the Inner Core
the Outer Core
Lesson #1: The Earth is NOT a ball of molten lava
The first question
everyone asks me when they hear of the Hollow Planet idea is: "Where does
lava come from then?" The (completely FALSE) impression schools have created
in everyone's minds is that the Earth is this red-hot ball of lava. They
then imagine that lava from volcanoes comes from the centre of the Earth.
Ask any geologist or seismologist if this is true and you will discover they
disagree. Standard geology and seismology texts tell a different story.
Scientists know that most lava is slightly radioactive and they believe it
is produced either by decaying radium (decayed uranium) or through stresses
in the crust. Lava is created by heat generated within the crust of the
Earth. The crust is said to be no more than 20 miles thick, although to be
honest nobody has ever actually penetrated the crust so we really do not
know what (if anything different) lies beneath it. Scientists will tell you
that lava is a crustal phenomenon and all lava comes from no deeper than 20
If the Earth were an "ocean of molten lava" then it would actually be
subject to tidal pressures and the continents would be broken to pieces as
the earth rotated. Scientists say the Earth is actually composed of solid
rock for the most part. As you go deeper, the pressures are supposed to be
so great that the rock actually flows from extreme pressure. (As you will
see, even this may not be really true). But nowhere in modern geology or
seismology will you see them saying the Earth is a ball of molten lava.
In fact, the final proof comes from seismology itself. When an
occurs, seismic waves travel out in all directions throughout all the earth.
There are two types of seismic waves: P and S. Based on this, scientists
know that all of the earth is actually quite RIGID and composed only of
rock. The only partial exception is the Outer core. Take a look the seismic
If the earth were truly molten, then seismic waves would be
considerably dampened down. So the fact that seismic waves can travel
through and around the earth shows that it is mostly completely rigid and
In the above seismic diagram (from a text book on seismology), D=Mantle,
E=Outer core, G=Inner core.
Lesson #2: Traditional Hollow
Earth ideas fail the "seismology test"
show you why scientists simply laugh at the idea of a Hollow Planet. Keep in
mind that all Hollow Earthers have, for more than a century, been saying
that the Earth's crust is 800-1000 miles thick.
Note in the above diagram,
that seismic waves travel from the source of an earthquake (on the left)
through the Earth at various angles and therefore reach the other side (this
is not true of all seismic waves, but of the main ones, referred to as "P"
waves). If you were to propose that a planet only has a crust of 1,000 miles
or less, then this is why a scientist would laugh at you. See the image
In the above diagram you can see the seismic ray paths (red lines) moving
away from an earthquake source. Note how the huge cavity in this
"traditional" hollow earth model would block out all the "P"
reaching the other side of the Earth. So clearly, this type of approach does
not fit the known scientific facts and so we must discard it.
Lesson #3: Is there any Hollow
Earth seismic model which allows waves to go around the Earth?
The obvious problem posed by the theory is that seismic
waves actually reach right across to the other side of the Earth. Scientists
are therefore quite confident that the P waves must have passed through the
core of the Earth and this tells them that there cannot be a cavity.
When I did my feasibility study (which is what my
book is), I looked at the
problem from every conceivable angle to see if there was any Hollow Earth
model which made seismic sense. I found only one - I repeat - only one,
which has any merits. All other Hollow Earth seismic models are failures.
Take a look at it below.
In the above model, I simply used the Earth's structure as scientists define
it now. I replaced the Outer Core with a cavity (I'll explain why later -
because there is a sound reason for it). But the thing I changed was the
structure of the Mantle. I wondered what would happen if density within a
sphere did not increase uniformly as has been assumed.
What if density
actually DECREASES from a certain point onwards? You will notice all
solid-earth seismology shows ray paths curving in a "U" back to the surface
of the Earth. That is because density and pressure increases as you go
deeper. But if, for some reason, density were to suddenly decrease, then the
waves would curve in the opposite direction! I realized this, and you can
see what then happens. In the middle of the Mantle, where density suddenly
decreases, it causes seismic waves to travel around the cavity - right to
the other side of the Earth!
You would be excused for believing that the waves might have passed through
the core of the Earth when in fact nothing of the kind happened.
Lesson #4: The Mystery of the "Shadow Zone"
The next problem in global
seismology is explaining the mysterious "Shadow Zone". There is a lack of
waves between 103o-144o from the epicenter of a quake. Take a look at the
problem as seen from a university-level text-book on seismology.
Note how the P waves strike the
Outer Core and scientists believe the
refraction caused by this sudden change in density can explain the shadow.
But notice, in this university-level text book how they are befuddled
because there are still some waves which reach the shadow zone (dotted
They are at a complete loss to explain this. Now let me explain to
you how perfectly my Hollow Earth model solves this problem. Take a look at
the image below.
After changing some parameters in my
Hollow Planet seismic model, I have a
"Shadow Zone" which matches the facts exactly! I made the cavity smaller,
and I moved the "point of maximum density" (the dark circle in the Mantle)
somewhat lower. Note: The
Green area near the surface is the "Shadow Zone".
Now look at the amazing thing that happens.
We have P waves behaving as
normal right up to 103o. Then suddenly there are very few of them inside the
Shadow Zone and then after the Shadow Zone we are a greater and greater
number of ray paths eventually converging on the other side of the Earth!
This is exactly consistent with the known facts of global seismology!
Sometimes small things can make a huge difference. It is obvious from the
Hollow Planet diagram why there would be a Shadow Zone. This is caused by
the gradual change from "increasing density" to "decreasing density." This
causes the waves to "split" - some to go down while others go up. So there
has to then be an area on the surface which receives less seismic waves than
normal - hence the "Shadow Zone."
A really crucial point is that the "Shadow
Zone" is not completely devoid of waves. In the Hollow Planet model you can
see why - it makes perfect sense. In the solid earth model you can see they
have to stretch their imaginations (dotted lines) in order to try to find
some explanation. In their diagram they believe the Shadow is cased by sharp
refraction - but clearly that explanation does not quite fit the facts.
Lesson #5: Proving, that the Outer and Inner cores - do not exist at all
You have been wondering why I removed the
Outer Core altogether from my
Hollow Planet seismic model. The answer is simple. There are two kinds of
seismic waves - P waves - which are much like sound waves.
They are pressure
waves caused by a direct "push" through the matter. But then there are
waves - shear waves - which are like taking a piece of hose-pipe and moving
it up and down rapidly. P waves can travel through everything
except a vacuum (although if they traveled through air they would be considerably
weaker than when they traveled through rock or a liquid). S waves however,
can only be transmitted through rigid materials - like rock.
It has long
been known to scientists that unlike P waves which can travel around the
world - S waves are in fact "blocked" by something. They named this
"something" the Outer Core. They decided the
Outer Core had to be non-rigid.
If the Outer Core were a type of "liquid" then
P waves could pass through
it, but S waves could not. Hence they "invented" the
Outer Core. Very early
on, when I became interested in the Hollow Earth idea, I
property of the Outer Core, and I wondered if the Outer
Core was really a
liquid, or if it was, in reality a cavity. My big problem however was
figuring out how P waves behaved.
Now let me show you that the
Outer Core does not exist at all, while the
Inner Core is merely the part of the Earth in the immediate vicinity of the
Here we have a standard solid-Earth seismic model.
The waves we are interested in are those which passed
through the core - the
PKP and PKIKP waves. When one takes a look at the data showing the speed
with which seismic waves travel, one discovers an interesting thing: Waves
which pass through the Core (those which are supposed to be going in a
straight line) actually slow down! What makes this even more curious is that
P waves are supposed to speed up when they pass through dense material.
there is no place on this planet which is as dense as the Inner Core! So why
do P waves then slow down? According to the formula for the transmission of
sound/pressure waves - speed is affected by two factors: (a) Density (b)
Elasticity. This gives scientists a way of getting out of the problem by
saying: "If the Density has increased, but the wave has slowed down, it must
THEREFORE mean that the Elasticity increased."
Let us return to my
Hollow Planet seismic model.
Take a look at the ray paths of the waves which reached the
other side of
the Earth, beyond the Shadow Zones. Look at the paths they
They did not travel through the core - they took a longer path around the
(b) They were the waves which
traveled near the cavity - hence
near the area of lowest density!
Both those factors would cause the waves to
take a longer time to travel to the other side of the Earth, hence, giving
the appearance that they slowed down, while apparently traveling in a
more-or-less straight line!! There, once more, we find a perfect match
between my Hollow Planets Seismic model and what we know about global
As you can see, this explanation accounts for everything
observed and yet there is no need for either an Outer or Inner Core.
Lesson #6: Amazing Seismic Speed Revelations - proving the Earth is
Seismologists often produce diagrams such as the one below which
show the speed of seismic waves inside the Earth at various depths.
You will notice, at various depths, such as at the 5,000 Km level, the speed
of waves changing very sharply - either speeding up or slowing down.
Scientists look at these sharp changes in speed and then state that this is
due to sharp changes in density.
They use this to "prove" that the
composed of a different type of material to the Outer Core and so forth. You
have seen the Hollow Planets seismic model and how radically a seismic ray's
path may differ from the solid Earth model. Supposing the Earth really is
hollow, it would then follow that the paths of waves differ in reality from
what scientific theory supposes.
That being the case, scientists may suppose
a certain ray speeds up or slows down when in fact it does nothing of the
kind. If they knew the right path (like the rays going through the core for
example), then it might turn out that such rapid speed changes never
However, since scientists are obsessed with the need to have a model which
matches the 6 trillion tons needed (according to their gravity experiments),
they need to find a way of "packing lots of matter into the Earth". So they
are looking for evidence of changes in density. I'm sure that when they find
they have to account for certain behavior by postulating such instantaneous
increases/decreases in speed that it makes them confident they are on the
right track. But the opposite may be true. It is entirely possible that if
one knew the exact paths of the rays that one would find the speed of
seismic waves would not vary that much.
This is a most important point. It would mean that my
Hollow Planet seismic
model is internally consistent. In other words, it postulates that the
is homogenous, and a resultant analysis of seismic wave speeds along the
paths postulated should then prove that indeed the Earth is homogenous.
would be a further proof that my model is the right one and not the solid
Lesson #7: Deep Quakes may disprove the Solid Earth model
scientists, pressure increases with depth. According to their calculations
the pressure is so great that between 70-150 Km down, all rock will begin to
flow. Below 150 Km there is no known material which will not flow.
Therefore, according to scientists,
there can be no earthquakes with
epicenters deeper than 150 Km - because it is IMPOSSIBLE!
But there are! Tens of thousands of Earthquakes have epicenters
150 Km. The histogram below shows some curious things.
It shows that earthquakes occur right up to a depth of 300 Km down.
picture is somewhat consistent with science's expectations because there are
less quakes with depth (though they do not stop at 150 Km as expected). Then
a most curious thing happens, they increase in number up to a depth of 700
Km where they end. Scientists try to explain these quakes by invoking
various possible strange properties of matter. Although each theory advanced
so far has had problems with it.
What no scientist on Earth is willing to accept is that maybe gravity does
not behave the way they believe it does! That histogram may be the proof
that gravity does not behave as is expected at depth. Why can't scientists
look at that histogram and see it for what it might be telling us? That
histogram may be "stating" quite clearly that the Earth does not have those
pressures inside and that it remains relatively cool down to incredible
depths? Maybe that diagram is "telling us" that gravity does not behave at
depths the way we are expecting. If that is so, then everything we think we
know about the mass of the Earth may be wrong.
Note, gravity is a very weak force and even a bit of static electricity
could produce an attraction far in excess of anything gravity could produce
- but with a fraction of the mass. If that is the case, you don't need to
worry about the Earth having to have a mass of 6 trillion tons. It may weigh
As final note, it may be that there are quakes deeper than 700 Km but they
are so far away, and maybe the effects of gravity are so weak that they do
not have enough force for us to detect them.
Let me point out that
seismologists have indeed speculated about the possible existence of "Silent
Earthquakes" which are remain undetected by our equipment.