Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. We know less about this world than any other planet except Pluto – which is furthest from the Sun. Mercury has only been visited by one space probe. It is an extremely hot and virtually airless world. It rotates very slowly which gives the Sun a long time to warm up various parts of Mercury while other parts become extremely cold. Mercury is similar to our Moon in many ways and is only slightly larger than it. Its surface is covered in craters – most of volcanic origin. Its mass is so low that it is thought to be theoretically impossible for this planet to retain a permanent atmosphere of any substance. Mercury’s atmosphere is virtually nonexistent. There are no clouds on Mercury. There are no dust storms either. There are no cold winds on Mercury.

Magnetic Field Mysteries

In this age of computers and satellites, we still do not know how the magnetic field of the Earth or any other planet is generated. The Dynamo theory has its origins in the molten core idea. One thing we do know about the Earth’s magnetic field is that it originates at the centre of the Earth. It is said that convection currents in the molten core generate the magnetic field. It follows that since the Earth rotates, the molten core also rotates. If the core is generating the magnetic field, then the magnetic field’s north and south magnetic poles should coincide with the Earth’s north and south geographic poles. This also holds true for any other planets. If this explanation is true, then a planet can only have a magnetic field when the following conditions are satisfied:

1) The planet must be hot enough to have molten core

2) It must rotate fast enough to generate a magnetic field

Scientists get their fair share of unexpected surprises. It was so in the case of Mercury when it turned out to have a magnetic field in spite of its slow rotation and in spite of it possibly not having a molten core.

The Earth’s magnetic field is tilted 11 degrees away from its axis of rotation. Many other planetary fields are tilted anomalously. Some scientists admit there are problems with the dynamo theory:

“At present. . . scientists have only one surviving theory for the origin of planetary magnetic fields. . . the dynamo theory. Akasofu notes, however, that since a planet’s rotation is such an important source of energy for its dynamo, the observed large tilts of planetary magnetic fields with respect to their rotation axes pose ‘a great puzzle’”.

William Metz commented:

“Because Mercury rotates slowly (once in 58.6 days) and emits no radio emissions that can be detected from the Earth, the early evidence for a magnetic field was surprising…”

Metz was surprised that the magnetic field was off-centre by a staggering 47% of the radius of the planet, while being inclined at 10 degrees to the planet’s poles.

Is Mercury’s magnetic field generated by an Inner Sun which orbits approximately 700 miles away from the planet’s centre? If an Inner Sun were to be a reality, we would not know exactly how it is held in place in the centre of the planet. It might even move – or sway – as the planet speeds up and slows down. On the other hand, perhaps one cannot be exactly certain of its position since Mercury possesses excess iron and perhaps this distorts the resultant magnetic field. There would have to be some kind of repulsive force which prevents such a Central Sun from crashing into the side of a Hollow Planet. Perhaps the magnetic field which such an Inner Sun generates is itself part of the mechanism which helps to hold it in its place.

Blunt Cusps

The tips, or ‘horns’ of a crescent are also know as the ‘cusps’. Both Mercury and Venus suffer from the “blunted cusp” phenomenon. Mercury and Venus, both being closer to the Sun than the Earth, are the only two other planets in the solar system which go through phases similar to the Moon when viewed from Earth. Both of them on odd occasions present us with a blunted cusp. It would seem that the planet is “dented” at this point. This “dent” in the planet is causing the blunted cusp effect. What is causing such a dent? In the case of Venus, I suspect the presence of a gigantic hole in the crust which is causing the atmosphere to be sucked into the centre of the planet. This dent may have a temporary effect on the planet’s cloud cover. Mercury has no detectable atmosphere which covers the planet, yet Mercury has a similar hole in its crust or perhaps dust-laden air escapes by way of a smallish hole to create this effect?

While many have suggested that Mercury’s blunted cusp is due to a dark area on the ground, there are others who have dismissed it as an optical illusion. Mercury has almost no atmosphere. How can an optical illusion occur on such a grand scale when there’s no atmosphere to cause it? Why is the South Pole mainly affected? And why is the region exceptionally bright on some occasions? It is noteworthy that the phenomenon occurs at both poles, but most often at the southern pole. This suggests that we’re dealing with a real phenomenon rather than a mere optical illusion.

Ice Cubes in Hell

There may be another indication that Mercury has an atmosphere inside it. Where does the ice come from which was found at its poles? And is it as old as scientists say it is? Various scientists and writers have pointed out that the temperature at the Mercurian equator reaches a staggering 800 degrees F. This, they argue, should cause Mercury to been “baked bone dry”. Mariner 10 had also found no evidence of water on Mercury in 1974. This changed due to a surprise announcement in 1991. Scientists were amazed when their very powerful Earth-based radar revealed a highly reflective patch at Mercury’s North Pole. Since ice reflects very well it was thought that this was caused by ice. Calculations showed that this was possible. The polar temperatures on Mercury can plunge to –235 degrees F. on its polar night side. It was thus thought that some water vapor in the planet’s thin atmosphere might freeze in the polar regions thereby creating ice or frost caps. The ice patch was estimated to be 640 X 300 Km in size. One UCLA planetary scientist commented: “It’s like finding snowballs in hell.” But the radar echoes from these patches were definitely characteristic of ice.

Many observers have noticed the existence and movement of bright spots all over Mercury’s surface, including its polar regions. Could these bright areas be snow, or water-vapor bearing clouds or a combination of the above? The idea of water-vapor being in the air coming out of Mercury must seem strange. It would indicate that the temperature inside Mercury is at least above freezing point. This air could of course freeze as it exits on to the outside of the planet. This depends of course on the exact point it is exiting from. Assuming that this exit point is not exactly at the South Pole, one would expect ice to only form when this point lies in darkness, in the extreme cold of the night or when this air blows towards the night side of the planet. It would be evaporated during the next Mercurian day (in several weeks time). Only the ice in polar crater floors would be able to survive for long periods of time. The interior of a hollow Mercury would surely be exceptionally cold since it never receives direct sunlight. If air exits out of Mercury containing water vapor, then this indicates the presence of a heat source inside Mercury. No matter how hot Mercury is on the day side, it is unlikely that this heat could filter through the thick crust to warm the interior. Hence Mercury must have an Inner source of heat. This Inner source of heat might well be the same thing that produces its magnetic field. Does this imply that Mercury has an inner Sun?

The constant changes in the Mercurian polar regions clearly indicate that something enormous is happening there. At one moment the entire polar region disappears and cannot be viewed (blunted cusps) and at other times these regions become exceptionally bright. This seems to have been ignored by professional astronomers. Perhaps it is time someone just stood up and challenged all this theory for once and for all.

The Ring and The Spot

Mercury sometimes passes directly between the Earth and the Sun. This is known as a transit. These transits are to be observed only in May and November. As Mercury creeps across the Sun’s face, it is usually a vivid black, but on occasion a bright spot appears just south of the planet’s center. A halo of bright light around the black disk is sometimes seen too. The halo may accompany the bright spot, but not always, and vice versa. One, rarely two, small bright points of light are seen on the black disk of Mercury as it transits the Sun. Sometimes, the spot appears greyish. It is rarely centered, being mostly south of the center of the disk. In 1878 in the “Scientific American", there was an article with the strange title: Is There A Hole Through Mercury? It seems this bright spot had caught the attention of astronomers of that time and the idea had been suggested that there is a hole which goes right through Mercury. This hole is only visible when Mercury is in the process of transiting across the Sun. With the Sun behind it, one would then be able to see this bright spot – which would be the result of the Sun shining directly through the planet.

My own investigations into the spot are inconclusive. There are many accounts of this spot – and how it moves. My attempts at correlating the spot with a physical feature (based on the planet’s period of rotation being 58.6 days) have been unsuccessful. The possibility may exist that one is not seeing the Sun, but perhaps the Inner Sun of Mercury.

The ring around Mercury also should not be appearing. It too is regarded as an optical illusion, yet it may not be. The supporting evidence I have presented here strongly suggests that Mercury does indeed have a temporary atmosphere. In that case, a ring around the planet is to be expected. The ring is merely the result of the Sun’s light passing through the atmosphere.

Air Conditioning on Mercury

Scientists often compare Mercury and the Moon and have good reason to expect them to behave similarly. Calculations had shown that if the Moon were placed at the same distance from the Sun as Mercury then its average temperature would be 350 degrees K. (77 degrees C.). This would vary by 200 degrees K. as it orbits the Sun. From 16 July 1965 to 17 October 1965 studied Mercury’s temperature. To their amazement they found that even though their observations covered an almost complete revolution of Mercury, there was no significant temperature variation with phase and that Mercury was abnormally cool. When one examines the graph which shows the phase of Mercury versus the measured temperatures, then a number of anomalous incidents become apparent.


At times when the illuminated portion was small, the temperatures suddenly jumped from the 200 – 300 degree K. range up to 500 degrees K. And at times when the illuminated portion was large, the temperature rose and fell strangely. For example, early in September the temperature is recorded as 150 degrees K. Later in September it jumps to 400 degrees K. Early in October it falls down to about 70 degrees K. and then within a week it rises to about 230 degrees K. The September and October incidents took place when the phase was between 0.8 and 1.0 (1.0 = fully illuminated). During this period the temperature should be rising steadily, but it did not. I wonder whether this could be caused by the presence of cold winds and ice from the interior and their disappearance later which then allows the planet to start heating up again.

It seems logical that a Mercurian inner atmosphere, being shielded from the Sun, might be cooler than the outer surface. And if the inner atmosphere is from time to time excited by an inner Sun it might flow out on to the surface for a time. We should then find that these winds will absorb some of the enormous outer heat and help to cool down the sunlit side of Mercury. This might explain why Mercury was so much cooler than it should have been – for the period under observation. At other times, when there is no exchange of air between the inner and outer surfaces, the outer surface would heat up rapidly.

Could water-laden winds blow from inside Mercury out through some Polar Holes – the largest of which may be at its South Pole? These winds might deposit ice on the cold, dark side of Mercury, while cooling down the hot, day side of Mercury. The ice is deposited around the polar caps and even further afield. As Mercury rotates, the ice then melts. The ice which falls in craters and depressions which are not warmed by the Sun, is then later covered by dust blown by the cold winds from inside Mercury. The winds of Mercury seem to be relatively periodic and could do with more study. Perhaps the polar regions of Mercury should be constantly watched using radar. Such studies would show whether the winds of Mercury originate from inside the planet. One could not attribute the mass deposition of ice around its polar caps to ice comets.


This is especially true if this deposition is cyclical and frequent. If such is the case, it can only originate from inside the planet. It would then demonstrate that not only does that planet have a substantial atmosphere inside it, but that it has water vapor. For water vapor to exist in air coming out of the inside of the planet there must therefore be a source of heat which prevents the water from turning to ice inside the cool, dark depths of the planet. Does that planet have an Inner Sun? If that planet has some kind of atmosphere, and water vapor, and some heating mechanism inside, one can only wonder if perhaps some kind of life may exist inside that planet? The answers to all these questions may be found if we can find out more about the Cold Winds of Mercury.