The Early Background


In 1997, after many years of research and thought regarding the qualities of the ether, I decided to see what others had actually said, before completing this book. Some of the material available to me was second-hand information, being what someone said someone else had said. I wanted to make sure these “repeated statements” were accurate. After some difficulty, I accessed a copy of the classic, A History of the Theories of the Aether and Electricity, by Sir Edmund Whittaker (1951 revised and enlarged second edition, Vols. I and II).


The 1910 first edition of this book was probably the most comprehensive book ever published on ether theory as it existed in 1910, but the 1951 revision merely clarified “acceptable” ether physics. The first edition was printed in Scotland, under the title A History of the Theories of the Ether and Electricity, from the age of Descartes to the close of the nineteenth century.


The second edition incorporated “new material” related to quantum mechanics. Classical theory was in Vol. I, while Vols. II and III gave the origins of relativity and quantum theory up to 1926. Neither the 1910 first edition nor the 1951 revision mentioned Tesla, but the chronological sequence appeared to be “skewered’ in the revised edition, with little or no attempt to point out what the scientists were actually aiming at in terms of electropulsion. Though information regarding Nikola Tesla was omitted, there is much valuable related information.

In his preface, Whittaker stated that where space is now considered “emptiness”—except for its property of propagating electromagnetic waves—the development of quantum electrodynamics referred to a vacuum with a new status as the location of ‘zero point’ oscillations of the electromagnetic fields and zero point fluctuations of electric charge and current, as well as a polarization conforming to that of a dielectric constant, which is non-unity (i.e., which contains energy).


This implies awareness of the ZPR, but quantum theory inherently excludes the possibility of “zero-point” fluctuations, since all such waves are always regarded as possessing one-half “quantum”.

Whittaker said that an alleged failure by ether theory proponents to observe the earth’s motion relative to the ether, caused the downfall of the theory, but the facts show that the relativists, backed by corporate publishing interests, hastily dug the grave and threw the dirt over the 29 corpse of ether theory while it was still alive, for the wrong reasons.


Much of the error was due to focusing on the weakest proponents who believed that a portion of the ether is “carried along” by the earth, and that an optical aberration would have to be observed at some point away from the earth, in order for an ether to exist. It was asserted that the failure of this observation was the “death” of “the” ether theory.


By advertising ether theory’s weakest and most erroneous proponents and ideas, the media made the RQM’s hasty funeral of ether theory easy, and paved the way for the gullible public’s acceptance of relativism. I concluded that Whittaker’s 1951 edition intentionally skewered important facts concerning electropulsion, which I have attempted to straighten out for you in this book. I now feel more comfortable with my version of Tesla’s theory, than I did prior to reading Whittaker’s book, but that was only because I knew what I was looking for.


The facts I found are almost exactly as I said in my second edition of Space Aliens. By reorganizing Whittaker’s material into more proper order, I discovered much “new” (“old”) documentation, that 19th century scientists were in pursuit of electropropulsion, and that there were interesting similarities between the thinking of certain scientists of the era and my own, which could eliminate some erroneous concepts about what they actually said, and shows similarities to what I observed on numerous occasions in the behavior of electropulsive “flying saucers”, since the “proof of the pudding” is when it flies across the dinner table.


It was my intent to examine known theory leading up to Tesla, to see what he contributed to their discoveries, and to determine what happened since that time to obscure, misinterpret and ultimately conceal it. To this end, I present for you a brief history and documentation of pertinent ether physics.


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J.J. Thomson’s “Electromagnetic Momentum”

Returning to the concept of the “carry-along” ether, Max Planck, originator of quantum mechanics, conscribed to this form of ether theory in part, saying that the ether had to be irrotational, carried along at the same velocity as earth near its surface, and compressible and subject to gravity like the atmosphere, in order for the theory to be true.


At best, Planck’s beliefs showed a weak mechanical conceptualization, something unexpected from one purportedly so adept at “mechanics”. J.J. Thomson (1856-1942), discoverer of the electron, conscribed to 30 a different and more plausible ether theory. Thomson had theorized—based on Maxwell’s earlier theory—that a charged spherical conductor moving in a straight line must produce displacement currents in the medium (Phil. Mag. xi [1881], p. 229).


In 1893, twelve years later, he claimed to have discovered “electromagnetic momentum”, saying

“ an electromagnetic field there is stored in every unit volume an amount of mechanical momentum, proportional to the vector product of the electric and magnetic vectors”.

(J.J. Thomson, Recent Researches in Elect. And Mag. [1893], p. 13.)

Thomson also was said to have developed the theory of moving tubes of force—which harked back to Faraday’s earlier work—saying in 1891 that molecular structure is closely connected with tubes of electrostatic force, with magnetism regarded as a secondary force. He stated that,

“...the aether itself is the vehicle of mechanical momentum, of amount (1/4*pi*C) [DB] per unit volume.”

(Phil. Mag. xxxi [1891], p. 149; Recent Researches in Elect. and Mag. [1893], chap. 1.)

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Tesla Shows Up

It is interesting to note that these “discoveries” by Thomson however, although following his initial speculations based on Maxwell’s theory, also followed Tesla’s lecture before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Columbia College, N.Y., on May 20, 1891, in which he described experiments in which he had earlier pre-empted Thomson’s work with experimental verification, together with a demonstration of techniques and machinery built by him which obtained frequencies and voltages which W. Thomson (Lord Kelvin) had said earlier in England, were “impossible to achieve”.


In that sense, the “good old boys” in Britain should have admitted that Tesla’s work was prior, after having acquiesced in the admission without rebuttal, that “they” were unable to create the equipment to produce the required frequencies to investigate and to experimentally verify these phenomena. J.J. Thomson’s theory, which linked electromagnetism with momentum in a mathematical and unified way, on paper, somewhat repeated Tesla’s earlier lecture of 1891, proven by his earlier experiments, but Tesla’s theory was different from Thomson’s, whose theory was incorrect.


Thomson’s electromagnetic momentum could be created instantaneously only with Tesla’s contrivances, which existed before Thomson’s “discovery”, only in Tesla’s laboratory, so there is no way that Thomson could have reduced “his” theory to practice or experimentally verified it.

Though the facts show that Thomson was prior to Tesla in attempting to publish a valid theory, Tesla could not publish prior to perfection of his invention, which was not a factor affecting Thomson. Tesla was first to prove his theory by experimental results. Tesla remained more than a gentleman about it, deferring often to Thomson, though Thomson even attempted later to dishonestly claim Tesla’s alternating current and high frequency discoveries.


Thomson’s earlier work (Phil. Mag. xi [1881], p. 229), concerning a charged spherical conductor, moving in a straight line, had commanded Tesla’s respect and probably influenced his work, but Tesla’s 1884 discovery of the rotating magnetic field had already beaten them all to the punch, and documentation shows that he had arguments with his “learned professors” in Graz, who said he must be “crazy”, from his 1870’s student days, to prove it.

It must have worked a horrible hardship on Tesla, to remain silent about his complete theory, which he could not publish without giving away his technology, before he could perfect a working model to get patent protection. It was like the Wardenclyffe tower, turning in the wind of incompleteness for lack of money, created by having been falsely induced into building an expensive system which would exhaust his energy and financial resources to the point of bankruptcy. In respect to momentum, I would analogize it as follows: When a body is held by a spinning or arcing arm, it contains the changing tubes of force created by angular momentum.


When released, it moves in a straight line vector, corresponding to the state of the tubes of force at the time of release. While held by the arm, centrifugal force was created by the tendency of the tubes to move in a straight line, or at least to continue whatever transverse or complex pattern of movement of the tubes which then existed, which created the resistance to change by the tubes at any moment. Once released, “something” (the microhelical tubes of force, as they then existed) determined its direction of movement and velocity, which in a vacuum would be force-free. These facts are consistent with Tesla’s (Thomson’s, Faraday’s, Maxwell’s) “tubes of force”, which I will explain later in greater detail.

Most of Thomson’s 1881 work harked back to Maxwell, and before him, Faraday, who had stated in 1831 that movement of an electrostatically charged body is equivalent to a current, which was described as a tube of force created by movement and momentum (Faraday, Experimental Res. Sec. 1644; Maxwell, Treatise, Secs. 768-70). In his consideration of the nature of “ponderable matter”, Faraday had suggested that an atom may be nothing more than a field of force—electric, magnetic and gravitational—surrounding a point-centre, which is completely penetrable (Bence Jones’ Life of Faraday, ii, p. 178).


Fresnel later stated,

‘Upon considering the aberration of the stars, I am disposed to believe that the luminiferous aether pervades the substance of all material bodies with little or no resistance, as freely perhaps as the wind passes through a grove of trees’.

Fresnel’s concept presupposed that the ether surrounding the earth was unaffected by earth’s motion, and generally agrees with what is actually observed, except for his failure to consider how the earth’s dynamic electric field affects the ether. Along with his c.1831 theory of an (elastic) solid electric ether, and lines of magnetic force, Faraday considered all space as “filled”.


Wm. Thomson (A.K.A. Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907), at age 17, based on Faraday’s earlier announcements, introduced into mathematical science the idea of electric action at a distance by means of a continuous ether. In 1846, he analogized electric phenomena with mechanical elasticity. It was his early concept that material atoms move through the ether ‘without displacing it or compressing it’ (letter, FitzGerald to Heaviside, 4 Feb. 1889), concepts later to be adopted by Tesla in saying that the ether ‘behaves as a fluid to solid bodies, and as a solid to light and heat’.

About 1853, Bernhard Riemann (1826-66) conceived an ether which resisted compression and changes of orientation (Ann. D. Phvs. cxii [1867], p. 237; Riemann’s Werke, 2e Aufl., p. 288; Phil. Ma2. xxxiv [1867], p. 368).

Riemann thought the resistance to compression caused gravitational and electrostatic effects, while the resistance to changes in orientation caused optical and magnetic phenomena, but he failed to develop these concepts further. These early Riemann insights were however very influential on later thinkers. He conceived a stationary ether based on the generally accepted assumption that, as the earth moved through space, the ability of one to see a star with a steady image disproved a dynamic ether.


As to the propagation of electric action through space, Riemann proposed a new equation in which voltage changes outward from charges with a velocity C, but he also failed to follow up with a proper consideration of the properties of the ether, because he died too damned young. Riemann’s insights were verified almost 50 years later, ten years longer than his entire lifetime.

Years later, Maxwell, after reading Faraday’s 1831 Experimental Researches in Electricity (3 Vols.), formed a mechanical conception of the electromagnetic field, connecting Faraday’s magnetic lines of force and electrical ideas with the mathematical analogies of Wm. Thomson, carrying Faraday’s concepts a step further (I have always liked to say that Maxwell “put the math to Faraday”, because Faraday couldn’t do much math, though he is recognized as the greatest “experimental philosopher” in history, a former Irish bookbinder’s journeyman who got his early education from the books he was binding, and who at age 21 happened to write a letter to chemistry professor Sir Humphrey Davy in 1812 and so impressed him that the following spring he was appointed a chair at the Royal Institution, and the rest is history).


A sort of electrician’s Mozart, Faraday like none other, was almost always right from the beginning, in the middle, and long after his death, with so many remarkable insights and observations which were made without resort to tiresome pages of math, lucky for Maxwell, who made his own contributions in the process.

Faraday had stated that induced magnetism in iron exists only within the iron, was zero in external free ether, and was the basis for electrical induction. Maxwell’s “electric displacement in a dielectric” was analogous to the magnetic induction B, which he said may have a value different from zero even in the free ether. According to Maxwell, there is a displacement (i.e., an electric movement away from equilibrium position) wherever there is electric force, whether “material bodies” are present or not (thus carrying his electric displacement into the ether) (Maxwell, Scientific Papers i, p. 451; p. 526).

It had occurred to me that since the earth and bodies “at rest” on it are in uniform motion (or uniformly changing motion) in respect to a stationary ether, that there were differences in electric displacement of ether in the space within solid bodies and space within the free ether, due to the polarization of the ether by the electric field of the earth, and the differences in dielectric constant between the two. I deduced from this that the constant movement of bodies through a stationary ether filled space, carrying their charges with them, creates the displacement currents.

Maxwell had represented Faraday’s lines of magnetic force (vectors of magnetic induction) as the velocity of an incompressible fluid, based on Faraday’s suggestion years earlier that there may be a “dynamical condition” similar to electric current, and that the ‘physical lines of magnetic force are currents’ of this “fluid”.


This agrees with Faraday’s “dynamical condition” of the electric field ‘carried along’ by the earth, equivalent to a current, producing the earth’s magnetic field and gravitation, by effects on the stationary ether within earth’s dynamic electric field. It also implies that magnetic lines of force are the “equal and opposite” reaction to electrical current as Faraday stated, and vice versa, though magnetic fields are more the secondary effect of electric currents.


The magnetic field is equally important however, in its creation of the rotatory motion imparted to electricity, which is responsible for the microhelical “tubes of force” which create the momentum which maintains the perpetual motion of celestial bodies in the universe, and guides electric currents through the ether forever. And this sounds very much like it must have been Tesla’s theory as well.


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Cosmic Motion and Local Momentum

The earth orbits the sun at approximately 18.5 miles per second (66,600 mph). The solar system is orbiting the center of the Milky Way much faster, and the Milky Way orbits the Magellanic Clouds much faster, and so fourth. This hierarchy of velocity increases from the moon, to the earth, the Milky Way, etc., although these pale into insignificance relative to electromagnetic velocity, since movement of force is time-relative.


In all, the earth’s velocity and polarity relative to the ether continually varies according to its rotation, orbital position, and galactic cycle. When between the sun and the Milky Way’s center, for example, it moves slower than when to the “outside”. As the earth rotates each day, its polarity of movement through the ether rotates 15.2 degrees per hour, with a rotational surface velocity at the equator of approximately 1,041 mph.


This continuous change in polarity is so gradual that it is sensually imperceptible, but probably contributes to modulating the gravity force (and may even influence our emotional states!). According to W.B. Morton (Phil. Mag. xli [1896], p. 488), an increase in charge of a body increases its “virtual mass”, which increases the work required to move it by amount 2e2/3ac2. This was in correction of J.J. Thomson’s figure. Such a case suggests a dynamo consisting of large, insulated conductive balls on the end of a shaft, which are alternately charged and discharged to alternately increase and decrease their masses, thus rotating the shaft.


But this possibility appears to be a fantasy, since the “increase in work required to move the ball” (in Thomson’s theory) is related to an increase in the resistance to the penetration by the ether, caused by the presence of the extra charges, which according to Faraday created a “Faraday cage” effect which shuts out the magnetic lines of force. Without the magnetic lines of force—or with suppressed or diminished lines of force—the rotation of the tubes of force by the magnetic field are diminished or stopped, resulting in a diminution or elimination of momentum. Such propositions give ample food for thought.

If Tesla had continued to increase the earth’s charge with his gadgetry, he could have thrown the earth’s timing off, slowed it down, and possibly caused it to drift toward the sun. Being aware of these facts, he later addressed them and even listed them as future technical possibilities, which also corroborated his developments in the field of electropulsion, in case anybody noticed.


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Local Momentum and Celestial Movement

It’s an odd thing, momentum. If a body is in motion relative to earth, its momentum is in the direction of motion, yet as a body at rest on a spot on earth, it still had momentum along the spot’s ultimate motion relative to the ether. The motion is compound, but the ultimate momentum of a body is truly a vector which represents all the forces acting upon it.

The earth rotates at over 1,041 mph at the equator, so there is that momentum, but the earth’s orbital speed and path around the sun means that the earth’s more general path is in the direction of its orbit. As the earth’s rotating surface would appear to a distant observer to be moving backwards from its direction of orbital motion over a period of a day, it is always moving toward its orbital path because its orbital speed (over 66,600 mph) is greater than its rotational speed.


All the rotation does is periodically diminish and increase the speed of our “spot” on the earth’s surface, and gradually rotate its orientation once every 24 hours, as it moves through space. With its compound movement and momentum—of the earth, the solar system, the Milky Way, etc.—we have a more complex pattern of movement, and since a body which is in constant, compound, gradual, ever-changing motion relative to the ether, some interesting effects are bound to be found. These effects are not, as described by Newton’s laws, due to an attractive force acting at a distance, through an empty space.

Due to the relatively gradual orbiting and rotating changes in respect to the earth’s motion relative to the ether-field, a relatively small amount of “externally acting” force (“gravity) would have to be everpresent in order for Newton’s laws to apply even on the purely descriptive level, except for the local ether phenomenon I will specify in further detail, which insures “force-free” perpetual motion, despite the gravitational effects.


While I agree with that part of Einstein’s theory that says gravity is not due to the direct action of one object to another, I disagree with the part that says it is due to the idea that a body “wraps” space around itself and “curves it”. Without an ether, there is nothing to curve, and with it, there is no Relativity theory.


In early 1995, in exchange for a copy of Space Aliens, I received a copy of Eric Lerner’s The Big Bang Never Happened, and was pleased to find there are some in the academic world of physics (or astrophysics), who share at least in part, my own views on the Big Bang Theory, although they don’t go so far as I do in saying the theory was created and promoted by the coercive energy monopolists, because of its apparent intent to negate the free energy available from the ether, due to what I call the “Law of Conservation of Perpetual Motion”. I also find Lerner’s book refreshing, not to mention useful in charting some of my ideas on a more cosmic scale.

Lerner’s unsung hero is Hannes Alfven, a Norwegian astrophysicist and cosmographer, whose earlier “academic burial” by the Relativists was somewhat reversed in 1970 by a Nobel Prize awarded to him for his development of magneto-hydrodynamics and his concept of frozen lines of magnetic force, a theory later repudiated in part by Alfven himself. Alfven had in a way replaced the word “ether” with “plasma”, and strongly disagreed with the Relativist’s misuse of mathematical theory, which he said ‘must always be the servant of physical understanding and close observation, rather than its master’.


He claimed giant currents through space, from the sun through the planets, along magnetic lines of force, actually transfer angular momentum to the planets. This discovery, together with his work on cosmic MHD events, places Alfven’s work very close to Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity.

The appearance of such books as Lerner’s is a positive development, which represent dissent which seems intolerable to the Relativists. The Big Bang Theory is in decline among scientists, despite all the NASA false propaganda in the press and mass media attempting to perpetuate and support it. I recommend Lerner’s book, even though he has not yet evoked an affirmative support for ether theory, but has dared to challenge Relativism and the Big Bang cosmology.

The actual course that a particular spot on earth takes through the universe is naturally more complex than that of the sun, since the earth represents a smaller cycle within the larger. Relative to the ether-field, the entire interrelated movements of the solar system and Milky Way takes our spot in a generally wavy path, along which our velocity relative to the ether periodically accelerates and decelerates.

The same principles of momentum which apply to the cosmos must also apply to the motion of immediately local bodies, except that the effects are skewered by the presence of earth’s pesky electric, magnetic, and so-called “gravity” fields. What Alfven had touch upon in his long unrecognized discovery of giant electric and magnetic currents through space, are similar to unrecognized forces operative on a local scale as well.


As our planet hurls through space at 70,000 mph, and us with it, there are things happening on a super-microscopic scale of utmost importance, which play all-important parts in this giant panorama. The big question—the one which those who invented the Big Bang cosmography sought prematurely to put to rest—is how can everything stay in perpetual motion under the Relativist theory, without violating the law of conservation of energy... and thereby also refuting the Relativist theory?


The still-born theories of Tesla were still knawing at their throats, along with those of Alfven, so they wanted to obscure all truly competing theories, and enshrine themselves in the annals of science for all time. Their method was to fabricate a scenario in which one original giant explosion was the ‘origin’ from which all we see is but an effect which will eventually “run down”, like a car which is out of gas. The missing ideas are how universal processes are continually self replenished. Through an interplay of natural strong and weak forces and matter, perpetual motion is conserved.


Strong forces overcome weaker forces. Cosmic radiation travels through the ether, until it reacts with plasma, forming matter. When matter concentrates, its forces concentrate. In contact with other, less concentrated matter, stronger, cosmic forces within the space it occupies are unleashed, producing transmutations and eventually more cosmic radiation, which travels through space until absorbed and converted by plasma or other mass, into more mass or radiation of lower frequency, and the process continues, ad infinitum.

The rigid thinker must have a simplistic answer as to “where matter comes from”, “where it is going”, “what is the purpose of life”, or “what keeps everything going”, etc. Sometimes we must accept reality, and discard phony theories which attempt to give us a simplistic answer for what we either must admit that we just don’t know, or should consider some questions too stupid to ask.


The facts concerning the existence of universal matter, forces, vast distances, massive bodies and events, and perpetual motion, are irreducible primaries or “first laws” about reality, which we must accept before we can progress with answering particular questions related to the more useful aspects of existence. Since the orbital speed of earth around the sun is greater than the speed of earth’s rotation, our spot never moves “backward” relative to the ether.


Since the orbital speed of the Milky Way is greater than the orbital speed of the solar system or rotational speed of the earth, our spot continues in a generally “wavy-wavy” path in which we accelerate and decelerate over a one-day short cycle, while the entire earth moves in a wavy path over a 365-day longer cycle, and so fourth.


There are still larger and larger cycles of motion over time, in which the solar system orbits the Milky Way, the Milky Way orbits the Magellanic Clouds, and so on. As can be seen from these cyclical movement, the universe is an unlimited system of interrelated systems which move in gear-like precision, rather than in an explosive pattern ala the Big Bang. Universal movement is in an orderly, cyclical pattern of circles (or ellipses), within circles, representing mechanical oscillations which are related to smaller and larger electromagnetic ones.


The exceptions to this—the occasional cosmic explosion, such as that of a supernova—are the exceptions which prove rather than disprove the rule. Even the occasional comet follows a cyclical pattern, while the debris from cosmic events eventually falls into patterns. Though such explosions on our scale are gigantic, they are like minor ripples in a pond on a cosmic scale, and should not be allowed to warp our perspective.

If last week a remote controlled telescope—such as the Hubbell—showed a movement which when compared to an earlier measurement of a few years ago indicated a movement away from a distant part of the universe, just remember that this is only an observation of movement which is part of a much larger pattern of oscillation over a much longer period of time, in which the movement will later appear to be going the other way, from our point of view, if we could make an observation millions of years or longer into the future.


Because of the circuitous pattern of movement which we observe in relation to earth at the present, and the larger structures in “our vicinity” of the universe, we have good reason to believe that all such movements are cyclical, and to extrapolate ourselves into the time when the appearance would be quite different. The theory that the earth and other celestial bodies are the result of the Big Bang are ludicrous. The universe has no age, as it has always existed, and always will exist. The whole theory about how planets “were created” is erroneous.

Life forms would not only have to have existed at one time on Mars, but on all other planets and stars, at some time. In fact, the planets grew from smaller bodies as a result of life forms, which convert interstellar radiation into solid mass. There is no depth to which we can drill on earth, or otherwise produce direct evidence to the contrary, where we will not find matter which was in its past part of living things. This theory of course makes the planet “too old” for the Big Bangers, as it would take a much longer time to reach its present state, and would throw their “calendar”—on which the high priests of “Big Bangery” have placed the earth’s “birth date”—off.

For example, one of the components of chlorophyll is iron. This iron along with carbon deposits and other elements results from photosynthesis. If strata of the earth, thousands of feet, even miles thick, are composed of the decayed and metamorphosed remains of plant and animal life, the original biomass represents a conversion ultimately of radiation through photosynthesis, and into the many elements and minerals composing the strata, which can be easily traced to this process, such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and helium.


Such elements accumulate through the cosmically driven forces of life forms. There is probably a constant of universal mathematical proportionality between life forms and inorganic ones. The ether, the medium which conducts the ZPR, can be converted into any form of matter or energy. It is possible to precipitate any element out of the ether, using proper technology. The ether contains the building blocks of what we call “solid matter”, the proof of which enhances this possibility.

Nikola Tesla eventually realized the ether’s use in his discovery of the “tremendous propelling force”. His electropulsive technology works, and that is more important that splitting hairs... or atoms. Only an ether which is intimately involved with momentum, could explain such a tremendous propulsion force such as that which I observed in 1953. This propulsive force was nothing more than a force which exists in nature, which in the hands of man becomes an article of will, once the physical processes capable of synthesizing and manipulating it become known.

From the rate and manner of acceleration, in conjunction with the probable mass of the ship I observed, it was immediately apparent that the entire volume of the ship, if filled with conventional rocket or jet fuel, would have been consumed in the three seconds required for it to accelerate to c.9,000 mph and disappear at infinity, except for the existence of Tesla’s technology which electromagnetically canceled inertia and synthesized a new momentum instantaneously.


What is inertia?


Inertia is the momentum which a body ‘at rest’ already possesses because it is in a state of uniform motion, but which to us appears to be at rest. Tesla’s technology uses the electromagnetic interaction, which is 1040 times stronger than gravity, to create a “tremendous propelling force” which instantaneously reprograms the atoms and molecules of a ship with new micro helical tubes of force along a new trajectory, and destroys the “ memory” of the tubes of force which created its prior inertia/momentum.

Electropulsion is a “free energy” process in which energy existing in the environment—“gravity” and momentum—are overcome by and replaced with the naturally stronger force of electromagnetism, to perform a greater amount of work during a given time, which theoretically is 1040 times more work, using a smaller amount of “input energy” to trigger the change. If “energy” is “the ability to do work”, and “work” is the “movement of mass through a distance”, then a stronger force will do more work over a given time period. A change of form of energy from a weaker to a stronger force (which exists in the environment) will use “environmental energy” to do more work in a new way.

The process which makes electropulsion possible, is the dynamism of the universe, which naturally exchanges weaker and stronger forces to conserve perpetual motion, with any lost momentum being resupplied by the ZPR.


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With Tesla’s theory and the background of older research and theories held temporarily in abeyance, let’s look at what has been directly observed either by myself of by those closely associated with me. What I began observing in 1946, and have continued ever since, are man-made electro-propulsive flying machines which can hover, turn on a dime at high speed without flying apart, and accelerate almost instantaneously to at least 9,000 mph, without readily audible sound or sonic boom.


The ship I observed in 1953, in broad daylight, hovering at about 300 feet distance, about 250 feet above ground level, precessed at a high angle—about 45 degrees—and a low rate of about two precessions per second. Soon after I spotted it, it began to move away directly due west, quickly accelerating to about 800 mph, at which time it did two absolutely square turns—a right angle turn straight down and another right angle turn back to level flight—then accelerated to a point of infinity above the horizon in three seconds.


The ship was constructed as if it were two 50-foot diameter stainless steel woks joined together clamshell fashion. It had concentric “striations”—grooves in its surface which appeared to be about one inch wide all over its surface—which gave its bottom half the appearance of a giant “spun-metal” wok, as it precessed with the sun’s rays playing on its bright metallic surface. The sun was about ten degrees above the horizon at the time.


As it precessed, it gave off a sparkling, “rainbow-colored” electrical corona, like a metallic surface which was being electrified with high voltage Tesla currents. On the shadow side of the bottom away from the sun, as the ship precessed, there appeared a soft, ‘cloudy’, infra-red glow, which indicated the possible presence of microwaves, while the general “rainbow” corona was apparently of high voltage electricity.


As the ship began accelerating, the rainbow corona formed a sparkling, scintillating trail behind the ship, which also showed a “texture” of lines in the trail which appeared to indicate the frequency of the pulses. Since the lines appeared to be “about” five feet apart at “about” 200 mph, the frequency could have been 60 cycles per second—a frequency which is very low, with the approx. 5-foot-spaced pulses coming at the quarter wavelength. This rough guess is based on what “200 m.p.h.” looked like from our vantage point.


Note: In Tesla’s time, “microwaves” were those of only a few feet or inches, such as those he measured coming from the earth during his 1899 Colorado Springs Experiments. The “internal” frequency possibly used with this ship—the penetrating long waves, oriented along the direction of acceleration, to polarize the “tubes of force” necessary for the propulsive force to act on the ether—were apparent from the outside, as the pulsing effect graphically illustrated by five-foot spaces left in the scintillating ion trail.

Consistent with the observed behavior, the electro-propulsive system appeared to instantly synthesize in an internal atomic way, inertia and momentum, things which normally create problems in acceleration and turning, but which the system overcame as shown by the evidence of the square, right angle turns. The system appeared to have very little to do with “gravity”, even though it also revealed that gravity is apparently due to the same kinds of electromagnetic mechanisms. These observations were taken at face value, as proof of certain facts concerning the nature of the ether, gravity, inertia, momentum, and “electropulsion”.

I had observed whole squadrons of saucers at night, between 1947-53, during which time I slept outdoors in our back yard. The squadrons arrived over our town from the direction of New Mexico (about ten miles from the southern New Mexico border), and departed back in that direction after their night-time maneuvers.


(Note: The ship involved in the 1953 sighting flew due east, toward the northern tip of Ft. Bliss, near El Paso, Texas. Ft. Bliss was the location of Headquarters, U.S. Army Ordinance, where Weniher von Braun was appointed research director in the summer of 1945. The ordinance headquarters was subsequently moved, along with von Braun’s main base of operation, to Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, about 1951.)

The night squadron saucers turned in angles of 30 degrees or multiples (30, 60, 90,120, 180, etc. degrees). That meant they had the same navigation and control system as the 1943-vintage German saucers which my Peiltochterkompass was used on.

My observations, together with all the written information on the Peiltochterkompass, and an analysis of the device itself, revealed quite a lot about the German “Kreisel Teller- p2” and its propulsion system:

1. The ships were electrically propelled
2. The propulsion system created an electric field around the saucers which necessitated the development of an inertial guidance system and compass, since a magnetic compass would be useless due to the “Faraday cage” effect
3. The ships were circular, discus-shaped craft, which turned in twelve peripheral directions of the compass, plus “up” and “down”
4. The ships used a horizontally oriented master gyro-compass (“Meisterkreiselkompass”), calibrated prior to take-off to true north, as the frame of reference with which to navigate the ship using an electromagnetic slave compass, which was interconnected to stepping switches which also actuated the ship’s bi-polar propulsion electrodes
5. the system canceled the normal effects of gravity, inertia, and momentum, and instantly synthesized momentum in the chosen direction, without disturbing the operation of the master gyro, which continued to maintain its heading during flights, apparently because of an ‘internal’ inertia/momentum within the ship’s outer shell
6. the instant turns showed an incompressible ether which is integrally locked with mass in the phenomena of inertia, momentum, and gravity

Since the 1953 daylight sighting, I have seen many other electropulsive craft, but one of the best sightings I made was on a moonlit night while soaking in a hot tub.


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Rub-a-Dub-Dub. Seven Folks in a Hot Tub

On a Wednesday evening, January 24, 1996, at approximately 7:00 PM, I sat in a hot tub with seven other people, at the Ten Thousand Waves Japanese Bath House, located on the western slopes of the Sangre de Christos Mountains, in the Hyde Park vicinity above Santa Fe, New Mexico. As I steamed in the tub, conversation between a couple from Denver and myself drifted from the dangers of fluoride to “What do you do?”, to which I answered, “I write some”. Asked what I had written, I answered “A book called Space Aliens from the Pentagon.”

A beautiful woman on my right exclaimed “I have your book. I’m a friend of Alex and Rex. I love your book so much, and so do they.” I thanked her and we exchanged introductions, and then I said,

“I see saucers up here almost every time I’m here after dark...and as a matter of fact, there’s one right there” (pointing out a flashing aircraft flying slowly easterly about 15 degrees to the lower left of the crescent moon, at a distance of about 10,000 feet from us).

A heckler across the tub said “Aww, that’s a plane”, to which I responded,

“There’s another one...and if they’re planes, why have they parked? The flashing lights mask an underlying glow. The eye recoils from a flash, and never has time to recover before another flash. When they move faster, they glow brighter, which is why they are going so slowly.”

No sooner had I spoken, than the stationary ship on the left quit flashing, and turned into a dark, glowing green shape like a football field surrounded by a track. Around the “track” was a dark strip, with a purple corona outside that, produced by the Tesla coils.


I could see the curvature of its bottom as it moved, flying in a large circle, as I followed it with my Outstretched arm and index finger, and my fellow hot-tubbers oggled in jaw-dropped amazement. The following is a black-and-white photo of a painting I did of the saucer, as seen from the bottom:

It returned to its starting point, skidded to a halt, and began flashing again. This took approximately ten seconds. Since the ship appeared about one-half to three-quarters of an inch at arm’s length (about 2 feet), at the 10,000-foot distance, it was around 400 feet long and 250 feet wide. Since the diameter of the circle from top to bottom was about 30 degrees, its speed was about 2,000 miles per hour (the speed didn’t surprise me, since I clocked the one I saw in 1953 over our back yard at minimum of 9,000 mph when it departed).


I almost missed it, because I didn’t have my glasses, and because it appeared to have been “stealth-ized”—designed to be concealed by the night sky, by controlling its emissions to be a dark green and purple, so as to more closely match the light value and blend into the night sky. The main ‘give-away’ was the color differences.

Others in the tub—most of whom didn’t need glasses—saw it more sharply than I, yet wouldn’t have seen it at all if I had not pointed it out to them. I probably would not have seen it myself, had I not been observing the flashing ships beforehand, with the moon so close above, creating some back-lighting which helped to define the darker silhouette when it developed. Moreover, the real reason I saw it, was my own preconscious mental self-conditioning.

I was amazed at its large size, since, when flashing, it appeared much smaller. When I finally looked back to the other side of the tub, the heckler was gone, the on-cue saucer demo being apparently too much for him. If the saucer crew had been listening to my words, their performance couldn’t have been more perfectly timed. Bravo!


Do they also have some computer software that reads lips? It is my theory that the government jerks have chosen that particular location to do some “testing”, because of the titillating availability of the numerous private hot tubs open to the night sky, occupied by private nude couples of all sexual persuasions, ready to be video taped by them. I can just see them trading the tapes among themselves, another good reason to “...keep the secret”, to avoid prosecution.

It was the first time I had seen the green-glowing type reported years ago by astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, discoverer of the planet Pluto. It was the second most graphic demonstration of saucer technology I have witnessed. If I had not spotted it, none of us would have seen anything extraordinary, excluding the beautiful lady next to me who liked my book, and was a strong competition to the saucers. Incidentally, the female breast shape may be “natures most nearly-perfect shape for a flying saucer design”.


Hmmm... maybe the “cigar-shaped” ships were dreamed up by a woman. The “green-glowing” type was apparently the result of research designed to make the ships less visible in the night sky, since the early models—such as the “foo-fighters” (“Fliegende Schildkrote” [”Flying Turtle”] and “Kugelblitz” [”Ball Lightning”]) glowed brightly. The oblong design (as distinguished from the circular or ‘peripheral’ saucers) comports with what I call the “linear type” in my book. According to a friend who is an expert spectrographer, the green corona indicated atomic absorption, which I presume to be ‘stealth’ technology used to suppress the white light spectrum.


He seemed to think sodium based coating, while I think maybe chromium, because it appeared to be a veridian (“chrome”) green. The soft, ‘cloudy’ green also indicated positive corona, as distinguished from the ‘hairy’ negative (purple) corona around the outer periphery.


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Comparison to Other Sightings

The hot tub sighting was not a clear, “daylight”, “close-range” sighting, like the first good sighting which I had personally made on a bright, late summer afternoon in West Texas, in 1953, within 300 feet, right over our back yard, in Kermit, Texas, as our family and friends were having an ice cream party. I had been the last in my family and neighborhood to see a saucer in a close-up daylight sighting, since three had appeared on two consecutive days, June 1st and 2nd 1950, while I was unfortunately in the Davis Mountains about 120 miles to the west.


My father has seen more of them than I, and was once held in his car for 15-30 minutes, on the night of Nov. 2, 1957, just south of Levelland, Texas, by one of the 200-foot-long, egg-shaped chingas, which had scared the livin’ daylights out of him. The thing hovered within ten feet of his car top, killed his engine, and burned out all his lights, yet failed to burn out a single fuse in any of the car’s circuits.


The saucer’s electric field was so strong that it arrested current flow, and was strong enough to cancel the magnetic fields in the generator and circuits. The white-hot tungsten filaments were the weakest points in the circuits, and the saucer’s pulse currents apparently subjected them to magnetic and electric shear forces which broke them apart.

My father had to drive back to Levelland in the dark, spend the night in a motel, then drive home to Odessa, Texas at dawn’s first light. He arrived home about 7:00 AM, had a quick breakfast, and left for Sewell Ford to have his lights fixed, saying nothing about the saucer. I turned on the TV for the morning news as he left, and realized that he had been one of the several drivers held by the ship (or ships) that night.


I drove to Sewell Ford, and questioned him about it as the mechanic fixed the lights. He asked how I knew about it, and I told him it was on the news. He said he didn’t want to be called “crazy”. This was what I call “anti-paranoia”. It was reasonable to fear ridicule created by government propaganda.

Later, in 1963, I had the opportunity to discuss the matter more fully with the sheriff of Hockley County, while working in Brownfield, Texas, as a graphic artist, doing advertising art for a manufacturing and publishing operation which had contact with the soil conservation district with which the sheriff was affiliated.


The ship seen by my father matched in shape, appearance, and performance, the type observed by deputy Lonnie Zamora, near Soccorro, New Mexico. Zamora had at first described the crew of the ships as typical G.Ls in grey-green Air Force jump suits, but later altered his story, saying they were “...about the size of children”.


This was after the security spooks ‘leaned’ on him. Saucers can be seen almost any night in the area where I live, and are very profuse in an even more obvious way around the Cheyenne Mountain area to the south of Colorado Springs, where the underground NORAD complex is located. With the several direct observations, or reports from those in my family or from my close friends as “proof of the pudding” kept firmly in mind, let’s see what more can be found in ether theory history to reflect on them.


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The Ether and “Ponderable Matter”

In 1879, James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) said that the velocity of the solar system relative to the ether could be determined by observing the retardation of the eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites. The observed behavior—in which the light of a star can be viewed with a steady image as the earth moves through space—indicates a stationary ether relative to a moving earth, solar system, and other bodies.


The ether is ultrafine, yet very dense, and composed of positive and negative electric matter, which pervades all so-called “free space”, as well as the space “occupied” by “mass”—which the old ether physicists called “ponderable matter”—because it is mostly “space”. Since the ether is stationary, it is the ponderable bodies’ which move through it, just as Fresnel said, rather than vice-versa.

The ether is transparent, because of its ultra fine, high frequency structure, which does not refract or reflect visible light, because its ultrafine size is too tiny to react to such low frequency radiation. To momentively “access” the ether in a propulsive way, high voltage pulses are required. This is in accord with J.J. Thomson’s “electromagnetic momentum” theory, and was confirmed by the tests conducted by Nikola Tesla by 1891 (later detailed in his 1891 lecture before the A.I.E.E., Columbia College, N.Y.).


Tesla’s tests confirmed a reaction which was more than the feeble ionic reaction of light gases such as the misinformational 1950’s “patents” of T.Townsend Brown later attempted to induce the gullible public to believe was the correct technology. After his tests, Tesla stated that the ether became a ‘solid state’ medium to “light and heat” (visible and infrared light), and could be accessed by subjecting it to “sufficiently high voltage and frequency”. The ether becomes more apparent when there is a sudden change in the direction of motion, rate of acceleration, or velocity of a body.


The movement of a charged body, equivalent to a current, creates a new degree of electrical displacement of the ether through which it moves, and influences the resistance to changes in velocity through the affected ether by the protons and electrons composing the body itself.


The increased work required to move the sphere—caused by an increased “resistance” called “inertia”, must be reflected by the increase in its tendency to remain in motion which is called “momentum”, which demonstrates a rearrangement of the manner of movement of or displacement of the positive and negative charges which correspond to the motion.


Therefore, once in motion at a constant velocity, though a charged body requires more conventional work to set it in that motion, its momentum would be increased by the increased charges, consistent with an increase of its “virtual mass”. It is clear that both inertia and momentum are caused by the same thing, which is a persistence by the configuration of reaction patterns in the atomic and electric structure of mass to maintain their present states. Just as changing magnetic fields or electric fields are required for inductance, the creation of such changing fields by changing motion are the basis for inertia and momentum.

All bodies are in motion, and within all bodies, protons and electrons are also in motion, because “elasticity” and vibratory motion occurs in “ponderable matter” and in the ether. The ether sets up certain patterns of motion in the electrons and protons (and atoms and molecules) in ponderable matter passing through it.

As the earth passes through the ether, its rapidly varying electrostatic forces reach out for some distance and polarize the negative electrical components of the ether, and affects bodies within its reach, creating what we call “gravity”.

The stationary ether, appearing to move through an earth-bound body, due to the earth’s motion through it, undergoes a change in electrical displacement, due to the difference in dielectric constant between the space outside the body and the space within the body.


The electrical displacement in the ether outside the body prior to entry, and the electrical displacement as it enters and passes through the body, changes due to the change in dielectric constant, and affects the “electric content” (protons and electrons, electric charges and fields, and magnetic fields) within the body. These changes in turn cause the changes in electric displacement of the ether—a downward thrust on the body’s atoms, away from the pre-existing “equilibrium position”, which the atoms would occupy in the absence of gravity—just as Maxwell said.


The “equilibrium position” for the electrical particles of ponderable matter vary according to the dielectric constant. A change in dielectric constant results in a change in the equilibrium position, through an electric displacement, which eventually may result in a new equilibrium position. The time-relative aspect of gravity is due to the inertia of a falling body at any stage of its fall, which forces the gradual increase in pitch of its micro helical tubules.

In summary, inside an earth-bound body at rest relative to the earth, there is a difference in polarization and displacement effects, from those which exist outside the body in free space. Since earth’s electric field is graduated through the intermediate space, between the negative at earth’s surface, and the positive at the ionosphere, the dielectric properties are subjected to graduated strains.


The effects of electrical displacement and gravity vary accordingly, somewhat like Newton’s “inverse square” law. It is here that a difference between the “force of gravity” and the effects of inertia and momentum become apparent. Traditionally, inertia has always been considered (according to Newton’s First Law of Motion) the tendency of a body “at rest” or in “constant velocity” relative to the earth, to continue its state of rest or constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.


Since all bodies at rest relative to the earth are already moving at the same “constant velocity” of the earth however, only changes in movement relative to the earth are at issue, and any such changes affect the patterns of flow within mass of the tubes of force, as it moves through the ether, at any given time. Since only a body which moves in respect to the earth has been traditionally said to have “momentum” (“the product of a body’s mass and velocity”), this rule is wrong, since all bodies “at rest” relative to earth already have “momentum” as well as “inertia”.

Momentum and inertia are due to the exact same “tendency”, which relates ultimately to a frame of reference to the universal ether, but for convenience—since we don’t have an absolute “fix” on the ether yet—we use the moving earth as a frame of reference from which to measure a body’s rate of change relative to the ether, as the earth maintains its relatively constant velocity.


There is a special case on earth, because the ether within the reach of earth’s electric field has been “conditioned”—that is, its dielectric constant has been subjected to electric strain. This comports with Tesla’s statements concerning the effects of “rapidly varying electrostatic forces” emanating from earth. The earth has momentum within the sun’s frame of reference, just as a moving car has momentum within the earth’s frame of reference.


Some physicists have mistakenly applied a “field of influence’ idea, thinking this “field of gravitational influence” somehow isolates a body from references outside this field. I believe that earth’s “gravitational field” is a product of its moving electric field (a “current”) as it influences the ether within it, and that the so-called “gravity field” extends no further than earth’s electric field.

Momentum is due to the setting up inside a body, of micro helical tubular vibrations of atomic structures, composed of electrical particles— electrons and protons—as the body passes through the ultra fine ether.

The micro helical rotation of these tubules are the product of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarization identified by Faraday. Any variance from earth’s uniform motion results in a resistance to change in micro helical pitch, since the rotating tubes of force spin around so much of the irrotational ether cores (“Onmi”) over a given period of time, and a change in motion requires them to rotate around a commensurately greater or lesser quantity of Omni, depending on whether the change is an acceleration or deceleration.


The tubules possess electromagnetic force which is locked into the discrete flow pattern between the Omni and the tubules, which are coupled to the ‘ponderable matter’ structure which is the recipient of the momentum. It is probable that the linkage between matter and the ether is effected by a current—perceived as “electric charge”— which passes through the matter constantly at a rate which is commensurate to the relative velocity difference.

Though the flow patterns of the microhelical tubules are always gradually changing—because of the continual reorientation of the earth as it moves in its “uniformly compound” changing ways, these changes are sensually imperceptible because they are gradual over time, with effects which are virtually constant. Though the changes are too slow to sense, the action of the tides is probably related to them.


The natural gravity force is always normally toward the earth, which is negatively charged, within earth’s electric/gravity field, due to the polarity of that field, since the negative component of the ether in free space is electrically displaced upward by the repulsion of like charges, while the inertial characteristics of the more massive positive component is forced and attracted downward, and is more resistant to changes in displacement. As the ether enters a body at rest on earth, its displacement changes because of the change in dielectric constant, just as Maxwell said.


As the dielectric constant of the body changes, the electric displacement of the ether within the entrained atomic structure of the body changes, creating a downward force as each of the negative electrical components of the ether move downward, creating an increased attractive force on protons above, and an increased repulsive force on electrons below.

The moving ether particles create the gravity force, similar to how an inverted aerodynamic airfoil creates a down-force on an airplane. Due to the greater velocity of the electromagnetic interaction at C however, this down-force is irrespective to the direction of earth’s movement relative to the ether, since the interaction between the electrical components of matter and the ether at C, is due to the conditioning of the ether by earth’s electric field, which is vertically polarized, and creates the same proximate effect on mass over time, irrespective as to earth’s orientation relative to the ether. Though the velocity of earth relative to the ether is thousands of miles per hour, it is not fast enough to “outrun” the electromagnetic interaction.


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Orbiting Planets and Satellites

The concept that a satellite in orbit around earth is “held” in orbit by “earth’s field of gravity”, seems false. The logical implication of my analysis is that the orbital path taken by a body is because it “sees” that path as one of least resistance, as if it were a straight and level path.


Since for a given radius above earth the ether is displaced to a certain degree, an orbiting body would experience an accelerating force which would be met by inertia, if it were to move upward, and a decelerating force which would be met by momentum, if it were to move downward, so its path in force-free constant velocity remains at a constant radius or level of etheric displacement, as the path of least resistance.

Since the determinative factor which limits a body’s motion is the reactance of its internal electrical content with the ether at its particular degree of displacement by earth’s electric field, at a given altitude, an orbiting body “sees” its orbital path along a path of like displacement, as a straight and level path, even though it is a straight and orbiting path. This path is rather concentric to the earth at a certain altitude. This is similar to how Einstein said that space and time are “wrapped” around a large spinning body as it moves through space, except Einstein believed in no ether, without which “empty space” would have nothing to “wrap”.

One of the revealing facts obviated by films of astronauts floating in the so-called “gravity-free” space of an orbiting space station, is the contradictory assertion that the space station is “held” in orbit by earth’s gravity. If the earth’s gravity exerted sufficient force to hold the station in orbit, the internal environment would not be “gravity free”, but would pull the astronauts down to the floor, instead of allowing them to float all around inside, as we’ve seen so many times on TV.


Yet, there is sufficient elasticity within the internal masses of the astronauts’ bodies, between electrical content and the ether, to allow movement in that manner. Maxwell said this elasticity resides in the magnetic fields.


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