EXPLORING THE NATURE OF THE ETHER
The Early Background
In 1997, after many years of research and thought regarding the qualities of the ether, I decided to see what others had actually said, before completing this book. Some of the material available to me was second-hand information, being what someone said someone else had said. I wanted to make sure these “repeated statements” were accurate. After some difficulty, I accessed a copy of the classic, A History of the Theories of the Aether and Electricity, by Sir Edmund Whittaker (1951 revised and enlarged second edition, Vols. I and II).
The 1910 first edition of this book was probably the most comprehensive book ever published on ether theory as it existed in 1910, but the 1951 revision merely clarified “acceptable” ether physics. The first edition was printed in Scotland, under the title A History of the Theories of the Ether and Electricity, from the age of Descartes to the close of the nineteenth century.
The second edition incorporated “new material” related to quantum mechanics. Classical theory was in Vol. I, while Vols. II and III gave the origins of relativity and quantum theory up to 1926. Neither the 1910 first edition nor the 1951 revision mentioned Tesla, but the chronological sequence appeared to be “skewered’ in the revised edition, with little or no attempt to point out what the scientists were actually aiming at in terms of electropulsion. Though information regarding Nikola Tesla was omitted, there is much valuable related information.
This implies awareness of the ZPR, but quantum theory inherently excludes the possibility of “zero-point” fluctuations, since all such waves are always regarded as possessing one-half “quantum”.
Much of the error was due to focusing on the weakest proponents who believed that a portion of the ether is “carried along” by the earth, and that an optical aberration would have to be observed at some point away from the earth, in order for an ether to exist. It was asserted that the failure of this observation was the “death” of “the” ether theory.
By advertising ether theory’s weakest and most erroneous proponents and ideas, the media made the RQM’s hasty funeral of ether theory easy, and paved the way for the gullible public’s acceptance of relativism. I concluded that Whittaker’s 1951 edition intentionally skewered important facts concerning electropulsion, which I have attempted to straighten out for you in this book. I now feel more comfortable with my version of Tesla’s theory, than I did prior to reading Whittaker’s book, but that was only because I knew what I was looking for.
The facts I found are almost exactly as I said in my second edition of Space Aliens. By reorganizing Whittaker’s material into more proper order, I discovered much “new” (“old”) documentation, that 19th century scientists were in pursuit of electropropulsion, and that there were interesting similarities between the thinking of certain scientists of the era and my own, which could eliminate some erroneous concepts about what they actually said, and shows similarities to what I observed on numerous occasions in the behavior of electropulsive “flying saucers”, since the “proof of the pudding” is when it flies across the dinner table.
It was my intent to examine known theory leading up to Tesla, to see what he contributed to their discoveries, and to determine what happened since that time to obscure, misinterpret and ultimately conceal it. To this end, I present for you a brief history and documentation of pertinent ether physics.
At best, Planck’s beliefs showed a weak mechanical conceptualization, something unexpected from one purportedly so adept at “mechanics”. J.J. Thomson (1856-1942), discoverer of the electron, conscribed to 30 a different and more plausible ether theory. Thomson had theorized—based on Maxwell’s earlier theory—that a charged spherical conductor moving in a straight line must produce displacement currents in the medium (Phil. Mag. xi , p. 229).
In 1893, twelve years later, he claimed to have discovered “electromagnetic momentum”, saying
Thomson also was said to have developed the theory of moving tubes of force—which harked back to Faraday’s earlier work—saying in 1891 that molecular structure is closely connected with tubes of electrostatic force, with magnetism regarded as a secondary force. He stated that,
In that sense, the “good old boys” in Britain should have admitted that Tesla’s work was prior, after having acquiesced in the admission without rebuttal, that “they” were unable to create the equipment to produce the required frequencies to investigate and to experimentally verify these phenomena. J.J. Thomson’s theory, which linked electromagnetism with momentum in a mathematical and unified way, on paper, somewhat repeated Tesla’s earlier lecture of 1891, proven by his earlier experiments, but Tesla’s theory was different from Thomson’s, whose theory was incorrect.
Thomson’s electromagnetic momentum could be created instantaneously only with Tesla’s contrivances, which existed before Thomson’s “discovery”, only in Tesla’s laboratory, so there is no way that Thomson could have reduced “his” theory to practice or experimentally verified it.
Thomson’s earlier work (Phil. Mag. xi , p. 229), concerning a charged spherical conductor, moving in a straight line, had commanded Tesla’s respect and probably influenced his work, but Tesla’s 1884 discovery of the rotating magnetic field had already beaten them all to the punch, and documentation shows that he had arguments with his “learned professors” in Graz, who said he must be “crazy”, from his 1870’s student days, to prove it.
When released, it moves in a straight line vector, corresponding to the state of the tubes of force at the time of release. While held by the arm, centrifugal force was created by the tendency of the tubes to move in a straight line, or at least to continue whatever transverse or complex pattern of movement of the tubes which then existed, which created the resistance to change by the tubes at any moment. Once released, “something” (the microhelical tubes of force, as they then existed) determined its direction of movement and velocity, which in a vacuum would be force-free. These facts are consistent with Tesla’s (Thomson’s, Faraday’s, Maxwell’s) “tubes of force”, which I will explain later in greater detail.
Fresnel later stated,
Fresnel’s concept presupposed that the ether surrounding the earth was unaffected by earth’s motion, and generally agrees with what is actually observed, except for his failure to consider how the earth’s dynamic electric field affects the ether. Along with his c.1831 theory of an (elastic) solid electric ether, and lines of magnetic force, Faraday considered all space as “filled”.
Wm. Thomson (A.K.A. Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907), at age 17, based on Faraday’s earlier announcements, introduced into mathematical science the idea of electric action at a distance by means of a continuous ether. In 1846, he analogized electric phenomena with mechanical elasticity. It was his early concept that material atoms move through the ether ‘without displacing it or compressing it’ (letter, FitzGerald to Heaviside, 4 Feb. 1889), concepts later to be adopted by Tesla in saying that the ether ‘behaves as a fluid to solid bodies, and as a solid to light and heat’.
As to the propagation of electric action through space, Riemann proposed a new equation in which voltage changes outward from charges with a velocity C, but he also failed to follow up with a proper consideration of the properties of the ether, because he died too damned young. Riemann’s insights were verified almost 50 years later, ten years longer than his entire lifetime.
A sort of electrician’s Mozart, Faraday like none other, was almost always right from the beginning, in the middle, and long after his death, with so many remarkable insights and observations which were made without resort to tiresome pages of math, lucky for Maxwell, who made his own contributions in the process.
This agrees with Faraday’s “dynamical condition” of the electric field ‘carried along’ by the earth, equivalent to a current, producing the earth’s magnetic field and gravitation, by effects on the stationary ether within earth’s dynamic electric field. It also implies that magnetic lines of force are the “equal and opposite” reaction to electrical current as Faraday stated, and vice versa, though magnetic fields are more the secondary effect of electric currents.
The magnetic field is equally important however, in its creation of the rotatory motion imparted to electricity, which is responsible for the microhelical “tubes of force” which create the momentum which maintains the perpetual motion of celestial bodies in the universe, and guides electric currents through the ether forever. And this sounds very much like it must have been Tesla’s theory as well.
In all, the earth’s velocity and polarity relative to the ether continually varies according to its rotation, orbital position, and galactic cycle. When between the sun and the Milky Way’s center, for example, it moves slower than when to the “outside”. As the earth rotates each day, its polarity of movement through the ether rotates 15.2 degrees per hour, with a rotational surface velocity at the equator of approximately 1,041 mph.
This continuous change in polarity is so gradual that it is sensually imperceptible, but probably contributes to modulating the gravity force (and may even influence our emotional states!). According to W.B. Morton (Phil. Mag. xli , p. 488), an increase in charge of a body increases its “virtual mass”, which increases the work required to move it by amount 2e2/3ac2. This was in correction of J.J. Thomson’s figure. Such a case suggests a dynamo consisting of large, insulated conductive balls on the end of a shaft, which are alternately charged and discharged to alternately increase and decrease their masses, thus rotating the shaft.
But this possibility appears to be a fantasy, since the “increase in work required to move the ball” (in Thomson’s theory) is related to an increase in the resistance to the penetration by the ether, caused by the presence of the extra charges, which according to Faraday created a “Faraday cage” effect which shuts out the magnetic lines of force. Without the magnetic lines of force—or with suppressed or diminished lines of force—the rotation of the tubes of force by the magnetic field are diminished or stopped, resulting in a diminution or elimination of momentum. Such propositions give ample food for thought.
All the rotation does is periodically diminish and increase the speed of our “spot” on the earth’s surface, and gradually rotate its orientation once every 24 hours, as it moves through space. With its compound movement and momentum—of the earth, the solar system, the Milky Way, etc.—we have a more complex pattern of movement, and since a body which is in constant, compound, gradual, ever-changing motion relative to the ether, some interesting effects are bound to be found. These effects are not, as described by Newton’s laws, due to an attractive force acting at a distance, through an empty space.
While I agree with that part of Einstein’s theory that says gravity is not due to the direct action of one object to another, I disagree with the part that says it is due to the idea that a body “wraps” space around itself and “curves it”. Without an ether, there is nothing to curve, and with it, there is no Relativity theory.
In early 1995, in exchange for a copy of Space Aliens, I received a copy of Eric Lerner’s The Big Bang Never Happened, and was pleased to find there are some in the academic world of physics (or astrophysics), who share at least in part, my own views on the Big Bang Theory, although they don’t go so far as I do in saying the theory was created and promoted by the coercive energy monopolists, because of its apparent intent to negate the free energy available from the ether, due to what I call the “Law of Conservation of Perpetual Motion”. I also find Lerner’s book refreshing, not to mention useful in charting some of my ideas on a more cosmic scale.
He claimed giant currents through space, from the sun through the planets, along magnetic lines of force, actually transfer angular momentum to the planets. This discovery, together with his work on cosmic MHD events, places Alfven’s work very close to Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity.
As our planet hurls through space at 70,000 mph, and us with it, there are things happening on a super-microscopic scale of utmost importance, which play all-important parts in this giant panorama. The big question—the one which those who invented the Big Bang cosmography sought prematurely to put to rest—is how can everything stay in perpetual motion under the Relativist theory, without violating the law of conservation of energy... and thereby also refuting the Relativist theory?
The still-born theories of Tesla were still knawing at their throats, along with those of Alfven, so they wanted to obscure all truly competing theories, and enshrine themselves in the annals of science for all time. Their method was to fabricate a scenario in which one original giant explosion was the ‘origin’ from which all we see is but an effect which will eventually “run down”, like a car which is out of gas. The missing ideas are how universal processes are continually self replenished. Through an interplay of natural strong and weak forces and matter, perpetual motion is conserved.
Strong forces overcome weaker forces. Cosmic radiation travels through the ether, until it reacts with plasma, forming matter. When matter concentrates, its forces concentrate. In contact with other, less concentrated matter, stronger, cosmic forces within the space it occupies are unleashed, producing transmutations and eventually more cosmic radiation, which travels through space until absorbed and converted by plasma or other mass, into more mass or radiation of lower frequency, and the process continues, ad infinitum.
The facts concerning the existence of universal matter, forces, vast distances, massive bodies and events, and perpetual motion, are irreducible primaries or “first laws” about reality, which we must accept before we can progress with answering particular questions related to the more useful aspects of existence. Since the orbital speed of earth around the sun is greater than the speed of earth’s rotation, our spot never moves “backward” relative to the ether.
Since the orbital speed of the Milky Way is greater than the orbital speed of the solar system or rotational speed of the earth, our spot continues in a generally “wavy-wavy” path in which we accelerate and decelerate over a one-day short cycle, while the entire earth moves in a wavy path over a 365-day longer cycle, and so fourth.
There are still larger and larger cycles of motion over time, in which the solar system orbits the Milky Way, the Milky Way orbits the Magellanic Clouds, and so on. As can be seen from these cyclical movement, the universe is an unlimited system of interrelated systems which move in gear-like precision, rather than in an explosive pattern ala the Big Bang. Universal movement is in an orderly, cyclical pattern of circles (or ellipses), within circles, representing mechanical oscillations which are related to smaller and larger electromagnetic ones.
The exceptions to this—the occasional cosmic explosion, such as that of a supernova—are the exceptions which prove rather than disprove the rule. Even the occasional comet follows a cyclical pattern, while the debris from cosmic events eventually falls into patterns. Though such explosions on our scale are gigantic, they are like minor ripples in a pond on a cosmic scale, and should not be allowed to warp our perspective.
Because of the circuitous pattern of movement which we observe in relation to earth at the present, and the larger structures in “our vicinity” of the universe, we have good reason to believe that all such movements are cyclical, and to extrapolate ourselves into the time when the appearance would be quite different. The theory that the earth and other celestial bodies are the result of the Big Bang are ludicrous. The universe has no age, as it has always existed, and always will exist. The whole theory about how planets “were created” is erroneous.
Such elements accumulate through the cosmically driven forces of life forms. There is probably a constant of universal mathematical proportionality between life forms and inorganic ones. The ether, the medium which conducts the ZPR, can be converted into any form of matter or energy. It is possible to precipitate any element out of the ether, using proper technology. The ether contains the building blocks of what we call “solid matter”, the proof of which enhances this possibility.
What is inertia?
Inertia is the momentum which a body ‘at rest’ already possesses because it is in a state of uniform motion, but which to us appears to be at rest. Tesla’s technology uses the electromagnetic interaction, which is 1040 times stronger than gravity, to create a “tremendous propelling force” which instantaneously reprograms the atoms and molecules of a ship with new micro helical tubes of force along a new trajectory, and destroys the “ memory” of the tubes of force which created its prior inertia/momentum.
With Tesla’s theory and the background of older research and theories held temporarily in abeyance, let’s look at what has been directly observed either by myself of by those closely associated with me. What I began observing in 1946, and have continued ever since, are man-made electro-propulsive flying machines which can hover, turn on a dime at high speed without flying apart, and accelerate almost instantaneously to at least 9,000 mph, without readily audible sound or sonic boom.
The ship I observed in 1953, in broad daylight, hovering at about 300 feet distance, about 250 feet above ground level, precessed at a high angle—about 45 degrees—and a low rate of about two precessions per second. Soon after I spotted it, it began to move away directly due west, quickly accelerating to about 800 mph, at which time it did two absolutely square turns—a right angle turn straight down and another right angle turn back to level flight—then accelerated to a point of infinity above the horizon in three seconds.
The ship was constructed as if it were two 50-foot diameter stainless steel woks joined together clamshell fashion. It had concentric “striations”—grooves in its surface which appeared to be about one inch wide all over its surface—which gave its bottom half the appearance of a giant “spun-metal” wok, as it precessed with the sun’s rays playing on its bright metallic surface. The sun was about ten degrees above the horizon at the time.
As it precessed, it gave off a sparkling, “rainbow-colored” electrical corona, like a metallic surface which was being electrified with high voltage Tesla currents. On the shadow side of the bottom away from the sun, as the ship precessed, there appeared a soft, ‘cloudy’, infra-red glow, which indicated the possible presence of microwaves, while the general “rainbow” corona was apparently of high voltage electricity.
As the ship began accelerating, the rainbow corona formed a sparkling, scintillating trail behind the ship, which also showed a “texture” of lines in the trail which appeared to indicate the frequency of the pulses. Since the lines appeared to be “about” five feet apart at “about” 200 mph, the frequency could have been 60 cycles per second—a frequency which is very low, with the approx. 5-foot-spaced pulses coming at the quarter wavelength. This rough guess is based on what “200 m.p.h.” looked like from our vantage point.
Note: In Tesla’s time, “microwaves” were those of only a few feet or inches, such as those he measured coming from the earth during his 1899 Colorado Springs Experiments. The “internal” frequency possibly used with this ship—the penetrating long waves, oriented along the direction of acceleration, to polarize the “tubes of force” necessary for the propulsive force to act on the ether—were apparent from the outside, as the pulsing effect graphically illustrated by five-foot spaces left in the scintillating ion trail.
(Note: The ship involved in the 1953 sighting flew due east, toward the northern tip of Ft. Bliss, near El Paso, Texas. Ft. Bliss was the location of Headquarters, U.S. Army Ordinance, where Weniher von Braun was appointed research director in the summer of 1945. The ordinance headquarters was subsequently moved, along with von Braun’s main base of operation, to Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, about 1951.)
Since the 1953 daylight sighting, I have seen many other electropulsive craft, but one of the best sightings I made was on a moonlit night while soaking in a hot tub.
A heckler across the tub said “Aww, that’s a plane”, to which I responded,
No sooner had I spoken, than the stationary ship on the left quit flashing, and turned into a dark, glowing green shape like a football field surrounded by a track. Around the “track” was a dark strip, with a purple corona outside that, produced by the Tesla coils.
I could see the curvature of its bottom as it moved, flying in a large circle, as I followed it with my Outstretched arm and index finger, and my fellow hot-tubbers oggled in jaw-dropped amazement. The following is a black-and-white photo of a painting I did of the saucer, as seen from the bottom:
It returned to its starting point, skidded to a halt, and began flashing again. This took approximately ten seconds. Since the ship appeared about one-half to three-quarters of an inch at arm’s length (about 2 feet), at the 10,000-foot distance, it was around 400 feet long and 250 feet wide. Since the diameter of the circle from top to bottom was about 30 degrees, its speed was about 2,000 miles per hour (the speed didn’t surprise me, since I clocked the one I saw in 1953 over our back yard at minimum of 9,000 mph when it departed).
I almost missed it, because I didn’t have my glasses, and because it appeared to have been “stealth-ized”—designed to be concealed by the night sky, by controlling its emissions to be a dark green and purple, so as to more closely match the light value and blend into the night sky. The main ‘give-away’ was the color differences.
Do they also have some computer software that reads lips? It is my theory that the government jerks have chosen that particular location to do some “testing”, because of the titillating availability of the numerous private hot tubs open to the night sky, occupied by private nude couples of all sexual persuasions, ready to be video taped by them. I can just see them trading the tapes among themselves, another good reason to “...keep the secret”, to avoid prosecution.
Hmmm... maybe the “cigar-shaped” ships were dreamed up by a woman. The “green-glowing” type was apparently the result of research designed to make the ships less visible in the night sky, since the early models—such as the “foo-fighters” (“Fliegende Schildkrote” [”Flying Turtle”] and “Kugelblitz” [”Ball Lightning”]) glowed brightly. The oblong design (as distinguished from the circular or ‘peripheral’ saucers) comports with what I call the “linear type” in my book. According to a friend who is an expert spectrographer, the green corona indicated atomic absorption, which I presume to be ‘stealth’ technology used to suppress the white light spectrum.
He seemed to think sodium based coating, while I think maybe chromium, because it appeared to be a veridian (“chrome”) green. The soft, ‘cloudy’ green also indicated positive corona, as distinguished from the ‘hairy’ negative (purple) corona around the outer periphery.
My father has seen more of them than I, and was once held in his car for 15-30 minutes, on the night of Nov. 2, 1957, just south of Levelland, Texas, by one of the 200-foot-long, egg-shaped chingas, which had scared the livin’ daylights out of him. The thing hovered within ten feet of his car top, killed his engine, and burned out all his lights, yet failed to burn out a single fuse in any of the car’s circuits.
The saucer’s electric field was so strong that it arrested current flow, and was strong enough to cancel the magnetic fields in the generator and circuits. The white-hot tungsten filaments were the weakest points in the circuits, and the saucer’s pulse currents apparently subjected them to magnetic and electric shear forces which broke them apart.
I drove to Sewell Ford, and questioned him about it as the mechanic fixed the lights. He asked how I knew about it, and I told him it was on the news. He said he didn’t want to be called “crazy”. This was what I call “anti-paranoia”. It was reasonable to fear ridicule created by government propaganda.
The ship seen by my father matched in shape, appearance, and performance, the type observed by deputy Lonnie Zamora, near Soccorro, New Mexico. Zamora had at first described the crew of the ships as typical G.Ls in grey-green Air Force jump suits, but later altered his story, saying they were “...about the size of children”.
This was after the security spooks ‘leaned’ on him. Saucers can be seen almost any night in the area where I live, and are very profuse in an even more obvious way around the Cheyenne Mountain area to the south of Colorado Springs, where the underground NORAD complex is located. With the several direct observations, or reports from those in my family or from my close friends as “proof of the pudding” kept firmly in mind, let’s see what more can be found in ether theory history to reflect on them.
The ether is ultrafine, yet very dense, and composed of positive and negative electric matter, which pervades all so-called “free space”, as well as the space “occupied” by “mass”—which the old ether physicists called “ponderable matter”—because it is mostly “space”. Since the ether is stationary, it is the ponderable bodies’ which move through it, just as Fresnel said, rather than vice-versa.
Tesla’s tests confirmed a reaction which was more than the feeble ionic reaction of light gases such as the misinformational 1950’s “patents” of T.Townsend Brown later attempted to induce the gullible public to believe was the correct technology. After his tests, Tesla stated that the ether became a ‘solid state’ medium to “light and heat” (visible and infrared light), and could be accessed by subjecting it to “sufficiently high voltage and frequency”. The ether becomes more apparent when there is a sudden change in the direction of motion, rate of acceleration, or velocity of a body.
The movement of a charged body, equivalent to a current, creates a new degree of electrical displacement of the ether through which it moves, and influences the resistance to changes in velocity through the affected ether by the protons and electrons composing the body itself.
The increased work required to move the sphere—caused by an increased “resistance” called “inertia”, must be reflected by the increase in its tendency to remain in motion which is called “momentum”, which demonstrates a rearrangement of the manner of movement of or displacement of the positive and negative charges which correspond to the motion.
Therefore, once in motion at a constant velocity, though a charged body requires more conventional work to set it in that motion, its momentum would be increased by the increased charges, consistent with an increase of its “virtual mass”. It is clear that both inertia and momentum are caused by the same thing, which is a persistence by the configuration of reaction patterns in the atomic and electric structure of mass to maintain their present states. Just as changing magnetic fields or electric fields are required for inductance, the creation of such changing fields by changing motion are the basis for inertia and momentum.
The electrical displacement in the ether outside the body prior to entry, and the electrical displacement as it enters and passes through the body, changes due to the change in dielectric constant, and affects the “electric content” (protons and electrons, electric charges and fields, and magnetic fields) within the body. These changes in turn cause the changes in electric displacement of the ether—a downward thrust on the body’s atoms, away from the pre-existing “equilibrium position”, which the atoms would occupy in the absence of gravity—just as Maxwell said.
The “equilibrium position” for the electrical particles of ponderable matter vary according to the dielectric constant. A change in dielectric constant results in a change in the equilibrium position, through an electric displacement, which eventually may result in a new equilibrium position. The time-relative aspect of gravity is due to the inertia of a falling body at any stage of its fall, which forces the gradual increase in pitch of its micro helical tubules.
The effects of electrical displacement and gravity vary accordingly, somewhat like Newton’s “inverse square” law. It is here that a difference between the “force of gravity” and the effects of inertia and momentum become apparent. Traditionally, inertia has always been considered (according to Newton’s First Law of Motion) the tendency of a body “at rest” or in “constant velocity” relative to the earth, to continue its state of rest or constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.
Since all bodies at rest relative to the earth are already moving at the same “constant velocity” of the earth however, only changes in movement relative to the earth are at issue, and any such changes affect the patterns of flow within mass of the tubes of force, as it moves through the ether, at any given time. Since only a body which moves in respect to the earth has been traditionally said to have “momentum” (“the product of a body’s mass and velocity”), this rule is wrong, since all bodies “at rest” relative to earth already have “momentum” as well as “inertia”.
There is a special case on earth, because the ether within the reach of earth’s electric field has been “conditioned”—that is, its dielectric constant has been subjected to electric strain. This comports with Tesla’s statements concerning the effects of “rapidly varying electrostatic forces” emanating from earth. The earth has momentum within the sun’s frame of reference, just as a moving car has momentum within the earth’s frame of reference.
Some physicists have mistakenly applied a “field of influence’ idea, thinking this “field of gravitational influence” somehow isolates a body from references outside this field. I believe that earth’s “gravitational field” is a product of its moving electric field (a “current”) as it influences the ether within it, and that the so-called “gravity field” extends no further than earth’s electric field.
The tubules possess electromagnetic force which is locked into the discrete flow pattern between the Omni and the tubules, which are coupled to the ‘ponderable matter’ structure which is the recipient of the momentum. It is probable that the linkage between matter and the ether is effected by a current—perceived as “electric charge”— which passes through the matter constantly at a rate which is commensurate to the relative velocity difference.
The natural gravity force is always normally toward the earth, which is negatively charged, within earth’s electric/gravity field, due to the polarity of that field, since the negative component of the ether in free space is electrically displaced upward by the repulsion of like charges, while the inertial characteristics of the more massive positive component is forced and attracted downward, and is more resistant to changes in displacement. As the ether enters a body at rest on earth, its displacement changes because of the change in dielectric constant, just as Maxwell said.
As the dielectric constant of the body changes, the electric displacement of the ether within the entrained atomic structure of the body changes, creating a downward force as each of the negative electrical components of the ether move downward, creating an increased attractive force on protons above, and an increased repulsive force on electrons below.
Since for a given radius above earth the ether is displaced to a certain degree, an orbiting body would experience an accelerating force which would be met by inertia, if it were to move upward, and a decelerating force which would be met by momentum, if it were to move downward, so its path in force-free constant velocity remains at a constant radius or level of etheric displacement, as the path of least resistance.
Yet, there is sufficient elasticity within the internal masses of the astronauts’ bodies, between electrical content and the ether, to allow movement in that manner. Maxwell said this elasticity resides in the magnetic fields.