P  -  R


Other members


Pilgrim function






Page, Walter Hines



Educated at Trinity College (now Duke), Randolph-Macon College, and Johns Hopkins University studying Greek classics, editor of the St. Joseph Gazette, the Forum and Atlantic Monthly, partner in the publishing firm of Doubleday Page & Company (publisher), wrote “The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths” (1902), founded and edited the "World's Work" up to 1913, ambassador to Great Britain during World War I, urging an early United States intervention which improved the ties between the US and England (although Wilson didn't approve).

Page, Walter Hines II



Grandson of Walter Hines Page, director Kennecott Copper, director AT&T, director Merck & Company, vice-president, president, vice-chairman & chairman at J.P. Morgan & Company (retired in 1979), president, chairman & trustee Long Island Biological Association, director or trustee of the Foreign Policy Association, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory & New York Urban Coalition, trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington (1971-1979), member Council on Foreign Relations.

Paley, William S.



Graduated from Western Military Academy in 1918, studied at the University of Chicago 1918-1919, University of Pennsylvania B.S. in 1922, served as colonel of the United States Army during WWII, deputy chief of the psychological warfare division of SHAPE (NATO), deputy chief of information control division of U.S. Group Control Council, Germany (USGCC), vice-president Congress Cigar Company 1922-1928, every executive position possible at CBS Inc.1928-1990, partner Whitcom Investment Company 1982-90, founder and director Genetics Institute 1980-1990, Thinking Machines Corp. 1983-1990, co-chair International Herald Tribune 1983-1990, president and director William S. Paley Foundation and the Greenpark Foundation, Inc., life trustee Columbia University 1950-1990, chairman and trustee North Shore University Hospital 1949-1973, life trustee Federation Jewish Philanthropies of New York, director W. Averill Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of Soviet Union at Columbia University, member Commission for White House Conference on Education 1954-1956, chairman President's Materials for Policy Commission, which produced "Resources for Freedom" 1951-1952, director, chairman and honorary member Resources for the Future 1952-1969, chairman New York City Task Force on Urban Design, which prepared "The Threatened City" report in 1967, member Urban Design Council City New York 1968-1971, co-founder and director Bedford-Stuyvesant D and S Corp. 1967-1972, member Commission on Critical Choices for America 1973-1977, member Council on Foreign Relations, member Academy of Political Sciences, member National Institute for Social Sciences, member Royal Society of the Arts. Paley seems to have been involved with the British Crown's Tavistock Institute.

Parker, Sir Gilbert



Canadian novelist, born in Ontario. His novels and collections of tales usually deal either with the history of Canada or with England and the empire. Among his works are Pierre and His People (1892), The Seats of the Mighty (1896), and The Promised Land (1928). He moved to England in 1889 and from 1900 to 1918 served in Parliament.

Parry, Sir Emyr Jones



Joined Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1973. Second later First Secretary (Political) later First Secretary (Economic), Ottawa in 1974. Worked on EU affairs in Foreign and Commonwealth Office and in the UK Representation to the EU in Brussels 1979-1984. Deputy Chef du Cabinet, President of the European Parliament 1987-1989. Head of European Community Department External, Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1989-1993. Minister and Deputy Head of Mission, Madrid 1993-1996. Deputy Political Director foremostly, responsible also for Balkans and Aegean policy 1996-1997. Director European Union responsible for policy, including co-ordination and organisation of the 1998 UK Presidency of the EU 1997-1998. Political Director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office responsible for policy advice to the Secretary of State 1998-2001. UK Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council 2001-2003. Permanent Representative, UK Mission to the UN, New York since 2003.

Parsons, Sir Maurice Henry



Joined the Bank of England in 1928, private secretary to Governor Montagu Norman at the Bank of England 1939-1943, U.K. executive director IMF 1946-1947, Director of Operations IMF 1947-1950, deputy chief cashier Bank of England 1950-1955, assistant to the governors of the Bank of England 1955-1957, executive director Bank of England 1957-1966, deputy governor Bank of England 1966-1970, knighted in 1966.

Pattberg Emil J., Jr.



Chairman First Boston Corporation (Has been rated as the world’s leading investment banking operation).

Patterson, Ellmore Clark



Married Ann Hyde Choate of the Pilgrim Hyde & Choate families, WWII navy, joined J.P. Morgan & Company in 1935, finally became chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1971-1978, trustee Massachusetts Institute of Technology, life trustee University of Chicago, director Morgan Bank of Canada, Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Schlumberger Limited (rival to Halliburton), Standard Brands Bethlehem Steel, International Nickel Co., Atlantic Richfield Oil Co., Nabisco Brands Inc., General Motors and Canada Life Assurance, member Presidential Commission on Financial Structure and Regulation 1970-1972, member Council on Foreign Relations, involved with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, treasurer and trustee Sloan-Kettering for Cancer Research around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller, George Whitney and other heavy-hitters), member Investment Committee of the Committee on Scientific Policy around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller).

Patterson, Richard Cunningham Jr.



Served in the army during WWI, started with the Du Ponts in 1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1928, joined National Broadcasting in 1932, chaired RKO Corporation 1939-1943, ambassador to Yugoslavia 1944-1947, Guatemala 1948-1951, Switzerland 1951-1953, director New Hampshire & Hudson Railroad, John C. Paige Incorporated Insurance Brokers, Hilton Hotels International, Empire State Building Corporation, General Dynamics, Burrus Mills, American Export Lines, Hidden Splendor Mining Company, Mercast Corporation, and Wah-Chang Smelting & Refining Company, director and first president of the China-America Council of Commerce & Industry. Patterson chaired the Military Intelligence Reserve Society in 1930 and received the Order of the Jade (China), in addition to many other international awards. He also chaired the United Nations Committee for the City of New York.

Peabody, Richard A.



Possibly of the same family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy, was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Richard attended the first annual dinner of the New-York City Club of Yale College in 1886. Was recruited into the English branch of the Pilgrims in 1903. Died early in 1910 and his wife, Mary Chester Miller, survived him by 40 years. In 1921 Mrs. Richard A. Peabody, as she was usually addressed, set up a French Shop in New York with Mrs. Robert Grosvenor. Richard Peabody's grandson, Lieutenant Matthew Looram, Jr. (born 1921), married the daugther of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild of Vienna, Bettina de Rothschild, on September 18, 1943. Looram, Jr. served in the U.S. Army during World War II, was U.S. Consul in Asmara 1959-1962, U.S. Ambassador to Dahomey 1969-1971, and U.S. Ambassador to Somalia 1972-1973.

Peale, Norman Vincent



Famous Protestant clergyman, pastor of Marble Collegiate Church for 52 years, Freemason and member of the Midwood Lodge No. 1062 (NY), wrote one of the best-selling books of the 1950s, "applied Christianity", authored 45 other books (mainly about positive thinking) that still sell today, published the inspirational magazine 'Guideposts', controlled the megamillion dollar Presbyterian Ministers Fund.

Penrose, Charles


born 1886

Protestant Episcopalian, founded the Pennsylvania Board of Health, president Philadelphia zoo, co-founder and chairman Newcomen Society, member English Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Penrose, Charles, Jr.


born 1921

Inheritor of a cotton, engineering, mining and power production fortune, chairman Newcomen Society (The logo is a lion with the wings of an eagle, again indicating Britain and the US), member English-Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Perry, James De Wolf



In 1930, Reverend Perry became head of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, which made him the American counterpart to the Archbishop of Canterbury (also a member). Appeared as vice-president on the 1942 membership list.

Perryman, Francis Spencer



Born December 3, 1896 in London, England, he was educated at Christ’s College, London and London University from which he received a B.Sc. degree. He entered the employ of the Royal Insurance Company in London in 1914. After serving as a Lieutenant in the British Army from 1915 to 1919, he resumed his career with the Royal Insurance Company and in 1922 became a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. He came to the United States in 1924 as Assistant Actuary of the casualty companies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies and later was elected Vice President and Actuary of those companies. In 1949 he became Assistant United States Manager, Vice President and Actuary of all of the com- panies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies operating in the United States. Mr. Perryman’s professional attainments were of the highest order. In addition to his Fellowship in the Institute of Actuaries, he was a Fellow and past President of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the Society of Actuaries. He was also a member of the American Statistical Association, the Mathematical Association of America, and the American Mathematical Society. At the time of his death he was Vice-Chairman of the ASTIN Section of the International Congress of Actuaries. One of the things which is least known is that Mr. Perryman was an avid student of religion as well as mathematics. He was a member of the Church Club of New York, the St. George’s Society and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was formerly the efficient Treasurer and dedicated Church Warden of the Church of Saint James the Less in Scarsdale, New York. His ability and personality made him one of the most influential persons in the actuarial development of fire and casualty insurance in the US from the 1920's to the 1950's.

Phelps-Stokes, James Graham



Yale, not Skull & Bones but many Phelps and Phelps-Stokes were, honorary councillor of the Russian Information Bureau in the United States 1917-1922, owned Austin Mining, Manhattan Silver Mine, Ione Gold Mining, Nevada Central Railroad, Nevada Motor Lines, The Nevada Company and State Bank of Nevada, president of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society 1907-1918, member of the China Society of America, Royal India and Pakistan Society, Oriental Institute of University of Chicago, American Oriental Society, American Legion, Sons of the Revolution, Society of Colonial Wars and others. Member of the New York Governor’s Committee in 1921 to welcome to New York representatives of European countries to attend the International Conference on Limitation of Armaments, a forerunner of the S.A.L.T. talks. (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

Phillips, Lord Nicholas Addison



Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers. Phillips was educated at Bryanston School; he enjoyed his time at the school and from 1975 he became a Governor of the School; he has been Chairman of the Governors since 1981. He undertook his National Service with the Royal Navy and the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve where he was a commissioned officer; after the two years service he went up to King's College, Cambridge where he read Law. In 1962 he was called to the bar (Middle Temple) where he was the Harmsworth Scholar. He went into practise as a barrister, specialising in maritime law matters; in 1973 he was appointed as Junior Counsel to the Ministry of Defence and to the Treasury in maritime and Admiralty matters; in 1978 he 'took silk' and became a Queen's Counsel. In 1982 Phillips was appointed as a Recorder (junior Judge) and from 1987 was a full time Judge on the Queen's Bench Division, with the customary Knighthood. He took an interest in legal training, and was Chairman of the Council of Legal Education from 1992 to 1997. He presided over several complex fraud trials including those covering the Robert Maxwell pension fund fraud and Barlow Clowes. In 1995 he became a Lord Justice of Appeal and was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1999 he was made a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and in 2000 succeeded Lord Woolf as Master of the Rolls. Chairman of the BSE inquiry 1998-2000.

Phipps, Henry



Son of an immigrant cobbler, grew up with and befriended Andrew Carnegie, finally intermarried with the Carnegie family, partner in Bidwell & Phipps (agents for Dupont Powder Company) 1861, second largest stockholder of Carnegie Steel Company (became U.S. Steel after it was bought by J.P. Morgan), director U.S. Steel Corporation, founded the Phipps Houses Group in 1905, controlled Bessemer Securities Corporation, interests connected to Dillon Read & Company.

Polk, Frank L.



Yale Scroll & Key 1894, partner Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardner & Read Law firm, Secretary of State, Counsellor of the Department of State, negotiator during and surrounding WWI with high level British and American officials (co-Pilgrims), present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1943, vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1943, director Northern Pacific Railway Co. since 1938, director Bowery Savings Bank and Mutual Life Ins. Co. since 1939, director U.S. Trust Co. in 1939, member advisory committee of the Institute of Human Relations, contributed over $140,000 at death to the CFR.

Preston, Lewis Thompson



Married Gladys Pulitzer in 1959, of the Pulitzer newspaper publishing fortune, director General Electric, trustee Foxcroft School, chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company 1980-1990, president World Bank 1991-1995, member Council on Foreign Relations. In the 1981 Who’s Who he admitted his membership in The Pilgrims, but in the 1994 edition he went underground about it. (According to Charles Savoie)

Price, Charles H., II


Born in 1931, Charles Price attended Wentworth Military Academy and the University of Missouri (1948-1953). He served with the United States Air Force from 1953-1955. After his discharge, he began a prominent business career serving as chairman and president of American Bancorporation Inc., chairman and CEO of the American Bank and Trust Company of Kansas City, chairman and president of Linwood Securities Company, and chairman and CEO of Price Candy Company from 1969-1981. US Ambassador to Belgium 1981-1983. U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1983-1989. Upon his return from London, in April 1989, Ambassador Price was appointed Chairman of the Board of Ameribanc, Inc., and President and CEO in 1990. With the merger of Ameribanc, Inc. and Mercantile Bancorporation, Inc. in May 1992, he became Chairman of the Board of Mercantile Bank of Kansas City and Mercantile Bank of Kansas, a position he held until his retirement on April 1, 1996. Since leaving government service, he has been appointed to be a Director of British Airways p.l.c. (1989-1996), Hanson p.l.c. (1989-1995), US Industries, Inc. (1995-present), The New York Times Company (1989-2002), Texaco Inc. (1989-2001), Sprint (1989-1995), and 360o Communications, Inc. (1995-1997). His civic Boards in Kansas City include membership on the Board of Trustees of the Midwest Research Institute, formerly serving as the Board Chairman. He is an Honorary Director of St. Luke’s Hospital.

Putney III, William Beaumont



Grandson of an influential banker, Vanderbilt associated law firm, director Genesee & Wyoming Railroad, director Yamaichi Securities (Japanese).

Pyne, Percy Rivington II


born 1882

Inherited a fortune, interests in National City Bank, Delaware & Hudson Railroad, Empire Trust, Farmers Loan & Trust, Princeton Bank & Trust, Commercial Trust, Delaware Lackawanna & Western Coal, New Amsterdam Gas, Morris & Essex Railroad, Syracuse & Binghampton Railroad, Lackawanna Steel, United New Jersey Railroad, East River Gas Company, Oswego & Syracuse Railroad and many others, trustee Princeton University.

Pyne, Eben Wright

exec.- committee


Executive with National City Bank of New York (Citigroup), director of Long Island Lighting, U.S. Life Insurance, City Investing Company and Home Insurance Company, director W.R. Grace & Company 1960-1995.

Rabin, Charles H.




Randolph, Francis F.


born 1889

Wall Street financier. Treasurer Russell Trust Association.

Ray, William F.


died 2001

Related to the Sturgis and Whitney families. Advisor to the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group. Partner Brown Brothers Harriman & Company. Chairman American-Australian Association 1984-1986. President American-Australian Association 1986-1988. Patron American-Australian Association.

Raymond, Chevalier Ronald A.



Executive vice-president of Finance and Administration for the Rambusch Decorating Company of New York. He is a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, the New England Society, the St. George Society, the Amateur Comedy Club and the Regency Whist Club. Introduced into the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, Priory of St. Michael & St. George (of New York) in the spring of 1997.

Reading, Lord Rufus Daniel Isaacs



British statesman. Called to the bar in 1887, he achieved great success in his profession. He entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1904, became attorney general in 1910, and in 1912 was given a seat in the cabinet. Involved in charges of buying stock in the American Marconi Corp. while the government was contracting with the British branch of the firm, he was, however, exonerated and in 1913 was created lord chief justice. During World War I he served the government in financial operations, becoming (1915) president of an Anglo-French loan commission to the United States, where he subsequently served as special envoy (1917) and special ambassador (1918–19). In 1921 he was made viceroy of India at a time when the temper of the people, partly under the influence of Mohandas Gandhi and partly as a result of the massacre at Amritsar (1919), was roused against British rule. Faced with the passive resistance of the Gandhi adherents, Isaacs authorized the imprisonment of Gandhi and felt compelled to allow the hated salt tax. He returned to England in 1926 and was created a marquess (having already been created in succession baron, viscount, and earl), but he was much criticized for his administrative acts in India. He was (1931) foreign secretary in Ramsay MacDonald's National government.

Reed, Philip Dunham



Electrical Engineering and law degrees, admitted to the New York State Bar Association 1925, patent counselor Van Heusen Company, deputy director Materials Division of the War Production Board 1942, working with other Pilgrims from General Electric. Reed was re-assigned to assist (Pilgrim) Averell Harriman as the Deputy Chief of the U.S. Mission for Economic Affairs in London in 1943, becoming chief of that mission with the rank of minister in October 1943, serving until January 1945. After leaving the U. S. Mission for Economic Affairs, Reed served as legal consultant to the U.S. delegation to the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco; this led to Reed's long affiliation with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). He was a member of the ICC from 1945-1975; he served as president from 1949 to 1951. Reed headed the U.S. Mission on Anglo-American Council of Productivity, a Marshall Plan agency, established in 1948. Reed was vice chairman of the Business Advisory Council of the Department of Commerce (became the Business Council in 1961) from 1951 to 1952. He was also active in the Committee for Economic Development where he served as a trustee and a member of the Research & Policy Committee from 1946 to 1975. Reed acted as an Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships trustee from 1953 to 1975, serving as Vice Chairman from 1955 to 1975, and Chairman of the Finance Committee from 1956 to 1958. Reed also served as a Trustee of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation from 1960 to 1965, and as a Trustee of the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States from 1970 to 1975. President and chief executive officer General Electric Company 1940-1942 & 1945-1959, chairman International General Electric 1945-1952, chairman Finance Committee and General Electric Pension Trust 1952-1959, member Committee on the University and World Affairs 1960, director Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1959-1960, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1960-1965, chairman Executive Committee of the International Executive Service Corps 1966-1974, director Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1969. Director of American Express, Bankers Trust Company, Bigelow-Sanford Inc., Cowles Communication, Kraftco Corporation, Otis Elevator, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Scott Paper, Tiffany & Co., U. S. Financial Inc., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Ford Foundation, visitor Bohemian Grove 1966-1988, stood in contact with the American Ditchley foundation 1957-1986.

Rehnquist, William



Served in World War II from 1943 to 1946, working as a weather observer in North Africa, M.A. in political sciences at Stanford University 1950, active in the Republican Party and served as a legal advisor to Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1986, where he followed up Pilgrim Warren E. Burger.

Reid, Whitelaw (Mills)

exec. committee


American journalist and diplomat, managing editor New York Tribune in 1868. After Greeley's death, Reid gained financial as well as editorial control of the paper and continued it as a leading journal of the nation. While publishing the Tribune, he was minister to France 1889-1892, was the Republican candidate for vice president in 1892, and was ambassador to Great Britain from 1905-1912. Reid wrote many books on war and foreign affairs. Reid was special Ambassador of the U.S. to Queen Victoria’s Jubilee, 1897, and again to the Coronation of King Edward VII in 1902.

Reid, Ogden Mills



Publisher of the Republican and the New York Tribune, purchased the New York Herald and made it into the New York Herald Tribune, co-founder of the American-Australian Association in 1948 by a 1946 Inaugural Meeting at the University Club in New York.

Reid, Ogden Rogers

exec. committee


Yale Book and Snake, owner New York Herald Tribune, chairman New York Herald Tribune 1953-1959, U.S. ambassador to Israel 1959-1961, House of Representatives1962-1975, advisor to JFK, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Renwick of Clifton, Lord Robin



Educated at Cambridge University and the University of Paris. Advisor to Lord Carrington during the negotiations which ended the war in Rhodesia in 1980 and political advisor to Lord Soames during the ceasefire and elections leading to the independence of Zimbabwe (new name of Rhodesia). Awarded a knighthood in 1988. British Ambassador to South Africa 1987-1991. Played a leading role in the diplomacy which led to the abolition of apartheid. British Ambassador to Washington 1991-1995. Appointed to the House of Lords by Prime Minister Blair in 1997 and became Labour spokesman on Foreign Affairs. He is Vice Chairman Investment Banking of JP Morgan, Europe Chairman of Fluor Ltd., director of BHP Billiton, Harmony Gold, SABMiller plc, and Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG. Director of British Airways 1996-2005. Former deputy chairman of the merchant bank, Robert Fleming. Trustee of The Economist and the Helen Suzman Foundation. Patron of GAP Activity Projects. Director of BritishAmerican Business Inc. of New York and London (BABi). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Reynolds, Richard S., Jr.



After a successful, but brief career in investment banking, Richard Jr. joined his father's company in 1938. Under his leadership, Reynolds Corporation expanded tremendously, buying more government plants and establishing facilities across the globe in such countries as Jamaica, the Philippines and Venezuela. In 1948, assets were $114 million and reached a level of over $1 billion by 1963. Richard Jr. also was a chairman of Robertshaw Controls Company, which is/was very big in manufacturing car thermostats and other car parts, and a director of Central National of Richmond Corp.

Rhinelander, Philip



Seems to have been a very prominent person at the turn of the last century and attended parties with the Astors, Vanderbilts, Morgans and Rockefellers. William Rhinelander, a relative, left an estate valued at $50 million in 1907. That's all I have.

Rhodes, Cecil John

Possibly a co-founder


Moved to South-Africa for medical reasons. While Rhodes worked in the cotton fields, his brother worked in Kimberly in a diamond mine. After some time, Herbert offered partnership to Rhodes in his mining company down in Kimberly. Rhodes accepted without regret. Rhodes used the money that he made from the diamond mine to pay for his education at the University of Oxford in England. Before Rhodes received his degree, he was elected to the Parliament of Cape Colony, in South Africa, where he had done some of his studying and research. Rhodes spent a long term serving on the parliament in Cape Colony, and was immediately elected to the prime minister of Cape Colony. In 1891, Rhodes and four colleagues founded the "De Beers Consolidated Limited Mining Company" in Kimberly, with capital of two hundred thousand dollars (provided by the Rothschild family). He monopolized the entire diamond industry, amassing a fortune for himself. In that same year, De Beers Mining Company became the largest mining company in the world. He also was the founder of the Round Table in 1891, which eventually led to societies as The Pilgrims. In a later stage of his life he became privy councilor and pretty much ruled over southern Africa. After his death, he donated his whole fortune to the creation of a secret society network, which was ment to "absorb the wealth of the world" and create a worldwide English speaking empire under British rule. It is believed by some that his donation led to the establishment of the Pilgrims Society.

Richard, Sir Ivor Seward


born 1932

He was called to the Bar in 1955 and practised as a Barrister in London. He had been an active member of the Labour Party, member of the English Speaking Union, and the Fabian Society. Richard was elected to parliament in 1964 and served briefly as an assistant to Dennis Healey (attended first Bilderberg conference) as Secretary of State for Defence. He was appointed as Minister for the Army in 1969 and was pro-Europe, a view not very popular with labour. Healey served as UK Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1975 to 1979. He became a figure of controversy after the then US Ambassador, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, criticised the UN for passing a resolution stating that zionism was a form of racism, and Richard denounced him for behaving "like the Wyatt Earp of international politics"; shortly thereafter Moynihan was removed from office by Henry Kissinger. In 1980 he was chosen by the Labour Party to take one of the posts on the European Commission, where he took responsibility for Employment, Social Policy, Education and Training. Richard returned to Wales in 1985 and was appointed Chairman of World Trade Centre Wales Ltd., trying to persuade international business to invest in the country of his birth. In 1990, his name was included in a list of Labour Party 'Working Peers' and he became an opposition spokesman in the House of Lords. His Barrister's style led to his appointment as Leader of the Labour Peers from 1992, which brought with it appointment to the Privy Council. When Labour won the 1997 election, Richard became Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. With Labour policy favouring a reform of the House starting with removal of the Hereditary Peers, Richard began work on the new composition of the House, but was shocked when he was suddenly removed at the first reshuffle in July 1998 to be replaced by Baroness Jay of Paddington. His thoughts on the reform of the House were published in Unfinished Business in 1999 and Richard became a critical friend of the Government. The Coalition Government in the National Assembly for Wales invited Richard to Chair a Commission on the future powers of the Assembly from 2002. The report was published on March 31, 2004 and recommended that the Assembly have full primary legislative powers in devolved areas from 2011, a recommendation that was controversial with Wales' Labour MPs.

Richardson, Frank W.



Radio station chain operator.

Richardson, Elliot L.



Graduated from Harvard College in 1941. U.S. Army 1942-1945 (Purple Heart and participated in D-Day). Graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1947. Law clerk to Justice Learned Hand of the U.S. Court of Appeals and then to Justice Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. Supreme Court. Associate and partner in the Boston law firm Ropes and Gray. Assistant to Senator Leverett Saltonstall of Massachusetts 1953-1954. Assistant secretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1957-1959. U.S. attorney for Massachusetts 1959-1961. Special assistant to the U.S. attorney general 1961. Lieutenant governor 1965-1967. Attorney General of Massachusetts 1967-1969. Under secretary of state 1969-1970. Secretary of health, education, and welfare 1970-1973. Nixon's Secretary of Defense for 4 months in 1973 (Nixon ordered Richardson to fire the Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused this order and resigned). U.S. Attorney General 1973-1974. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1974-1975. Ambassador to Great Britain 1975-1977. Secretary of commerce 1975-1977. Ambassador at large 1977-1980. Special representative for the Law of the Sea Conference 1977-1980. Partner with the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. Spoke and wrote widely on national security and other issues. Legal counsel for Inslaw, the company formed to develop the PROMIS (PROsecution Management Information Systems) software in the early 1980's (Its president, Bill Hamilton, was a former NSA programmer). The Elliot L. Richardson Prize for Excellence in Public Service was established in early 2000 "to recognize extraordinary, sustained accomplishment and integrity in government service and to encourage achievement by future public leaders at the level Richardson demonstrated in service to his country." They have a tendency to give Pilgrims an award; Sandra Day O'Conner, Colin Powell, George Shultz (former Secretary of State), etc. Member of the Bohemian Grove and a Freemason.

Richardson, Lord Gordon



Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne; educated at Cambridge University, graduated with law degrees in 1937 & 1938; called to the Bar in 1946; Member of the Bar Council 1951-1955; with Industrial & Commercial Finance Corporation 1955-1957; director of J. Henry Schroder & Co Ltd. 1957-1960, vice-chairman 1960-1962, and chairman 1962- 1972; Chairman of the Industrial Development Advisory Board 1972-1973; Director of the Bank of England 1967-1973; presided over the G-10 meetings in the seventies and eighties; governor of the Bank of England 1973-1983; made a member of the Privy Council in 1976; member of the Order of the Garter since 1983; long time member of the Morgan Stanley Advisory Board since 1984. director of the Bank for International Settlements 1973-1985; vice-chairman of the Bank for International Settlements 1985-1988 & 1991-1993; chairman of the Group of Thirty 1985-1991; honorary chairman of the Group of Thirty since 1991; chairman of Morgan Stanley International Incorporated 1986-1995; chairman of the International Advisory Board Chemical Bank, New York, 1986-1996; vice-chairman of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan Bank 1996-1998; director of Rolls Royce; governor of the Ditchley Foundations; member of the Order of the British Empire; patron of the British Malaysian Society. In the 70s and 80s, he maintained a residence on Sutton Place in New York City, although he normally resided in London. In 2004, Lord Richardson was called in to testify against claims that the Bank of England had "shut their eyes and turned away" from BCCI's fraudulent activities. The original investigation was headed by Pilgrims Society and Order of the Garter member Lord Bingham of Cornhill.

Ridgway, Matthew Bunker



West Point graduate in 1917, supervised free elections in Nicaragua 1927, made assistant division commander and then commander of the 82d Infantry Division during WWII, with the 82d Airborne Division, Ridgway jumped with his men in the invasions of Sicily and France at the end of WWII, appointed commander of the Eighth Army in Korea during the Chinese invasion of North Korea 1950, replaced Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United Nations forces in Korea and of the Allied occupation forces in Japan 1951, succeeded Dwight D. Eisenhower as supreme commander of the Allied Powers in Europe 1952-1953, a Pilgrim diner on 14 October 1952 was held in his honor, Army chief of staff 1953-1955, protested vigorously but unsuccessfully against the Eisenhower administration's overall military policy, which emphasized air and atomic power at the expense of the army and navy, retired as a General in 1955, chairman Mellon Institute 1955-1960 (The institute merged with the Carnegie Institute in 1967).

Rifkind, Sir Malcolm Leslie



Lectured at Univ. of Rhodesia, 1967-1968. First entered Parliament in the 1974. Appointed Junior Minister at the Scottish Office in the 1979 Thatcher Government and became Minister of State at the Foreign Office in 1983. Became a Secretary of State for Scotland and Privy Councillor in 1986. On 21 December 1988, Rifkind was the first British government official in Lockerbie after the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as Scottish secretary. After touring the wreckage, he gave the first indication that the plane had exploded. In 1990 he was moved by John Major to Transport, and became Defence Secretary in 1992. In the final years of the Major administration he was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. He received a knighthood in John Major’s resignation honours. Out of government from 1997-2005. Rifkind was hired by Australia-based BHP in 1997, as a 'door-opener' to the Middle East. Vocal critic of the 2003 Iraq War. Implicated in the Oil-for-Food scandal when Iraqi documents surfaced after the invasion. Non-executive chairman of ArmorGroup International since April 2004, a London-based mercenary company. Elected again in 2005 and was appointed Shadow Work and Pensions Secretary. He has been spoken of as a contender to replace Michael Howard as Conservative leader. Director at Aberdeen Asset Management. Non-executive director at Ramco Energy and British Assets Investment Trust. Consultant to BHP Billiton, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Petrofac (another energy company). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Roberts, Lord Frederick Sleigh



Became the 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar. Joined the Bengal artillery in 1851, fought against the Indian Mutiny 1857–1858, where he earned the Victoria Cross. By 1875 he was quartermaster general of the Indian army and a strong advocate of the “forward” policy of controlling the Himalayan passes to forestall Russian encroachments; this became the general defensive policy of the British in India. He became a popular British hero for the relief of Kandahar in the second Afghan War 1878–1880. Roberts was made commander in chief of the Madras army in 1880 and of the entire Indian forces in 1885. In 1893 he returned to England and wrote his reminiscences, Forty-one Years in India 1897. He became field marshal in 1895. In 1899, when the English were meeting reverses at the hands of the Boers in the South African War, Roberts was appointed commander in chief and fought them. Aided by his chief of staff, Horatio Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master) Roberts reorganized the transport system, achieving a mobility that had been lacking. By late 1900 the war seemed near a successful conclusion, and Roberts was brought home, awarded an earldom, and appointed commander in chief of the British army. His office was abolished in 1904, and thereafter he devoted himself to the advocacy of compulsory military service for home defense. Roberts was a Knight of the Garter.

Robertson, Lord 



The Right Honourable Lord Robertson of Port Ellen has been the 10th Secretary General of NATO and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council since October 1999. He was Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom from 1997-1999 and Member of Parliament for Hamilton and Hamilton South from 1978-1999. George Islay MacNeill Robertson was born in 1946 in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland, and educated at Dunoon Grammar School and the University of Dundee. He graduated MA (Honours) in Economics in 1968. He was a full time official of the General, Municipal and Boilermakers' Union (GMB) responsible for the Scottish Whisky industry from 1968-1978. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1978, and reelected five times. He was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Social Services in 1979. After the 1979 General Election, he was appointed an Opposition Spokesman, first on Scottish Affairs, then on Defence, and on Foreign Affairs from 1982 to 1993. He became Chief Spokesman on Europe in 1983. He served as the principal Opposition Spokesman on Scotland in the Shadow Cabinet from 1993-1997. After the 1997 General Election, Prime Minister Blair appointed him Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his departure in October 1999. In August 1999 he was selected to be the tenth Secretary General of NATO in succession to Dr Javier Solana. On 24 August he received a life peerage and took the title Lord Robertson of Port Ellen. He is a former Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party, was Vice-chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, served as Vice-Chairman of the British Council for nine years. He was, for seven years, on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) where he now serves as co-president. He is a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation and a Trustee of the 21st Century Trust. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the German Order of Merit by the Federal German President in 1991 and the Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania in 2000, and was named joint Parliamentarian of the Year in 1993 for his role during the Maastricht Treaty ratification. He is Honorary Regimental Colonel of the London Scottish (Volunteers). He has been awarded Honorary Doctorates by the Universities of Dundee and Bradford, by Cranfield University (Royal Military College of Science), Baku State University, Azerbaijan, and the Romanian National School of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (honFRSE), a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) and an Elder Brother of Trinity House. He was appointed a member of Her Majesty's Privy Council in May 1997. In 2003, Lord Robertson was accused of using his influence as a Freemason to arrange a gun licence for Thomas Hamilton, who would later use it to shoot 16 children in the Dunblane Massacre before killing himself. In turn, Hamilton was accused of running a paedophile ring for British politicians. Robertson and Hamilton were also accused of being Freemasons. In any case, the judge who slapped a 100 year secrecy order on a police inquiry into the Dunblane massacre later turned out to be a Freemason.

Robinson, Leland Rex



Member Near-East Relief Commission 1920, wrote 'Investment Trust Organization and Management' in 1926, vice chairman Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy, member Commission To Study The Organization Of Peace, member Enemy Alien Hearing Board 1943-1945, chairman and vice president Iran Foundation, together with Thomas W. Lamont, John Foster Dulles and Edward R. Murrow (did the most successful attack on Joseph McCarthy via CBS) he was a trustee of the Institute of International Education, received the Royal Order of Homayun from the Shah of Iran, decorated the Order of the Brilliant Star by China.

Rockefeller, John Davison, Jr.



First loan from National City Bank of Cleveland (Stillman, Morgan), Established Standard Oil Company in 1870, trustee of the China Medical Board,

Rockefeller, Percy Avery



Nephew of John Davison Rockefeller, Yale Skull & Bones 1901, married Isabel Stillman, director of National City Bank, W.A. Harriman & Co., American International Corporation (AIG), New York Edison, Anaconda Copper Mines, Georgian Manganese Company, Guaranty Trust, Chile Copper Company, Atlantic Fruit Company, Bethlehem Steel, W.A. Harriman & Company, United States Realty & Improvement Company, Western Union Telegraph, Consolidated Gas, United Metals Selling Corporation, Remington Arms Company, North American Reassurance Company, Seaboard Finance & Investment, Cuba Railroad and dozens of other companies. Became a member of the Japan Society in 1926, lost a lot of money in the stockmarket crash of 1929, had to come before an investigating committee to answer charges of stock manipulation (exonerated) in 1932. In 1936, his son Avery Rockefeller establishes Schroeder, Rockefeller and Co. in partnership with the German-connected New York banking firm of J.Henry Schroder.

Rockefeller, James Stillman



Yale, won a gold medal in rowing at the Paris Olympics of 1924, married Nancy Carnegie in 1925 (grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie), worked at Brown Brothers, joined the National City Bank in 1930, served in Airborne Command during WWII, president First National City Bank 1952-1959, chairman First National City Bank 1959-1967 (became Citibank, Citicorp, Citigroup, etc.)

Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich



Dartmouth College Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Director Rockefeller Center 1931-1958. Coordinator Office of Inter-American Affairs 1940-1944. Chairman International Development Advisory Board 1950-1951. Chairman President's Advisory Committee on Government Organization 1952-1958. Present at the United Nations founding in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, and is said to have played a prominent role. His father donated the land the United Nations headquarters was built on. Governor of New York 1959–1973. Vice-president of the United States under Gerald Ford 1974–1977. Chairman National Commission on Critical Choices for America. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Died in 1979 when he was with his mistress, Megan Marshak. He was cremated within 18 hours after his death. There is no known "tell all" of the events by Marshak, and she appears to have dropped out of public view since Rockefeller's death.

Rockefeller, David



Born in 1915 and youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Descendant of the German-Jewish Roggenfelder family which came to the United States in 1722. Attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. Followed this with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago, following study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. Married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D. II, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945. Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war . Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National Bank 1947-1948. Played a major role in the development of the Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949. Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1970. Chairman of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1950-1975. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an executive vice president in charge of the bank development department. In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958. Again in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped establish) and an honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975. Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan 1961-1969. In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards. Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation. Others David would meet with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques. Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967. Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council, Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York City Partnership in 1979 and chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties 1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and 'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972 after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress. Laurence, who was heavily into UFO research, died in 2004 of natural causes. In cooperation with Steven Greer, Laurence Rockefeller supposedly also led an effort from 1993-1996 to get the Clinton Administration (Bill supported it) to declassify all UFO information held by the government. They decided not to go through with it, because of the danger associated with it. David and Laurence were members of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle.

Roe, Charles Francis



In the campaign of 1876, 2nd Lt. Charles Roe commanded Company F, 2nd Cavalry. On June 26th, near the Little Bighorn River, he saw on the far hills what appeared to be a large group of dead buffalo -- in fact, the distant figures were the slain horses and men of Custer's command.

Roosa, Robert Vincent



Rhodes scholar. Senior official of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1946-1960, finally reaching the position of vice president in the bank's research department. While he was on the staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y., Roosa trained a group known as the 'Roosa Bloc' (or Rosa 'Brain Trust'), his chief protege being Paul Volcker. Undersecretary of the Treasury 1961-1964. Became a Partner in Brown Brothers Harriman & Company in 1965. Authored 'Monetary Reform For The World Economy' (1965). Gave a speech in Munich to the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs on November 11, 1974. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Advisor to the International Finance Corporation (World Bank affiliate). Director American Express, Cities Communications, Owens-Corning Fiberglass, Prudential Insurance, and Texaco. Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange Advisory Committee on the International Capital Market. Chairman of the Brookings Institution 1975-1986. Trustee of the National Bureau for Economic Research. President of the American Finance Association. Member of the American Economic Association and the Royal Economic Society of London. Governor of the United Nations Association. Vice chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation. Founding member and secretary of the Trilateral Commission. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1966-1981. Frequent Bilderberg attendee. Member of the Pilgrims Society.

Roosevelt, John



Son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Educated at Groton and Harvard, John worked at Filene's Department Store in Boston until World War II broke out in 1941. He served in the navy until 1946 and thereafter pursued a business career on the West Coast. In 1952, he became a Republican so he could support Dwight Eisenhower's bid for the presidency. John's defection from the Democratic party and his subsequent leadership of Citizens for Eisenhower caused family friction. John became an officer and director of Standard Uranium, owned by Pilgrim Floyd Odlum. In 1967, John joined Bache & Company (owned by Pilgrim Jules S. Bache). He retired as a vice-president in 1980. His philanthropic activities included serving as a fund raiser with the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which FDR had founded, membership on the executive committee of the Greater New York Council of the Boy Scouts of America and service as a trustee of the State University of New York.

Root, Elihu



Second cousin twice removed of Henry Luce (Pilgrim and Skull & Bones), and descended from the Spencer family. After graduation from Hamilton College in 1864, Root taught for one year at the Rome Academy in 1865. Graduated from the Law School of New York University in 1867. Admitted to the bar in the same year and commenced practice in New York City. Served private clients including Jay Gould (later Pilgrims member), Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and Edward Henry Harriman (later Pilgrims member). As a Republican reformer, he was a junior member of a distinguished defense team representing Boss Tweed in 1873, a powerful mafia boss in New York who controlled almost every single United States Democratic Party nomination for the city and the state, had robbed New York city of anywhere between $30 and $200 million, and was an associate of Jay Gould. The equivalent of a millionaire by the age of thirty. Root married Clara Frances Wales, who was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific American, in 1878. U.S. District Attorney for Southern District NYC 1883-1885. Hired Henry Lewis Stimson out of law school in 1891, who was a member of S&B and became a member of the Pilgrims. Delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1894. In 1898 McKinley calls him on the new-fangled telephone and says, "I want you to be Secretary of War". This was just after the US had defeated Spain. Root says, "I can't do that. I'm a lawyer. I don't know anything about war. I don't know anything about the Army. I have no experience with government. I have never been to Washington." McKinley said, "I don't care about any of that. You're a smart lawyer and you will be the first person charged in the history of the United States with running colonies, and I want somebody with good common sense, a pragmatic problem solver, a lawyer like you." He remained Secretary of War until 1904. During this time he was responsible for enlarging West Point and establishing the U.S. Army War College as well as the General Staff. Identified by U.S. Diplomat and CFR-endorsed Warren Zimmermann as one of the "forefathers of American Imperialism", together with naval strategist Alfred T. Mahan, senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Secretary of State John Hay, and president Theodore Roosevelt. Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt 1905-1909. Senator 1909-1915. First president of the Carnegie Foundation 1910-1925 and a primary founder of Carnegie Europe. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. At the outbreak of World War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. President of the American Bar Association 1915-1916. In June 1917, during WWI, he was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. He summed up his attitude to the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no loans." The official CFR website states: "But it was a more discreet club of New York financiers and international lawyers organized in June 1918 that most attracted the attention of the Americans from the Peace Conference. Headed by Elihu Root, the secretary of state under Theodore Roosevelt and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, this select group called itself the Council on Foreign Relations. It began with 108 members, Shepardson recorded, “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing, trading and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” Its purpose was to convene dinner meetings, to make contact with distinguished foreign visitors under conditions congenial to future commerce... Elihu Root headed the original Council on Foreign Relations and was instrumental in the founding of its successor." Prepared the final will of Andrew Carnegie on March 31, 1919. Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. After World War I, Root supported the League of Nations and served on the commission of jurists, which created the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, President Warren G. Harding appointed him as a delegate to the International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. He was among the founders of the American Law Institute in 1923. Member of the Metropolitan Club, the NY Social Register, the Century Association, and the Pilgrims of the United States.

Roper, Elmo



In the 1920s he operated a jewelry store in Creston Iowa but was not very successful, public opinion analyst and early developer of modern opinion polls, director Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic 1952-1961, treasurer Atlantic Union Committee in 1960, gave speeches on globalism, director Encyclopedia Britannica.

Rothschild, Edmund Leopold



Son of Lionel de Rothschild and brother of Leopold David de Rothschild (born 1927). Sir Evelyn and Jacob de Rothschild are his younger cousins. Served as an officer in the British Army in France, North Africa, and Italy 1939-1946. In late 1944 he rose to the rank of Major and commanded a Jewish Palestinian Unit (made up of mainly refugees of the Nazis) into Italy. The unit prominently showed the Magen David. Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1946-1960. Published the book 'Window on the World' in 1949. Friend of the Japanese Tsunao Okumura. Okumura was the president of Nomura Securities between 1948 and 1959 and was seen as the king of Japanese stockbroking in the 1950s. Senior Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1960-1970. Vice-chairman of the British Newfoundland Corp. 1963-1969. Vice-chairman of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. 1966-1969. One of the Godfathers of Prince Bernhard's extramarital daughters, Alexia Grinda. Bernhard met the mother, the 18-year old Helene Grinda (of the noble Roussel family), in 1966, at a swimming pool of the Rothschild family. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1969. Member of the Asia Committee of the Bank of New England Corporation 1970-1971. Chairman of the Bank of New England Corporation in 1971. Governor of the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Trustee of the Queen’s Nursing Institute. Received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st Class (Japan), in 1973. Chairman of N.M. Rothschild & Son 1970-1975. Nurtured the gardens at Exbury. Attended the 1st World Wilderness Conference in 1977 and trustee of the International Wilderness Foundation, which sponsors these conferences. At the 4th Wilderness Conference in 1987, where Edmund was a key speaker about climate change, Maurice Strong introduced him as the "source" of this whole "Conservation Banking" movement. David Rockefeller was also present at that conference and adviced George Hunt, the accountant who recorded the event, not to distribute any rebukes of what was said or "he would regret it". President of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX). Presiding Officer representing AJEX at the annual Cenotaph Service of Remembrance. The Rothschild family has been intimately associated with the New West End Synagogue in London. Played himself in the 1998 movie 'In Our Own Hands', about the all-Jewish fighting force in World War II. Member of the President's Council of the Mountain Institute in 1999. One of many donors to the Children’s Blood Foundation, which was inaugurated in 2001. He has been made a Commander of the British Empire.

Royall, Kenneth Claiborne



Graduated from the University of North Carolina, 1914; was admitted to the North Carolina bar, 1916; attended Harvard University Law School and received his degree, 1917; married Margaret Best, 1917; served in France as a second lieutenant in the 317th Army Field Artillery, 1918–1919; was commissioned a captain in the North Carolina National Guard and organized a Field Artillery battery, 1921; resumed the practice of law in Raleigh and Goldsboro, North Carolina; served in the state senate, 1927; was president of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1929–1930; was a presidential elector, 1940; was commissioned a colonel, 1942, and appointed chief of the legal section, fiscal division, Headquarters, Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces); received presidential appointment to defend before the Supreme Court the German saboteurs who entered the United States clandestinely; was promoted to brigadier general and appointed deputy fiscal director of Army Service Forces; was special assistant to the Secretary of War, April–November 1945; served as Under Secretary of War, 9 November 1945–18 July 1947; served as the last Secretary of War, 19 July–17 September 1947; supervised the separation of the Department of the Air Force from the Department of the Army; became first Secretary of the Army when National Defense Act of 1947 took effect, 17 September 1947–27 April 1949; was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to the Secretary of Defense; returned to the practice of law in New York City; was a delegate at large to the Democratic National Convention, 1964

Rusk, David Dean



Rhodes Scholar. Entered the Department of State in 1942. Assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern Affairs 1950-1952. Played a major role in the U.S. decision to take military action in the Korean War. President Rockefeller Foundation 1952-1961. Supported economic aid to underdeveloped nations, low tariffs to encourage world trade, and the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union. Secretary of State under John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1969. Claimed the 1967 USS Liberty incident was a deliberate attack on the ship, rather than an accident.Co-founded the Club of Rome in 1968. A firm believer in the use of military force to prevent Communist expansion. Defended the Vietnam War. Following his retirement from public service, he started teaching international law at the University of Georgia 1970-1984. Member of the Knights of Malta.

Russell, M. Lindsay



Attorney who is said to have been a liaison front man for the Vanderbilts. Moved in elite circles (present at many of the same meetings as the Morgans) and named as a co-founder of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1903. Founded the Japan Society in 1907. President of the Japan Society from 1910 to 1919.