CHAPTER 2 – NEWTONIAN GRAVITY REVISITED “Newton’s Law of Gravity of one of the most useful mathematical formulae ever devised. This little formula has made space travel and the exploration of the Solar System possible. It made satellites possible.... Scientists use this little formula to gain an understanding of galaxies far away, and indeed the behavior of the universe as a whole. It is now more than 300 years since Newton devised this little formula and we still do now know what causes gravity.” With this introduction the author then goes into a long, detailed, technical discussion of gravity. He contrasts the theories of “attraction” and “pressure”.  Euler and other scientists believed that the universe was filled with low density material called “ether” (among other things) which exert pressure on bodies of higher density, and that the attraction observed between these bodies could be caused by shielding of this pressure in the space between the bodies. Many inconsistencies with the accepted Newtonian laws are noted. The mass of the Earth was determined by experiments by Cavendish which have been verified by others. Based on this and assuming that the Earth is a solid sphere, many scientists argue that other planets must be solid also. Dr. Tom Van Flandern, a contemporary scientist who believes in the “pressure” theory exposes contradictions between two dearly-held theories in science. Newtonian Gravity – and indeed any gravity seems to defy Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Newtonian gravity is accurately measured and proven with the bounds of the solar system. However, Newtonian gravity remains untested in other areas. All we have is a formula. This formula has been used to determine the mass of the Earth. This is based on the concept that for each mass of M inside the Earth, it exerts and attractive force of F. We do not know the valid range for Newtonian gravity. Inside Newton’s formula is G. G is the “universal gravitational constant”. It is assumed – and assumed is the correct word here – that each mass of M exerts the same force of F regardless of where in the universe it may be placed. It is also assumed that each mass of M exerts the same force F whether it lies on the surface of the Earth or whether it be deep inside the Earth. When using the Cavendish balance to determine the mass of the Earth, it is assumed that each particle exerts a fixed force upon all others. But if Van Flandern’s ideas turn out to be right, then particles near the surface of a planet might exert a force greater than those deep down. The key to all of our gravity is the mass of the Earth. If the mass of the Earth is wrong, then so are our estimates for those of other bodies. If the mass of the Earth has been overstated, then it follows that the masses of all other bodies in the solar system have also been overstated. If the Earth is hollow, then so too is every other planet in the solar system. Other anomalies are discussed such as, strange gravity noted by pendulum experiments during solar eclipses Saturn’s gravity-defying rings, gravity-defying galaxies “inverse square break downs” There are four basic forces which are believed to represent all physical interaction in nature. They are: 1. Electromagnetism 2. The Weak force of Particle Physics 3. The Strong force of Particle Physics 4. Gravity A. H. Cook from the Cavendish Laboratory in England admits that gravitational experiments, even in laboratories, are fraught with danger: “Experiments on gravitation do indeed present the experimenter with a considerable challenge. First, the forces are very small: The gravitational force between two protons is 10 to the negative 40th power of the electrical force, hence in many laboratory systems the forces are not very large compared with fundamental quantum fluctuations and mechanical disturbances... The forces of gravitation are very small...  When the difficulties of determining the mass of a body weighing more than a few kilograms, and the position of its centre of mass, are considered, they effectively limit experimental studies to masses of a few kilograms and distances of about 0.5 m." How can we be sure that the Earth really has the mass accorded it by Newtonian gravity? Is an experiment, using two lead balls really representative of the entire Earth? How can we be sure that gravity behaves 1,000 miles down in the Earth the same as it does 10 cm down in a lead ball? Scientists are convinced that electric currents flow inside the Earth. These currents almost certainly flow in the same direction. It therefore follows that they will be attractive. Does it not then follow that each mass of M deep inside the Earth might produce a greater force of F than previously considered? If so, then the Earth’s density may be much less than it has been thought of until now. Over and above this theorizing, we still have the excellent mine, borehole, ice-cap and sea bed experiments which definitely show that something is amiss. Regardless of where G was determined, the value of G increased, even at very shallow depths. All this indicates that less mass produced increased attraction. These could be the initial indications that Earth really is hollow.