Venus goes through phases like our Moon. At a certain point in its orbit,
relative to the Earth, Venus will appear as a “half-moon” shape. This is
easy to predict. The problem is that Venus never matches this prediction.
Venus is either a few days early or a few days late. The Moon goes through
its phases like clock-work and so too should Venus. It is inconceivable that
it does not.
Let us review the facts. Either light is not behaving the way it should in
the vicinity of Venus, or the spherical form of Venusis undergoing change.
I do not see how light could be the problem in this case, since the light we
are seeing is being reflected off the top of the Venusian atmosphere. The
refraction of light cannot possibly be the cause of the problem since we are
not seeing light which is coming up through the atmosphere. We are merely
seeing the Sun’s light being reflected off the day-side of Venus. The
astronomers are puzzled by the position of the terminator (line between
light and dark parts of the image) of Venus. Sometimes it is too far towards
the night side and at other times too far towards the day side. The
terminator is therefore “waving” back and forth, to and away from the Sun –
over a period of months.
The Phase Anomaly of Venus can only be caused by varying lighting conditions
on Venus. Since Venus has a thick atmosphere and
two possible Polar Holes,
it is apparent that large scale fluctuations in the Venusian atmosphere may
be a contributing factor. Now that we have identified the many factors
which are at work, the solution will fall perfectly into place. The Phase
Anomaly is most apparent at dichotomy when Venus has a “half-moon” shape and
the terminator should be a perfectly straight line. It is at these times
obvious that it is not a straight line. Detecting the phase anomaly at other
parts of the Venusian phase is much more difficult.
After all these experiments (omitted from this summary), Brinton and
are thus testifying to the fact that the Polar regions are much brighter
than they should be. They also recognize that this brightness is
considerably variable. These two astronomers are testifying to the existence
of the “Horns of Venus”. What they did not mention is that these
not possibly be lit by the Sun since they lie beyond where the terminator
should be. What if the Horns are being lit by light from inside Venus? Or by
a luminous Venusian atmosphere?
Let me emphasize the key issue here.
Whenever astronomers speak of the Phase Anomaly of Venus, they keep
emphasizing and concentrating on the Venusian terminator and the fact that
it is wrongly placed. What they tend to skimp over so often is that the
cusps are really the problem. The problem is not the terminator. The problem
lies at the cusps. It is the abnormal lighting of the cusps which extends
beyond the semi-circle into the night side of Venus that is the problem. It
is these cusps which are lit for a distance beyond the semi-circle. Brinton
and Moore did realize this, but they did not emphasize it enough.
Let me point out another simple and yet highly relevant fact. If the
Venusian dichotomy occurs late, one can then indeed point to some
atmospheric phenomenon. Remember that the planet’s orbit does not change.
The planet is moving around the Sun exactly in accordance with expectations.
The planet is in the right place at the right time. Hence the changing form
of the planet is due to something on the planet itself. Now if the Venusian
phase is retarded, then one might have to look for dark matter in the
atmosphere which is reducing some of its reflectivity. In other words part
of the planet must be lit by the Sun, but for some reason it is too dark to
see. But half the time the Venusian phase is accelerated. Parts of Venusare
lighting up before it is in a position to receive light from the Sun.
is of critical importance. Brasch noted that the phase was accelerated by
almost two weeks at times. Now how can we see parts of Venus where the Sun’s
light cannot possible reach? Remember we’re not seeing refracted light from
behind the planet. We are seeing light emanating directly from the sun-lit
portion of the planet. Clearly the planet is lit by more light than can be
accounted for by the Sun alone. Where is this light coming from? As Brinton
and Moore realized, the real problem is related to the unnatural lighting in
the polar regions. What is lighting up the Venusian poles? Clearly, it is
not just a case of bright aerosols in the upper atmosphere. No matter how
reflective the aerosols are, they will still not be seen if lit by the light
of the Sun alone. They must therefore either be producing their own light or
light from another source must be the culprit.
The Hot Polar Caps
When the Pioneer Venus Orbiter flew over the Venusian poles, it discovered
long elongated features stretching 4,000 Km across both poles. These
features are in the area where the Venusian Polar Holes should be. In 1983
Tim Schofield and Dier reported in “Nature”:
“The Venusian polar dipoles are
long-lived, elongated, warm features seen in images of thermal emission from
the polar cloud tops of the planet. They are almost 4,000 Km across, are
centered close to the pole, and appear to rotate with a period of
approximately 3 days retrograde.”
The feature is not only bright, but there
seems to be a “dent” in the polar cloud structure:
“Detailed comparisons of
the data sets indicate that this (polar collar temperature) inversion fills
and the cloud top sinks as a dipole hotspot is approached, suggesting that
the dipole is a combination of temperature and cloud phenomenon.”
cloud layer is 15 Km lower than the rest of the venusian atmosphere. Could
this layer fall even more if air is being sucked into Venus?
Tim Schofield (NASA):
“The polar regions of
Venus ought to be cold compared
with the equator. However, the dipole is warmer than the equator, and the
polar atmosphere above the cloud tops is warmer than the equator up to 90 Km
due to descending air.”
Air moving away from the equator can surely only be
cooling down as it moves ever further away from direct sun-light. How can
this air possibly become warmer as it moves further away from the equator?
What if Venus is hollow and a tremendous amount of heat is escaping from
inside it? Could this be why the polar dipole is hotter than the equator?
Light Beneath the Clouds
Due to the thick Cytherean atmosphere and its misty makeup, it was expected
to be quite dark on the Venusian surface. In 1976 Keldysh wrote:
mystery in the Venera 9 pictures is the apparent shadows cast by the rocks.
Avduevsky points out that as the lander descended, it took continual
measurements of the illumination from all sides. It recorded the sort of
diffuse light expected under a cloud cover. ‘Then it landed, and all of a
sudden these shadows.’ If they are shadows, they would indicate a directed
light source in the Venus atmosphere, possible a rift in the clouds or
something more exotic.”
Another article in 1975 also questioned the
“An important question is why the surprisingly sharp rocks also
seem to have surprisingly sharp shadows. If the Venusian atmosphere diffuses
incoming sunlight as broadly as has been expected, why are not the shadows
either faint or multidirectional if not completely absent.”
photographs taken by
A further study of the night side of Venus suggests that there is some sort
of light/heat coming from beneath the clouds on the night side of the
planet. In 1984 two Australian scientists, D. Allen and J. Crawford reported
“Observations of the dark side of the planet
Venus at infrared
wavelengths . . . have shown it to be anomalously bright in portions of this
The images produced by Allen and Crawford do not show any
reduction in the intensity of lighting far away from the Venusian
terminator. The intensity of infrared radiation at the terminator is the
same as that far away from the terminator towards the midnight sector. Could
this indicate that the light is coming from another direction? From the
surface of the polar regions? I say this because the six images presented in
their paper always have the infrared radiation occurring in bands which lie
parallel to the equator. Even when there is little infrared radiation, the
“clouds” giving off this radiation stretch all the way to the midnight
sector. In fact, the scientists admitted that “the nature of the cloud
structure is far from certain.” Could this mean that the light which
produces the phenomenon comes from the North and South Poles of the planet
thereby lighting up the cloud in broad bands at the same latitude?
The “Y” and “W” Markings on Venus
According to radar measurements Venus has a 243 day axial rotation.
Measurements of a great many ultraviolet photographs of the cloud tops shows
them rotating about the planet in a mere 4 days! This phenomenon is known as
‘super-rotation’ and no one know what causes it. Why should the
rotate about the planet faster than the planet itself? Where does the energy
for this come from? I think I can show that there is a connection between
the Phase Anomaly of Venus and the super-rotation. The super-rotation was
only discovered when satellites went to Venus. It turns out that the
atmosphere has a far lesser degree of super-rotation as well.
Ultraviolet photographs taken in the 1960s showed the apparent movement of
dark features in the Venusian atmosphere. These included the Y and W shapes
which are centered on the equator. How long lived is the “Y” feature on
Venus? Boyer and Guerin felt it could survive for decades, while
Scott and Reese felt it appeared at random and only lasted for 8 – 16 days.
The “Y” feature is enormous, and covers almost half of Venus. What causes
Nobody knows. I think Beebe, Scott and Reese are right, and that the “Y”
appears at random and then dissipates. But why should a “Y” form
consistently? The “Y” is exactly the same size each time. Venus rotates so
slowly and the “Y” races across the planet’s surface. It is not linked to
any geographical feature. But it is produced consistently. The “W” feature
is equally mysterious. It too covers half the planet.
What if the “Y” and “W” features are both caused by the “breathing” of
Venus? What if this breathing of Venus is driving the tremendous
super-rotation of the planet’s atmosphere? I would now like to offer a
suggestion as to what drives the super-rotation of the Venusian atmosphere
and what causes the “Y” and “W” features. What if air is pumped out of Inner
Venus and it rushes out high in the atmosphere, equatorward? The rotation of Venus would then deflect the air in the direction in which the planet is
Thus when the air currents from the north meet the air currents
from the south, they have both been diverted in the same direction. This
combines their strength and a powerful river of air rushes along the equator
in the direction of the rotation of the planet. This powerful torrent of air
then gives the atmosphere a hefty shove in the direction of the rotation of Venus. Hence the atmosphere begins to flow faster than Venus rotates. It’s
as simple as that.
New questions come to mind. For example: Why does the “Y” cover
approximately half of Venus? The “Y” covers one entire hemisphere (west to
east). I think the “Y” shape is created on the night side of
Meanwhile, on the day side the following is happening: Remember R. M. Baum’s
Radial spokes at the subsolar point? Hot air is rising at the subsolar
point. Air currents are carrying away the hot air in all directions. The
planetary and atmospheric rotation might deform the radial spokes so that
they are especially elongated in the direction of the planet’s rotation.
Suddenly large masses of air come rushing out of the Polar Holes.
with air currents moving away from the equator. The rest of the atmosphere
is super-rotating and the predominant effect is a push in the direction of
the rotation of the planet. These colliding air currents then merge to form
a “W” lying on its side. Thus, I think the “Y” forms on the night side of Venus and, at the same time, a “W” forms on the day side. Both these dusky
marking being the result of air blowing out of Venus.
These formations are “one time” events. Air is not continually flowing out
of Inner Venus (as we have noted with the telescopic observations). Strong
air currents come out for short periods and then it stops. The “Y” and “W”
markings are then carried around the planet by the super-rotation which they
helped create. The markings then slowly dissipate or are overcome by
vigorous new outflows.
Let us suppose that air is later sucked into the inner part of Venus. Would
this be responsible for an effect similar to water going down the drain?
Would this perhaps be why the polar dipole spins even faster than the rest
of the sphere? Could this sucking in and blowing out is responsible for all
the weather on this very slowly rotating planet?
When Venus Breathes
An important theme so far has been that Venus “breathes” by way of air
flowing into and out of an inner cavity. The amount of “breathing” is
considerable. Enormous volumes of air probably flow into and out of this
planet. Several decades ago Gerard Kuiper discovered that there were daily
fluctuations in the infrared spectrum ofVenus. No one knew why this was
occurring. L. G. Young et al. from Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
studied the Venusian spectra nightly during the autumn of 1972. Their study
was reported in the “Astrophysical Journal”:
“Astronomers are well enough
acquainted with periodic variations in the light from the stars, but a
variable planet is quite a different matter. However, the planet Venus shows
regular changes in the spectrum of its atmosphere, according to four
scientists at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The strengths of carbon
dioxide lines in the Venusian atmosphere swing through a four-day cycle.”
Could this mean that the atmosphere inside Venus is different to the
atmosphere on the outside of the planet? Could airflow into and out of the
planet be causing this variable spectrum? Is the atmosphere being changed by
something inside the planet? Is an Inner Sun changing the chemistry of the
atmosphere in some way?
All the above taken together indicates that the entireVenusian atmosphere
in a given hemisphere moves to and from the polar regions. What makes it
difficult to detect is that the entire atmosphere is affected and it moves
quite slowly. Some of the air is sucked into this hole which causes the
entire outer atmosphere to be lowered by 1 Km. The only reason the entire Venusian atmosphere can move up and down like this is if it is being sucked
into a hole and then expelled later. A rise and fall of 1 Km. In the
Venusian atmosphere means that 115 million cubic miles of air is being
sucked into Venus and then being expelled. This corresponds to approximately
1.1% of the total Venusian atmosphere.
Since the Venusian atmosphere rotates
about the planet in a mere 4 days, and the breathing also occurs in cycles
of 4 days, it would seem that all of this must be driven in some way by an
Inner Sun. One of the questions raised by scientists is: Where does the
mechanical energy come from? The Inner Sun’s activities seem to be the basis
for this. Exactly how is somewhat of a mystery. There seems to be some sort
of pressure balancing act going on between Inner and Outer Venus which is
the cause for this strange cycle.