The Great Gods, Creating Gods
The 4 Primary Deities (the chief Gods)
Red = SUMERIAN name
Blue = ACADIAN name
Green = BABYLONIAN name
The were named "The Great Gods of the younger generation", headed by
These gods were :
Anu, the god of heaven
Ki (Kiki), the goddess of earth
Enlil, the god of air
Enki (who later became
Ea by the Babylonians), the god of water
It is notable that the Sumerians themselves may not have grouped
these four as a set and that the grouping has been made because of
the observations of Scholars.
Three of the four Great Gods were part of the, so called "Triad" of
Gods, they were the leaders of ALL Gods and were the most powerful
One of the "triad" of Gods
The ancient Sumerian-Babylonian god of the firmament, the 'great
above', and the son of the first pair of gods, An and Ki,
"descendant" of Abzu and Tiamat.
His first consort was
Antu (Anatum), a goddess of creation, They
produced the Anunnaki - the "underworld" gods, and
the Utukki (the
seven evil demons who he often sends to humans to plague them), Antu
was later replaced by Inanna / Ishtar after she left Earth.
About these seven evil spirits, we can read more in a Babylonian
"The seven evil spirits".
He is a "King of the Igigi". He is a god of monarchs and is not
friendly to the common people.
He is assigned the sky as his domain in 'Atrahasis' (our solar
system, their home planet Nibiru?).
He is referred to as,
"the Father" and "King of the Gods", which signifies his importance
in the Mesopotamian pantheon and in the Bible as "
the Lord, the most High God".
When An and Ki were separated by
Enlil, Anu carried off the heavens, and
Enlil carried off the earth.
His 'kishru's (shooting stars) have awesome strength. He has the
ability that anything he puts into words, becomes reality.
He agrees to send the
Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh on Ishtar's
behalf, if she has made sure that the people of Uruk (Erech) are
properly provisioned for seven years. He decrees that either
Gilgamesh or Enkidu must die for the slaying of Humbaba and the Bull
He sends Kakka to Kurnugi (Kur, Africa) to tell Ereshkigal to send a
messenger to receive a gift from him.
When Anzu stole the Tablet of Destinies from Enlil, he called for
one of the gods to slay Anzu and thereby greatly increase his
He gave Marduk the four winds to play with.
He made a whirlwind and a flood wave and stirred up Tiamat on
purpose. When Tiamat's retaliation for Abzu's death was discovered,
An sent Anu on a peace mission to her, but he returned
Anu helps to form a princely shrine for Marduk prior to his battle
with Tiamat, and gives him the Anu-power of decreeing fates, such
that his word is law.
Anu later retreated more and more into the background. He retires to
the "upper heavens" and leaves the affairs of the universe to Marduk
and a younger generation of gods. Anu lives in the "third heaven"
The E-ana in Unug (Uruk Erech) was dedicated both to him and his
consort Antu, a temple dedicated to Anu could also be found in Assur.
In the bible we can read about the God Anu in the story of Ur :
Gn:14:18: And Melchizedek (#) king of Salem brought forth bread and
wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.
Gn:14:19: And he
blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God,
possessor of heaven and earth:
Gn:14:20: And blessed be the most
high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he
gave him tithes of all.
(#) note: Melchizedek was the same as
Shem, the son of Noah, see
the Pseudepigrapha book
"The Writings of Abraham"
It is notable that Anu went more and more in the background later
on, possibly because he retired and leaves Earth and went back to
the third heaven (his home planet? "Paradise"?), together with
several other Gods like,
Anu came often back to Earth, to see the progress of the work of the
other Gods. We will see in chapter 12 that he came back for the last
time when his temple in E-ana in Unug (Erech in the Bible) was build
by King Mec-ki-aj-gacer (the son of Utu) in 6,850 BCE.
Anu is the same as "The Lord, the most high God", The God as
mentioned in Genesis during the lifetime of Abraham (Melchizedek the
King of Salem was a priest of the most high God).
a Sumerian goddess of creation, the feminine
counterpart and first consort of the sky-god Anu.
Anu and Antu also produced
the Anunnaki - the underworld gods, and
the Utukki - the seven evil demons.
Anu and Antu also created evil monsters, so at that time it seems to
be normal that the God's where working on experiments to create all
kinds of creatures, at first mostly wrong beings.
She was later replaced by
Inanna / Ishtar
One of the "triad" of Gods
Together with Anu and Enki/Ea he forms a powerful triad of gods in
the ancient Mesopotamian religion. In later times he supplanted Anu
as chief god.
Enlil ("lord wind") is the god of air, wind and storms, Also called
Lord of 'lil'. He is the foremost god of the Mesopotamian pantheon,
and is sometimes referred to as Kur-Gal ("great mountain").
The most important God of Mesopotamia, leader of the Igigi and
"King" of the Anunnaki.
He separated An and
Ki (his grand-parents), and he carried off the
earth as his portion. He assumed most of An's powers.
He was also god of the lands and of the earth. He and his people
receive the earth in 'Atrahasis' (their "home planet Nibiru"?). He
is glorified as "'the father of the gods,' 'the king of heaven and
earth,' ' the king of all the lands'".
He is also banished to the "nether world" (Kur, Africa) for his rape
of Ninlil, his intended bride, but returns with the first product of
their union, the moon god Sin (better known as Nanna).
His consort is
Ninlil with whom he has at least four children:
Enlil effectuates the dawn, the growth of plants, and bounty. He
also invents agricultural tools such as the plow.
The Me were assembled by
Enlil in E-kur (his temple) and given to Enki to guard and impart to the world, beginning with Eridu, Enki's
centre of worship. He helps Enki when he was cursed by his consort
Ninhursag, Enlil and a fox entreat her to return and undo her curse.
Enlil holds possession of the "Tablets of Destiny" which gives him
power over the entire cosmos and the affairs of man. He guards the
"Tablets of Destiny", which allow him to determines the fate of all
things animate or inanimate. He appointed Anzu, a Zu, a storm-bird
(a bird with some human qualities) (1) as the guardian of his bath
chamber, but while bathing, Anzu stole from him the "Tablet of
Destinies", and his Ellil-power.
(1) Again another evil creation of the God's, Enlil was unhappy with
all these creatures as we will see later.
Ninurta, with Enki's advise and Belet-ili's urgings slew Anzu and
recovered the "Tablets of Destinies" (2).
What were the tablets of Destinies?. Could they be the stones
of Wisdom or maybe the "Ten Commandments" covered in the "Ark of the
Covenant" from the bible?.
His chief-minister is
Nusku, possible slayer of Enmesharra and
avenger of his father Anu. He found a throne for Etana to rule from
When the Igigi rebelled against him, and surrounded his house He
called for Anu.
After man was created in response to the Igigi's grievances, he grew
weary of their noise and released several disasters upon them, after
each one, man recovered and then he released a new one. The
disasters included disease, flood, drought, and the great flood.
(3) Enlil was responsible for many disasters at that time, In my
theory Enlil was the God who destroyed several races of monsters and
demons from the face of the Earth by spreading diseases and finally
the Flood to be sure that all evil creations from other God's were
destroyed. Enlil (the leader of the God's) was angry with the other
God's who experimented on Earth with all kind of creations who were
most evil and wrong.
In the bible we can read :
Gn:6:4: There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after
that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and
they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of
old, men of renown.
Gn:6:5: And God saw that the wickedness of man
was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts
of his heart was only evil continually.
Gn:6:6: And it repented the
Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his
Gn:6:7: And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have
created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the
creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repented me that I
have made them.
Gn:6:8: But Noah found grace in the eyes of the
Gn:6:11: The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth
was filled with violence.
Gn:6:12: And God looked upon the earth,
and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way
upon the earth.
Gn:6:13: And God said unto Noah, The end of all
flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence
through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
He appointed Humbaba to guard the cedar forest and terrify mankind
Humbaba the same as one of the "Cherubim's" and
Bull of Heaven) the same as "a flaming sword" , the guards of the
garden of Eden from Genesis 3 in the Bible?.
In the bible we can read :
Gn:3:24: So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the
garden of Eden Cherubim's, and a flaming sword which turned every
way, to keep the way of the tree of life.
He is sometimes friendly towards mankind, but can also be a stern
and even cruel god who punishes man and sends forth disasters
He is a short-tempered god who was responsible for the great flood
which wiped out humanity with the exception of Atrahasis
He decreed that Enkidu must die for the slaying of the
Heaven and Humbaba. He does not answer Gilgamesh's plea to restore
Enkidu to life
His role in this was supplanted by Marduk by the Babylonians
Enlil is portrayed with a white beard, wearing a crown with horns,
symbol of his power
His most prestigious temple was "Duranki" in the city Nippur, and he
was the patron of that city
Bel was originally the chief spirit (in Sumerian En-lil, the older
designation of Bel, which is Semitic for "chief" or "lord")
Some historians believe that Enlil is the
same God as Marduk but I
think that's impossible because Marduk is the son of Enki/Ea and
Ninhursag and not the son of Anu, I mentioned already that I belief
that Marduk was the same as Enki/Ea, nevertheless it's still
uncertain and possible that the same God's have several names, as
you could see above by Ki and others other Gods, see later.
See also the original Sumerian tablets called Enlil and Ninlil,
Enlil and Sud and Enlil in the E-kur
Enlil is the same as
"The Lord God" or "EL" mentioned in Genesis
the God who expelled Adam and Eve from the garden of Edin (Eden)
the patron God of Cain when he slew his "brother" Abel
the God who
caused the Flood to destroy Mankind
the God who was furious to
Sons of God in Genesis 6 because they mingled with Mankind
EL became ALLAH by the Moslems.
An ancient Sumerian-Babylonian goddess of heaven, earth, and air and
in one aspect of the underworld. She is also a goddess of grain and
is called 'queen wind'. She shows compassion to the unfortunate.
She is the consort of Enlil, the 'lord wind'.
It is likely that Enlil raped her and was then banished to the
"nether world" (Kur, Africa). She follows him to the nether world,
where she gives birth to the moon god Sin (also known as Nanna).
They have three more children in the nether world who remain there
so that Sin may be allowed to leave.
She and Enlil were worshipped in Nippur.
- Nudimmud Ea
One of the "triad" of Gods
Enki, the god of wisdom who ruled over the fresh waters of the
earth. He fashioned a great platter that floated on the chaotic
waters of the Great Deep and covered it with the dome of the sky
below the waters above the earth.
Enki was the son of
An and Nammu, his twin sister was Ereshkigal.
(1) Enki was in my opinion a son of AN and NAMMU, in the Sumerian
story of creation he is the son of AN and KI and finally in the
Babylonian story Ea (Enki) is the son of Anu and Antum, so there are
several parents for the same God ENKI.
He is the Sumerian high god of water and intellect, creation, wisdom
and medicine who could restore the dead to life. (see the books of
Adam and Eve,
book 1 and
Contrary to the translation of his name,
Enki is not the lord of the
earth, but of the Abzu (the watery abyss and also semen) and of
He was called Ea in Babylonia, King of Apsu.
His consort is the mother goddess Ninhursag or Damkina, with whom he
is theand Nanche.
Enki was one of the foremost gods of the ancient Mesopotamian
pantheon and formed with Anu and Enlil an important and powerful
"triad" of gods. (2)
Keep in mind the "triad" of the "Christian" New Testament called
"The Father (Anu?), The Son (Enlil?) and The Holy Spirit" (Enki / Ea
?), is that a coincidence ?. As I mentioned already there is a
possibility that Enki / Ea is the same as Marduk, his son.
Furthermore Enki is often described as a "floating" God (Spirit).
He was the source of all secret and magical knowledge of life and
immortality. Enki possessed the secret of me, 'culture,
civilization', which is the genius of progress in knowledge to lead
humanity. He invented civilization for the people and assigned to
each his destiny.
He created order in the cosmos. He filled the rivers with fish. He
invented the plough and the yoke so that farmers could till the
earth with oxen. He made the grain grow. He is the father of all
plants. God of the waters. He is in charge of the bolt which bars
the sea. He knows everything. He is the "Lord of Wisdom" and "Lord
of Incantations". When he speaks, of a thing, it will be made.
It was Enki who discovered Tiamat's designs to kill her offspring,
and managed to kill her consort Abzu.
He learned that Tiamat was planning a war of revenge against the
gods. His father An tries to spur him into making the first attack
against Tiamat, but he rebuffs him. When Anu's peace mission fails,
he urges Marduk into action.
He discovered the plot of Abzu and Mummu, put Apsu under a sleeping
spell, and slew him and put Mummu into a daze, tied him up, and slew
He created Zaltu (a Goddess of Strife) as a complement to Inanna/Ishtar.
He suggests the method of creating man (towards whom he is usually well-disposed and he is their instructor
and taught them arts and crafts) in response to the heavy workload
of the Igigi. As mankind's patron, he is the instructor of all
crafts, writing, building, farming, and magic.
He is shown on the seals with streams of
water and fish flowing from his shoulders, attended by a two-faced minister,
the bird Anzu, and Ishtar as Venus rising (3)
Is it a coincidence that Christians have the fish sign as the
symbol of their belief?
He blessed the paradisiacal land of Dilmun, to have plentiful water
and palm trees. With Ninhursag, he created eight new types of trees
there, se the whole story in the Sumerian poem Enki and Ninhursag.
(Dilmun was "Paradise" or "The Garden of Eden" as mentioned in the
bible, see also
Dilmun in the section
He then consumed these "children" and was cursed by his consort
Ninhursag, with one wound for each plant consumed. Enlil and a fox
act on Enki's behalf to call back Ninhursag in order to undo the
damage. She joins with Enki again and bears eight new children, one
to cure each of the wounds.
At the direction of his mother Nammu and with some constructive
criticism from Ninhursag, he created man from the heart of the clay
over the Abzu, see the whole story in the Sumerian poem Enki and
This sounds familiar when we read in the bible :
Gn:2:7: And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and
breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a
Gn:2:9: And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow
every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the
tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of
knowledge of good and evil.
Gn:2:16: And the Lord God commanded the
man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
Gn:2:17: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou
shalt surely die.
He advises mankind when other gods would do them harm.
He granted Adapa (Adam) understanding, to teach mankind. When Adapa
used this knowledge to break the wing of the South Wind, he cursed
him and told him to complain of Dumuzi and Gizzida's absence to Anu.
While in Anu's court, he advises Adapa not to eat the bread of
eternal life (lest he forfeit his life on earth, see the whole story
The tablet of Adapa).
In the bible is written :
Gn:2:15: And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden
of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
Gn:2:16: And the Lord God (!)
commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest
Gn:2:17: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and
evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest
thereof thou shalt surely die.
Gn:2:19: And out of the ground the
Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air;
and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and
whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name
Gn:2:20: And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl
of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was
not found an help meet for him.
Eve tells the serpent what the Lord God said :
Gn:3:3: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the
garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye
touch it, lest ye die.
As I mentioned already in earlier chapters there seems to be a
difference between "God", the Lord, the most High and the "Lord
God", this explains that there were more then one God, also in the
Christian Bible (even without the Apocryphal story of creation in
the Jewish Bible).
Enki, who was friendly to man, also revealed Enlil's design of
destroying mankind by a flood to Uta-Napishtim, the Babylonian
version of Noah. (4)
(4) See also the story of Noah and the Flood in the Bible (see
Enki is depicted on a relief holding
Zu, the storm-bird.
He did struggle with Kur (Africa) as mentioned in the prelude to
"Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld", and presumably was
victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" (the
He is a god of water, creation, and fertility. He also holds
dominion over the land. He is the keeper of the Me, the divine laws.
The Me were assembled by Enlil in E-kur and given to Enki to guard
and impart to the world, beginning with Eridu, his centre of
From there, he guards the Me and imparts them on the
people. He directs the Me towards Ur and Meluhha and Dilmun,
organizing the world with his decrees. (5)
Enki was the keeper of the Me (at least 49), the divine laws and
later on some were given to Moses on mount Sinai as the "Ten
Inanna comes to Enki and complains at having been given too little
power from his decrees. In a different text, she gets Enki drunk and
he grants her more powers, arts, crafts, and attributes -
a total of ninety-four Me. Inanna parts company with Enki to deliver
the Me to her cult center at Erech (E-ana). Enki recovers his wits
and tries to recover the Me from her, but she arrives safely in
Erech with them. Enki "sails" to Kur (Africa), presumably to rescue
Ereshkigal (his twin-sister) after she was given over to Kur. He is
assailed by creatures with stones. These creatures may have been an
extension of Kur itself (see the original Sumerian tablet called
Inana and Enki).
He is friendly to Inanna and rescued her from Kur by sending two
sexless beings to negotiate with, and flatter Ereshkigal. They gave
her the Bread of Life and the Water of Life, which restored her.
When Enki is informed of Inanna's imprisonment in the "Underworld",
he creates 'His appearance is bright' to stand at Ereshkigal's gate
and mellow her mood and have her swear an oath by the great gods
(see the original Sumerian tablet called Inanna's descent to the
He instructs Nergal on how to build the gift throne for
and hides him with spring water to hide him from Namtar after he
returned from the "underworld".
He tells Nergal to allow Enkidu's spirit to visit Gilgamesh.
When Anu and the gods could not locate a volunteer to kill Anzu, he
told the Igigi that he would pick one. He instructs
Ki/Belet-Ili/Mami to send Ninurta to slay Anzu and, through Sharur
advises Ninurta on how to defeat the creature.
His main cult center was Eridu in ancient Sumer, one of the first
cities in the world )see the original Sumerian tablet called Enki
builds the E-engurra).
Enki refuses to flood mankind for
(6) Enki refuses to destroy whole mankind, even he was ordered to do
so by Enlil leader of the "triad" of God's. Finally he accedes
Enlil's order and flooded the Earth after he instructed Atrahasis to
build a boat.
He accedes, but only after advising
Atrahasis to build a boat in
which to weather the flood. (7)
Atrahasis or Uta-Napishtim, like the Sumerian
Ziusudra are all
the same as Noah in the Bible,
there is written :
Gn:6:14: Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in
the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.
And, behold, I, even I (8), do bring a flood of waters upon the
earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from
under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
Gn:6:18: But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt
come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons'
wives with thee.
Gn:6:19: And of every living thing of all flesh,
two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive
with thee; they shall be male and female.
Gn:7:4: For yet seven
days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and
forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I
destroy from off the face of the earth.
Gn:7:11: In the six
hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth
day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great
deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
(8) What was the reason that the Lord God said to Noah "EVEN I do
bring a flood of waters upon the earth" ?, thus even the Lord God
must confess that He must obey the orders of the God Enlil and must
do what him has been ordered.
See also the Sumerian tablets called Enki and the World order.
Enki/Ea is the same as the God who created Adam and Eve (with the
help of his wife Ninhursag) as slaves for the Gods, the God who
instructed Noah to build an Ark, the God who preserved and protected
Mankind against other Gods and the God who was responsible for the
final creation of Homo Sapiens (modern men).
The God Enki / Ea, or
Ya, the oldest god of the Babylonian Pantheon,
is connected with the name
Jahve, Jahu, or Ja,
The God who created
As mentioned already it's possible and in my opinion nearly sure
that EA and MARDUK (his son) are one and the same God because we can
read in the Babylonian poem
ENUMA ELISH, tablet VII, after the great
Gods had given MARDUK 50 names to honor him for the creation of Man
"Now too Ea having heard rejoiced, 'The Great Gods have glorified my
he is Ea, names by my name, he will execute my will and direct my
See also the description of the Babylonian God Marduk and you'll see
the similarity between EA and Marduk yourself.
Father and the Son doctrine in the New Testament of