various times impressed me with an uncanny feeling quite foreign to my nature. As it swung to right and left, its movements were clearly outlined on a fixed, illumined, glass scale, which served
as a background, and the extreme oscillations, seen through a small telescope by the observer, were recorded. In the other end of the building was placed, on a stable pier, a dip-circle, from which the inclination or
THE WORKING OF THE COMPASS.
This illustration is presented to show how the magnetic needle works in passing into the interior of the earth, and how the compass would lead explorers out again, they not knowing the earth was hollow.
dip of the magnetic needle was hourly determined. A magnetic needle, nicely and delicately balanced, in the middle latitudes assumes a nearly level position. At Conger, however, the needle, adjusted so that it can move freely in a vertical plane, shows a strong tendency to assume an up-right position. At a dip of 90 degs. the needle would be erect, while at Conger the inclination was about 85 degs."
What made that needle so restless? so much so that it caused Greely such unpleasant emotions? If that needle was suspended in the middle latitudes it would, as he said, assume nearly a level position. Let us see why it takes that position, and perhaps we can then tell why it assumes a different position when nearing the poles. It takes the level position because gravity draws it down, and the magnet swings it round: there are no conflicting laws; both act in harmony. When one is entering the curve to the interior of the earth, gravity draws the needle down, while the magnet pulls it up, forcing a constant conflict; the needle must be true to the north, while gravity is pulling down, or south. The result is a restless needle. As soon as gravity shows the stronger, the needle must fall; but when the magnet is strong enough to overcome gravity, the needle is pulled in a perpendicular position, or point,
to the north. One of Nature's own witnesses here proves our case--a witness too strong to be impeached. If the needle at Fort Conger had worked, as all supposed it should have done, the defense in this case could have come into court, and shown by this witness--Mr. Compass--that the earth could not be hollow, or the needle would not have pointed as it did. Accordingly, what was regarded as a strange phenomenon, or a balky compass, turns out to be one of our best witnesses for establishing the great fact that the earth is hollow. Happily, a number of equally strong witnesses could be spared yet enough remain to prove our case.
If the earth be hollow, and the ship or needle is half-way in the interior, the little needle is still "true to Poll," and if it could speak would have said: "My friend, do not judge me so harshly: I am loyal to you, and I would gladly show you where the north is, but you hold me down, so I can't. When you suspended me on a silken thread, you gave me a better chance, and I then pointed straight up, or nearly
so; for that was north, or the opposite was south, which pulled the other end of the needle down."
By treating the earth as hollow, we have the solution of all the great mysteries such as the aurora, tidal waves, ice-pressure, colored snow, open Arctic Ocean, warmer south, icebergs, flattening of the earth at the poles, and why the poles have not been found, the supernatural giving way to the natural, as it always does with understanding, and relief comes to mind and body.
In Volume II, pages 18 and 19, Nansen writes about the inclination of the needle. Speaking of Johansen, his aide:
"One day it was November 24th--he came in to supper a little after six o'clock, quite alarmed, and said, 'There has just been a singular inclination of the needle to twenty-four degs., and, remarkably enough, its northern extremity pointed to the east. I cannot remember ever having heard of such an inclination.' He also had several other inclinations of about fifteen degs. At the same time, through the
opening into his observatory he noticed that it was unusually light out of doors, and that not only the ship, but the ice in the distance, was as plainly visible as if it had been full moonlight. No aurora, however, could be discerned through the thick clouds that covered the sky. It would appear, then, that this unusual inclination was in some way connected with the Northern Lights, though it was to the cast and not the west, as usual."
Nansen's location at that time would probably have put the compass on an angle of forty-five degs., if not more. Unless the needle was suspended on a thread, where it could move independently, it might assume any position but the right one. I am at a loss to know where to locate the attraction that moves the needle north--the magnet, or whatever it may be. Why should this needle be attracted north through any influence beyond what is dc-rived from the earth itself? If it gets its attraction entirely from the influence of the earth, which it seems to me it must, then where does that attraction terminate?
[paragraph continues] If the earth be hollow, is the attraction around the edge of the earth entering the interior, or is it drawn to a centre half-way betwixt the outer edges? Until that can be fully determined, it is hard to judge how the needle should operate in passing into the interior of the earth.
I have been asked what causes the compass to stand erect at the magnetic poles? what influence draws it farther, or makes it assume a perpendicular position? The opposite pole draws one end of the compass down, causing the other end, north or south, as the case may be, to assume an upright position. The restlessness of the needle at or near the magnetic poles is thus accounted for, the force drawing it one-half disappearing, and leaving the opposite pole to do the work of both. Hence a weak or vacillating needle.
Next: Chapter IV. Around the Curve