H  -  K


Other members


Pilgrim function






Hacking, Lord David



Son of another Pilgrims Society member. Baron Douglas David Hacking. Served in Royal Navy Reserve 1954-1964; in active service in Royal Navy 1956-1958; retired in rank of Lieutenant RNR; Worked as a barrister-at-law in London 1964-1975; US Attorney and Counselor-at-Law 1975-1976; Solicitor of the Supreme Court 1977-1999; Barrister, arbitrator and mediator in Littleton Chambers since 1999. Appointed as Arbitrator/Mediator by the ICC, the AAA, the LCIA, Hungarian Court of Arbitration, GAFTA, The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and others. Acts as Arbitrator/Mediator in all commercial arbitrations/mediations with specialist knowledge of aviation, commodities, construction and pharmaceutical industries; Parliament: Independent Peer 1972 - 1992, Conservative Peer 1992 - 1998, Labour Peer 1998 - 1999; Member of the Joint Committee (of House of Commons and Lords) on Consolidation Bills: 1973-1975 and 1999; Member of the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities: Sub Committee E (Law and Institutions) 1989-1995, 1996-1999 and Sub Committee F (Justice and Home Affairs) 1999; Participated in Committee in House of Lords in numerous Public Bills including the Arbitration Bill 1979, the Financial Services Bill 1986, the Latent Damage Bill 1986, the Courts and Legal Services Bill 1990, the Competition and Service [Utilities] Bill 1992, the Maastricht Bill 1993, the Civil Aviation [Amendment] Bill 1996, the Arbitration Bill 1996, the Access to Justice Bill 1999 and the Contracts [Rights of Third Parties] Bill 1999 and conducted through the House of Lords various Private Bills; Freeman of the City of London, President of the Civil Court Users Association, Member of the British American Parliamentary Group, Member of the Pilgrims, and Trustee of Carthusian Trust.

Haggard, Sir Godfrey Digby Napier

exec. committee


Order of the British Empire, British Consul-General at New York.

Halifax, Lord Edward Wood



Elected to the House of Commons to represent Ripon in 1910. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in the cabinet as president of the Board of Education (1922-24) and Minister of Agriculture (1924-25). In 1925 he was appointed Viceroy of India, a position he held for six years. When Stanley Baldwin replaced Ramsay MacDonald as prime minister in 1935 he appointed Lord Halifax as his war secretary and as leader of the House of Lords. In 1936 Halifax visited Nazi Germany for the first time. Halifax's friend, Henry (Chips) Channon, reported: "He told me he liked all the Nazi leaders, even Goebbels, and he was much impressed, interested and amused by the visit. He thinks the regime absolutely fantastic." In November, 1937, Neville Chamberlain, who had replaced Stanley Baldwin as prime minister, sent Lord Halifax to meet Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Goering in Germany. In his diary, Lord Halifax records how he told Hitler: "Although there was much in the Nazi system that profoundly offended British opinion, I was not blind to what he (Hitler) had done for Germany, and to the achievement from his point of view of keeping Communism out of his country." In December, 1940, Lord Halifax was replaced as foreign secretary by his long-term opponent, Anthony Eden. Halifax now became British ambassador to the United States. Lord Halifax was the British delegate to the San Francisco Conference in March 1945, and attended the first session of the United Nations in 1945. He resigned as ambassador to the United States in May, 1946.

Hambro, Rupert N.



Educated at Eton College and Aix en Provence University. Hambro began his distinguished business career in 1962 with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co in Manchester and London. He then joined Hambros Bank in 1964, trained in Denmark (1964), Canada (1966) and the USA (1968), became a Director in 1969, Deputy Chairman in 1980 and Chairman in 1983. He left in 1986 to form JO Hambro with his father and two brothers. JO Hambro engages in private client investment management through JO Hambro Investment Management and investment management through JO Hambro Capital Management Ltd. Current directorships include JO Hambro Ltd (Chairman); Rupert Hambro & Partners Ltd (Chairman); Mayflower Corporation Plc (Chairman); Pioneer Holdings Plc; Telegraph Group Ltd (director); Wiltons (St James’) Ltd (Chairman); Longshot Ltd (Chairman); Chatsworth House Trust Ltd, and Woburn Golf & Country Club Ltd (Chairman). Other involvements include the International Advisory Board of Montana AG, Vienna; member of United States Information Agency, International Council, Washington; Treasurer, National Art Collections Fund; Chairman of Govenors of Museum of London; Chairman of Trustees, The Silver Trust (co-founded in 1987); Chairman, Society of Merchants Trading to the Continent; Chairman of the Trustees, The Square Mile Charitable Trust; Chairman of the Trustees, The Boys’ Club Trust; Hon. Fellow of the University of Bath; Fellow of the RSA; Hon. President, The Anglo-Danish Society, and Vice-Patron of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. In addition, Rupert Hambro is a Member of the Court of the Company of Goldsmiths; a Member of the Company of Fishmongers, the Corporation of London, and The Pilgrims Society of Great Britain.

Harbord, James G.



Born in Illinois, he grew up near Bushong in Lyon County, and graduated from Kansas State Agricultural College in 1886. After a short teaching career he enlisted in the army as a private and in 1891 he received a commission. His first overseas experience came as a member of the occupation army in Cuba after the Spanish American War. That was followed by 12 years service in the Philippines. He was on the Mexican border with General John J. Pershing in 1916 and when the United States entered the European conflict he went to France as Pershing's chief of staff, which won him a promotion to brigadier general. When the American marine commander in France became ill, Harbord replaced him and directed the marine action at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood, operations which smashed the German offensive directed at Paris in June 1918. In August 1918 the necessity for greater efficiency in troop and supply movement became apparent and Harbord was recalled from the front and put in charge of supply. This was described as the largest business undertaking that was ever conducted by one man in all history. His success won him Allied praise and the Distinguished Service Medal. At the end of the war he was commissioned a major general in the regular army and commanded at Camp Travis, Texas. When Pershing was appointed chief of staff, Harbord became his deputy. In 1922 General Harbord retired from the army and assumed the presidency of the Radio Corporation of America. He served as president of the Radio Corporation America for seven years and then as chairman of the board until 1947, the year of his death. Member of the Newcomen Society and decorated a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Harbord, John O.



Likely a family member of James G. Harbord, chairman Radio Corporation of America. Attended a Pilgrim meeting in 1939.

Harcourt, Viscount William Edward



Supposedly a descendants of William the Conqueror, Executive director of the IMF and the World Bank 1954-1957.

Harkness, Edward Stephen



Yale, Family fortune was estimated at $800 million in 1924, one of the largest stockholders in Standard Oil, large amount of stocks in many of the largest companies in the world as Michigan Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad, West Shore Railroad, C.C.C. & St. Louis Railroad, P. & L.E. Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad, married Mary Stillman (Pilgrim family) in 1904, first president of the Commonwealth Fund (Harkness Fellowship), founded the Pilgrim Trust in 1930, which helped build Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. Edward was a philanthropist who wasn't on the board of many companies and avoided to much publicity.

Harriman, Edward Henry



Railroad executive and financier, director Newsweek, controlled at various times the Illinois Central, chairman Union Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad, lost a fight with James Hill to gain control of the Northern Pacific Railroad in a struggle that contributed to the stock market panic of 1901. James Hill, Edward Harriman and J. P. Morgan combined forces in 1906 to create a monopoly, the Northern Securities Company, but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a government order to break up the firm. Edward was a director of Union Banking Corporation, which was a Nazi holding company. UBC did business with the Nazis up to 1943, when it was seized by the U.S. government under the trading with the enemy act.

Harriman, William Averell



Yale Skull & Bones 1913, scion of the Harriman railroad family, director Guarantee Trust Company (merged with J.P. Morgan), formed the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation in 1917 (became the largest merchant fleet), together with his brother he formed W.A. Harriman & Company in 1922, acquainted with Fritz Thyssen during his trip to Germany in the early 1920s, Brown Brothers Harriman / traded with the Soviets 1925-1929, chairman New York State Committee of Employment 1933, Administrative Officer of Roosevelt's NRA 1934, Union Banking Corporation, Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to Russia during World War II, director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1955, governor of New York 1955-1958, chief negotiator on the Vietnam Talks, confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Carter, organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation, which participated in MK-ULTRA.

Harrison, George Leslie

exec. committee


Lawyer and financial expert, assistant general counsel and counsel Federal Reserve Bank of Washington D.C.1914-1920, counsel and deputy governor Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1920-1928, governor and president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1928-1941, special consultant to the Secretary of War, president and chairman New York Life Insurance 1941-1953, chairman Interim Policy Committee on Atomic Energy, active on behalf of the American National Red Cross, trustee Columbia University.

Hartford, Huntington III



Owner of The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (founded by his grandfather), owner Oil Shale Corporation, owner Paradise Island in Nassau, the Bahamas, director Institute for British American Cultural Exchange in 1961, director New York World Fair 1964-1965, member of the United States Committee for the United Nations and the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, established the Huntington Hartford Gallery of Modern Art.

Harvey, George



After a career in journalism and insurance, he became involved in the construction and administration of electric railroads, a venture that brought him a fortune. In 1899 he bought the North American Review, and, with the backing of J. P. Morgan, he assumed control (1901) of Harper's Weekly. Harvey retired (1913) from the editorship of Harper's Weekly but later (1918) founded Harvey's Weekly as a medium for virulent attacks on Woodrow Wilson (his former friend and protégé) and the peace negotiations. After the election of Warren G. Harding, Harvey was appointed ambassador to Great Britain (1921-1923).

Hauge, Gabriel



Harvard, senior statistician Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1939, Princeton University economics professor 1940-1942, Navy reserve 1942-1946, chief Division of Research and Statistics New York State Banking 1947-1950, assistant chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1950-1952, assistant to president Eisenhower for Economic Affairs 1953-1958 (opposed Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade and favored liberalized foreign trade policies), director Trust company 1959, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1981, Bilderberg Steering Committee, chairman Manufacturers Hanover Bank 1971-1979 (joined in 1958 - 4th largest bank of the US at that time).

Hay, Andrew "Anthony" MacKenzie



Married Pilgrim daughter Sharman Douglas from 1968 to 1977, who, according to ITV (competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. Andrew Hay is only described as a "food importer".

Hayes, Alfred


died 1989

Harvard, Yale, Oxford, Rhodes Scholar, analyst in the investment department of the City Bank Farmers Trust Company 1933-1940, bond department of the National City Bank 1940-1942, assistant secretary in the investment department New York Trust Co. 1942-1944, served as a naval lieutenant in financial planning for military government, and in the office of the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner in Washington and Rome 1944-1946, vice-president New York Trust in 1946, New York Trust Co. foreign division board 1947-1956, trustee Lignan University in Canton, China 1947-1954 (Mao’s Communist takeover was in 1949), president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1956-1975, chairman Morgan Stanley International 1975-1981, director National Distillers & Chemical, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Healy, Harold Harris, Jr.



Son-in-law of Eli Whitney Debevoise (Pilgrim), Yale 1943, Phi Beta Kappa & Order of the Coif, U.S. Army Field Artillery landing in France 1943-1946, partner in Debevoise, comment editor and executive editor of the Yale Law Journal, executive assistant U.S. Attorney General 1957-1959, Plimpton Lyons & Gates, U.S. counsel for N.M. Rothschild & Sons, advisory council Ditchley Foundation, member of the Council on Foreign Relations, executive council American Society for International Law 1977-1980, trustee, treasurer and chairman of Vassar College 1977-1986, long-time member of the American Bar Association, first president of the Internationale des Avocats, persuaded the American Bar Association to join the previous organisation, director and president Legal Aid Society, director Metropolitan Opera Association, director Academy of American Poets, French Legion of Honor 1984.

Heard, George Alexander



University of California and Columbia, appointed chairman of the Commission on Campaign Costs by JFK, Chancellor of Vanderbilt University 1963-1972, chairman Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's study of presidential elections in America in 1982, director Time Incorporated, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Heinz, Henry John II



Yale Skull & Bones 1931. Chairman of the family's firm H.J. Heinz Company (very large international food manufacturer). Chairman Howard Heinz Endowment. Very close with Carnegie and Mellon interests. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (together with Pilgrim and Knight of Malta head J. Peter Grace). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Went to the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954. He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended, National Review, March 27, 1987: "He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended." He is the father of Teresa Heinz Kerry's (born in Mozambique, brought up in South Africa, Carnegie trustee, global environmentalist sponsor, and considers herself a "world citizen") first husband, John Heinz III (who died in a plane crash). Teresa remarried with 1966 Skull & Bones member John F. Kerry, who became the main presidential opponent in 2004.

Hepburn, Alonzo



Chairman of the New York State Assembly. First chairman of the Economic Club of New York. In 1879 he organized a committee to investigate malpractices and the plausible existence of a monopoly in the oil industry. During the hearings, a witness testified that "nine-tenth of the refiners in the country were in "harmony" with Standard Oil." The committee's report focused mainly on the railroad companies and their illegal favoritism to certain companies in terms of transportation of oil, but it also noted that Standard Oil was a "mysterious organization." Indeed, Rockefeller had managed to become one of the wealthiest man in America without attracting the attention of the public, unlike other industrialists such as Jay Gould who were despised by the American people.

Herbert, Sir Michael



British Ambassador to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. On January 24, 1903 U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Michael H. Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border. On October 20, 1903, the joint commission (6 members, 3 from each side) ruled in favor of the United States in a boundary dispute between the District of Alaska and Canada. Sir Michael Herbert was a son of Baron Sidney Herbert, British War Minister from 1845-1846 and 1852-1855.

Hewart, Viscount Gordon



Oxford, called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1902, member of parliament for Leicester 1913-1922, Solicitor General 1919-1922, Lord Chief Justice of England 1922-1940.

Hewitt, William A.



Lieutenant commander on the battleship California in WWII on which his Cabin Mate was co-Pilgrim Gabriel Hauge, married into the Deere fortune of Deere & Company (heavy agricultural machinery), chairman Deere & Company, director of Continental Illinois National Bank, Continental Oil Company, A.T.&T. and the United Nations Association, director of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council, director of the National Council for U.S.-China Trade, advisor Chase Manhattan Bank, trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, life trustee Caltech, member Trilateral Commission, Americas Society, Asia Society, Council on Foreign Relations, Committee for Economic Development, National Corporation for Housing Partnerships, Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, International Executive Service Corps, California Institute of Technology and Stanford Research Council, openly loyal to the King of England.

Hill, John Warren



Member of the finance committee for New York county of the American Legion 1927-1928, member of the Joint Legislative Committee on Interstate Cooperation 1946, director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.

Hill, James J.



He and others purchased the nearly bankrupt St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1878, which he and his partners made into one of the most successful railroad companies of the U.S. In a later stage of his life, Hill was also involved with coal and iron ore mining, Great Lakes and Pacific Ocean shipping, banking and finance, agriculture and milling. He owned many million acres of land and immense iron ore deposits in Minnesota. He amassed a personal fortune of about 63 million dollars. He was one of the initial directors of American International Corporation, formed in November 1915. Temporary offices were opened in the National City Bank Building.

Hoffman, Paul Gray



President Studebaker Corporation 1935-1948, founder and chairman Committee for Economic Development 1942-1948, president Ford Foundation 1950-1953, chairman Studebaker Corporation 1953-1956, delegate to the United Nations 1956-1957, managing director UN Special Fund (UN Development Program) 1959-1972, director Encyclopedia Britannica

Hogan, Frank J.



Georgetown University law degree 1902, founded Hogan & Hartson (D.C. area major law firm), became a nationally famous trial lawyer, among his clients were Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Mellon, president of the American Bar Association in 1939, addressed the Pilgrims in 1939.

Hogg, Douglas McGarel



British lawyer and politician, Queen's Privy Council 1922, attorney general 1922-1928, Lord Chancellor in the UK conservative government 1928-1929, Secretary of State for War 1931-1935, U.K. Leader of the House of Lords 1931-1935.

Holt, Hamilton



Yale and Columbia University, disappointed with the traditional education of lecture and recitation, president Rollins College, assisted in the formation of The League of Nations, Holt was a founder of the Italy-America Society and the Netherlands-America Foundation (Carnegie was acquainted with the Royal Dutch house of Orange-Nassau, interlocked with his patrons, the British Crown).

Hornblower, Henry II



Owned Hornblower & Weeks, Hemphill-Noyes investment bankers, founded the Plimoth Plantation, trustee of another Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820, which is a genealogical and historical organization at Plymouth, Mass, member of the American Antiquarian Society.

Hoving, Walter



Chairman Hoving Corporation. Bought a controlling interest in Tiffany & Company (originated from New York) in 1955 and became its chairman.

Houghton, Alanson Bigelow, Jr.



His grandfather founded Corning Glass Works, was initially successful, but went bankrupt in 1868. His sons Amory and Charles revived the firm and turned it into a great success. Alanson, a son of Amory, was an undergraduate of Harvard. Vice-president of Corning Glass Works from 1903 to 1910 and president from 1910 to 1918. During this time, Houghton tripled the size of Corning Glass. It produced about 40% of the bulbs and tubing for incandescent electric lights and 75% of the railway signal glass used in the U.S. It was one of the largest glass producers in the industry. Member of Congress from 1919 to 1922. US Ambassador to Germany 1922-1925. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1925-1929. Involved in the Dawes Plan (1924), the Locarno Treaties (1925), and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). His son, Amory Houghton Sr., was Eisenhower's ambassador to France. And his son, Amory Jr., has been a Republican member of Congress since 1987.

Hughes, Billy



Australia’s Prime Minister Billy Hughes. Present at a 1918 Pilgrims dinner in 1918. In 1919, Hughes and former Prime Minister Joseph Cook travelled to London to attend the Versailles peace conference. He remained away for 16 months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia - the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles Hughes demanded heavy reparations from Germany and frequently clashed with President Woodrow Wilson of the United States. He succeeded in securing Australian control of Germany's colonial possessions in New Guinea.

Hughes, Charles Evans



Brown University and Columbia University, trustee Rockefeller’s University of Chicago, uncovered gas rate fraud in NY in 1905 and was appointed to investigate the insurance industry, governor of New York 1907-1910, declined vice-presidential nomination by William Howard Taft in 1908, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 1910-1916, defeated by Woodrow Wilson in 1916 presidential race, favored the ratification of the treaty creating the League of Nations in 1920, Secretary of State under Warren G. Harding & Calvin Coolidge 1921–1925, served as a judge of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands in the second half of the twenties, president of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1927-1929, Chief Justice of the United States 1930-1941, led the fight against Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court after they regarded the New Deal as unconstitutional. At a London Pilgrim meeting in 1924, Hughes was photographed sitting next to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught.

Hyde, James Hazen



Harvard, vice president of Equitable Life Assurance Society 1899-1905, involved in an insurance scandal and fled to Versailles, France, co-founders Alliance Française, awarded the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honor.

Inge, Lord Peter



Army Officer 1956-97; Commissioned Green Howards 1956; Served Hong Kong, Malaya, Germany, Libya and UK; ADC to GOC, 4 Division 1960-61; Adjutant, 1 Green Howards 1963-64; Student, Staff College 1966; Ministry of Defence 1967-69; Company Commander, 1 Green Howards 1969-70; Student, Joint Services Staff College 1971; BM, 11 Armoured Brigade 1972; Instructor, Staff College 1973-74; CO, 1 Green Howards 1974-76; Commandant, Junior Division, Staff College 1977-79; Commander, Task Force C/4 Armoured Brigade 1980-81; Chief of Staff, HQ 1 (BR) Corps 1982-83; Colonel, The Green Howards 1982-94; GOC, NE District and Commander 2nd Infantry Division 1984-86; Director General, Logistic Policy (Army), Ministry of Defence 1986-87; Commander, 1st (Br) Corps 1987-89; Colonel Commandant, Royal Military Police 1987-92; Commander, Northern Army Group and C-in-C, BAOR 1989-92; ADC General to HM The Queen 1991-94; Chief of the General Staff 1992-94; promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in 1994; Chief of the Defence Staff 1994-97; Constable, HM Tower of London 1996-2001; Raised to the peerage as Baron Inge, of Richmond in the County of North Yorkshire 1997; President of the British-German Officers' Association; Member of the Board and Council of St. George's House at Windsor Castle; Deputy Chairman of Historic Royal Palaces; Member of Council of Marlborough College; Member of the Council of the Interfaith Dialogue; Commissioner of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea; Member of the Council of King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes; Freeman of the City of London; Member of the Order of the Bath; Member of the Order of the Garter; Member of the Privy Council since 2004; He was a member of the Butler Inquiry team, chaired by Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, that determined that the intelligence used to declare Iraq's possession of "Weapons of Mass Destruction" was flawed. When Inge was appointed to sit in judgment on whether our spies were wrong about Iraq or whether their messages were distorted, he was still a member of the Hakluyt Foundation, a supervisory board for Hakluyt, a firm which hires former MI6 agents to work for private companies like Shell and BP. Today, Lord Inge is also a consultant to BAE Systems, Vickers plc., Investcorp (a Middle Eastern bank), and OWR AG (a German firm making gas masks, protective suits, decontamination trailers and other specialist protection against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare). Since 2003, the year it was created, Lord Inge is the non-executive chairman of Aegis Defence Services, a London-based company which offers mercenaries and related services to governments at war. Aegis was awarded a $293 million contract by the Pentagon in May 2004 to act as the "coordination and management hub" for the fifty-plus private security companies in Iraq. They also contributed seventy-five teams of eight armed civilians each to assist and protect the Project Management Office of the United States and provided protection for the Oil-for-Food Program inquiry. The CEO of Aegis is Lt. Col. Tim Spicer, a former officer of the SAS and a former CEO of Sandline International. Sandline has been

Jackson, N. Baxter



Vanderbilt University graduate who became a trustee, chairman Chemical Bank in 1946, director American Chain & Cable Company, Home Life Insurance, French-American Banking Corporation, General Reinsurance Corporation, North Star Reinsurance, and Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical, member Newcomen Society.

Jenkins, Roy Harris

exec. committee


Baron, Labour minister in 1964, home secretary 1965-1967 and 1974-1976, chancellor of the Exchequer 1967-1970, president European Commission 1977-1981, co-founder Social Democratic Party, SDP member of parliament 1982-1987, chancellor Oxford University in 1982 and made a life peer, president of the Royal Society, minister of aviation, leader House of Lords. In 1997 he was appointed head of a commission, set up by the Labour government, to recommend, in 1998, a new voting system for elections to Parliament. Jenkins has contributed frequently to British newspapers and periodicals and is a distinguished writer whose biographical subjects have included Henry Asquith, Harry Truman, Clement Attlee, and Stanley Baldwin.

Johnson, Joseph Esrey



Seems to have had a honorable grandfather, Johnson studied at Harvard University, where he earned his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. His first teaching position was as a professor of history at Bowdoin College in 1934 and 1935. From there he moved on to Williams College in Massachusetts in 1936, where he was an assistant professor of history until 1947, and a full professor from 1947-1950. During the years from 1943-1947, however, Johnson was on leave from Williams College, and served in a variety of positions with the State Department and United Nations. Initially Johnson was appointed chief of the international affairs division in the State Department. While in this post, he played a role in the creation of the United Nations, attending both the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944 as well as the San Francisco Conference in 1945. Johnson later served as an adviser to the U.S. delegation at the first U.N. General Assembly at Lake Success, New York in 1946, and assisted the U.S. representative to the Security Council, which met in London. Johnson returned to Williams College in 1947, yet his time in academia proved to be short-lived. In 1950 he was appointed to be a trustee, and then president, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he was able to apply his growing expertise in the field of brokering peaceful solutions to international disputes. Although he served as a consultant at numerous international conferences, and was an alternate U.S. delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1969, he is perhaps best remembered for his role on the U.N. Conciliation Commission for Palestine in 1961. As part of the commission Johnson was named a special envoy, and traveled throughout the Middle East, meeting with various governments in search of a means of providing Palestinian refugees with a homeland of their own. Johnson’s final report recommended that refugees who were forced out of their homes by the 1948 war be allowed to return to their former homes in Israel. However, neither side accepted Johnson’s proposals. Johnson was also a director of the Council on Foreign Relations between 1950 and 1974, Bilderberg visitor.

Kahn, Otto Hermann



Born in Mannheim, Germany. Emigrated to U.S. in 1893, partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., together with Jacob Schiff (later Pilgrim) and Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim), NY 1897-1934 and it's main stockholder from 1908 and on. Chairman and president Metropolitan Opera Company of NY 1911-1931, trustee Carnegie Institute of Technology, director Italy-American Society, director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1934, Knight Order of Charles II, Order of the Crown (Italy), order of the Rising Sun, vice-president English-Speaking Union. His attempt to become President of the English-Speaking Union was defeated by the timely exposure of his role in financing the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. His house was a meeting place for Soviet agents as Nina Smorodin, Claire Sheridan, Louise Bryant and Margaret Harrison.

Kellogg, Frank B.



After five years on the farm, he entered a law office in Rochester, Minnesota, supporting himself as a handyman for a Rochester farmer and teaching himself law, history, Latin, and German with the aid of borrowed textbooks. Having passed the state bar examination in 1877, he became the city attorney for Rochester and two years later the attorney for Olmsted County. A cousin, Cushman Kellogg Davis, the leading lawyer of St. Paul and later a United States senator, recognizing Frank Kellogg's energy, tenacity, and skill, invited him, in 1887, to join his law firm. In the next twenty years Kellogg earned a substantial fortune. He became counsel for some of the railroads, the iron mining companies, and the steel manufacturing firms that developed the rich Mesabi iron range in Minnesota and, consequently, a friend of some of the great business figures of the day, among them, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and James J. Hill. Despite such associations, Kellogg achieved national fame as a 'trustbuster'. He won an antitrust victory against E. H. Harriman and the Union Pacific Railroad, and another in 1911 against John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company in one of the most dramatic legal battles of the pre-World War I era. In 1912 he was named president of the American Bar Association. Kellogg was a member of the National Committee of the Republican Party from 1904 to 1912 and a delegate to its national conventions in 1904, 1908, and 1912. In 1916 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, taking his seat on March 4, 1917, in time to vote for America's entry into World War I on April 6. He always supported Woodrow Wilson. Tried hard to obtain senatorial ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant of the League of Nations. A poor campaigner, Kellogg lost his try in 1922 for a second term in the Senate. In March, 1923, President Harding sent him on his first diplomatic mission as a delegate to the fifth Pan-American Conference, which was held in Chile. When he came back he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain. The most important diplomatic affair in which he figured in his fourteen months in England was the London Reparations Conference convened to accept the Dawes Committee report. In 1925 Kellogg succeeded Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state in Coolidge's cabinet, holding the position until 1929. In pursuance of his faith in the efficacy of the legal arbitration of international disputes, Kellogg arranged for the signing of bilateral treaties with nineteen foreign nations. Of the eighty treaties of various kinds which he signed while in office - a total breaking the record set by William Jennings Bryan from 1913 to 1915 - none was so important to him as the Pact of Paris, commonly called the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). Kellogg returned to St. Paul early in 1929 and during the months that followed traveled extensively in America and in Europe to receive many honors, among them the Nobel Peace Prize, the French Legion of Honor, and honorary degrees from many universities. In 1930 he filled Hughes's unexpired term on the Permanent Court of International Justice and was then elected to a full term of his own. Because of failing health, however, he was forced to resign from the Court in 1935.

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter



Professor of Economics at Princeton University, president of the Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy in 1937, according to The Commercial & Financial Chronicle Kemmerer (1938) Kemmerer was one of 60 economics who signed a resolution at a summit against silver coinage, director of U.S. & Foreign Securities Corporation and U.S. & International Securities Corporation from 1947. He wrote more than a dozen books, the most well-known was "The ABC of the Federal Reserve System" (1918), which ran to twelve editions.

Kennedy, Joseph Patrick



Harvard graduate. He engaged in banking, shipbuilding, investment banking, and motion-picture distribution before he served as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934 and 1935, chairman U.S. Maritime Commission 1935-1937, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1937-1940, supported the overtures of the Chamberlain government to Hitler and was generally noninterventionist, informal adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, went back in (successful business after this) Knight of Malta, 2 of his 3 sons were publicly murdered. The last son is a member of the CFR.

Kerr of Kinlochard, Lord John



MA from Oxford University. Member of the UK Diplomatic Service from 1966 to 2002. Ambassador to the European Union from 1990 to 1995. Ambassador to the US from 1995 to 1997. From 1997 to 2002 he was Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service, making him the first member of the Service to hold its three top jobs. In 2000 he became the most senior UK official to visit Tripoli (Libya) since 1984. From 2002 to 2003 he was Secretary-General of the European Convention, which prepared the EU Constitutional Treaty (rejected by the Dutch and French citizens in 2005). Ennobled in June 2004. Member of the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform. Director of Rio Tinto Plc and Rio Tinto Australia since 2003. Director of Shell Transport and Trading who was a key architect of the plan to merge the company with Royal Dutch Shell in 2005. Director of the Scottish American Investment Trust. Since 2004 he is chairman of the Court and Council of Imperial College, London. Here he followed up Lord Vincent of Coleshill, another Pilgrim. Trustee of the Rhodes Trust. Trustee, National Gallery. Honorary governor of the Glasgow Academy. Honorary fellow of the Pembroke College, Oxford. Honorary president of the Universities Association for Contemporary European Studies. Member of the House of Lords. Member of the Trilateral Commission at least since 2002. Visited Bilderberg in 2004 and 2005. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation anno 2005. Chaired the 2004 Ditchley discussion group 'The future direction of an enlarged Europe'. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Kerr, Lord Philip Henry



Served on various government commissions in South Africa and was a member of Viscount Alfred Milner's (Pilgrims Society) "kindergarten" 1905-1910. Co-founder and editor of a liberal scholarly journal called the "Round Table" 1910-1916. David Lloyd George's private secretary 1916-1921. Active at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Important member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Secretary of the Rhodes Trust since 1925. Inherited the title of 11th Marquess of Lothian in 1930. Represented the Liberal party in the National government as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster 1931-1932. British Ambassador to the United States. Chairman of the India franchise committee 1932. Advocated appeasement of Nazi Germany until 1939 when he came round to a vigorous advocacy of resistance to Adolf Hitler. Invited to a Pilgrim banquet held in his honor at Hotel Plaza, New York City, October 25, 1939.

Keswick, William Johnston



Governor Hudson’s Bay Company 1952-1965 (chartered in 1670 by Charles II of England), governor Bank of England as of the late 1960’s, director British Petroleum Sun Alliance, London Insurance, British Shipping Mission at Washington in WWII.

Kirk, Grayson Louis



Advised the State Department on international politics in the 1940s, helped create the United Nations, professor Columbia University 1940-1949, provost Columbia University 1949-1953, president Columbia University 1953-1968 (successor to Dwight D. Eisenhower), trustee of Columbia University after 1968, appointed Bryce Professor of the History of International Relations during his Columbia presidency, director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1964, president Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1971, in 1968 he made a strong and widely reported appeal to the government to get out of Vietnam as quickly as possible, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1971-1973. Kirk was the author of several works on international relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and Phi Beta Kappa. He was president of the American Society of the French Legion of Honor and vice president of the Pilgrims of the United States (right from his Columbia University biography). He was a director or trustee of the Academy of Political Science, the Tinker Foundation, the Asia Foundation, the French Institute, the Institute of International Education, and of Consolidated Edison Company of New York, IBM and the Greenwich Savings Bank. Kirk received numerous international awards from universities and other institutions.

Kissinger, Heinz "Henry " Alfred



Henry Kissinger was born in the Bavarian city of Fuerth. He was a son of Louis and Paula Stern Kissinger. The elder Kissinger was a school teacher and after Hitler's rise to power, the family immigrated to London in 1938. After a short stay, they moved to Washington Heights in New York City. Recruited by Fritz Kraemer during WWII. Served in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps 1943-1946. Captain in the Military Intelligence Reserve 1946-1949. Executive director Harvard International Seminar 1951-1969. Consultant to the Operations Research Office 1950-1961, a John Hopkins University think tank about psychological warfare and under contract to the Department of the Army. Director Psychological Strategy Board 1952. Member of the Department of Government, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1954-1969. Consultant Operations Coordinating Board 1955. Study director of nuclear weapons and foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1956. Director Special Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund 1956-1958. Author of 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy', released in 1957. Consultant Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1959-1960. Consultant National Security Council 1961-1962. Consultant RAND Corporation 1961-1968. Consultant United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 1961-1968. Consultant to the Department of State 1965-1968. Nixon's National Security Advisor 1969-1973. Secretary of State 1973-1977. Made two secret trips to China in 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai. Negotiated the SALT I and ABM treaty with the Soviet Union. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. Made other secret trips to China in later years to make extremely sensitive intelligence exchanges. Robert C. McFarlane was among those who went to China with Kissinger, in his case between 1973 and 1976. Negotiated the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Said to have played a role in the 1973 Augusto Pinochet coup. Approved President Suharto's invasion of East-Timor in 1973, which resulted in a bout 250,000 dead communists and socialists. Suspected of having been involved in Operation Condor which started around 1975 and was an assassination and intelligence gathering operation on 3 continents. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1977-1981. Annual visitor of Bilderberg since at least the 1970s. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since the late 1970s. Visited Le Cercle. Member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Founder of Kissinger Associates in 1982, a secretive consulting firm to international corporations. Some of the first members to join Kissinger Associates were Brent Scowcroft (vice-chairman), Lawrence Eagleburger (president), Lord Carrington, Lord Roll of Ipsden, Pehr Gyllenhammar, and Viscount Etienne Davignon. Some served until 1989, others were still active for Kissinger Associates in the late 1990s. Chairman National Bipartisan Commission on Central America 1983-1984. Appointed chairman of AIG's advisory council in 1987. Director of the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) from 1985 to 1991. This was during the 1989 BNL Affair in which it became known that the Atlanta branch had made $4 billion in unreported loans to Iraq. After the revelation, the money was said to be used by the Iraqis to buy food and agriculture equipment, but in reality they were buying loads of military equipment. Founded the America-China Society in 1987, mainly with co-Pilgrims Society member Cyrus Vance. His aide Robert C. McFarlane also played a role. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member of the Council of Advisors of the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. Trustee of the Center Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Arthur F Burns Fellowship, the Institute of International Education, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Honorary Governor of the Foreign Policy Association. Patron of the Atlantic Partnership and the New Atlantic Initiative. Chairman of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Nixon Center, and the American Academy in Berlin. Co-chairman of the Editorial Board of 'The National Interest' magazine. Chancellor of the College William and Mary. Honorary chairman World Cup USA 1994 (Kissinger has attended football matches with his friend and colleague Etienne Davignon). Named Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, 1995. Director Freeport-McMoRan 1995-2001. Director of Conrad Black's Hollinger International Inc. Member of J.P. Morgan's International Advisory Council. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. and American Express. Advisor to China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC). Member of the Europe Strategy Board of Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst. Director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Revlon. Chairman of the International Advisory Board of the American International Group (AIG), a partner of Kissinger Associates. Also chairman of the Advisory Boards of AIG Asian Infrastructure Funds I & II and a director of AIG Global. In 2000 Henry Kissinger was quoted by Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close friends and business associates for decades." Maurice Greenburg is head of AIG and Peter G. Peterson is head of The Blackstone Group, which is the other major partner of Kissinger Associates. Peterson is also a former chairman of Lehman Brothers. Kissinger is a friend of Lynn Forester and introduced her to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998 Bilderberg conference. They would soon become married. When Henry Kissinger is invited to speak at the United Nations Association on April 11, 2001 Lord Jacob Rothschild is flanking his side. Picked as the initial head of the 9/11 investigating committee in 2003, although he turned out to be too controversial to remain in that position. Henry Kissinger is a trustee of the Open Russia Foundation since 2001, together with Lord Jacob Rothschild. The Foundation was set up by Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a controversial oligarch, later locked up by Putin. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. Because of previous international attempts by European and South American judges to question him, he is known to take legal advice before traveling to certain countries in either continent.

Kitchener, Lord Horatio H.



Member of the Order of the Garter, the Order of Saint Patrick, the Order of the Bath, the Order of Merit, the Order of the Star of India, the Order of the Indian Empire, the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and the Privy Council. Also an Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford, County Kerry in Ireland. Educated in Switzerland and at the Royal Military Academy, he offered to fight with the French in the Franco-Prussian War before he joined the Royal Engineers in 1871. In 1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder, on the Survey of Western Palestine. During 1874 and 1875, along with their team of Royal Engineers N.C.O.s and enlisted men, they surveyed large areas of the country. In 1882, Kitchener served with the British forces in Egypt during the suppression of the nationalist revolt led by Col. Arabi. In 1883, he took part in the Survey of the Wady Arabah and northeastern Sinai with Professor Edward Hull, on behalf of the Fund. After duty in Palestine and Cyprus, he was attached (1883) to the Egyptian army, then being reorganized by the British. Initiated into freemasonry in La Concordia Lodge, Cairo in 1883. He took part (1884–85) in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve Charles George Gordon at Khartoum. He was then (1886–88) governor-general of Eastern Sudan and helped (1889) turn back the last Mahdist invasion of Egypt. In 1892 he was made commander in chief of the Egyptian army and in 1896 began the reconquest of Sudan, having prepared the way by a reorganization of the army and the construction of a railway along the Nile. A series of victories culminated (1898) in the battle of Omdurman and the reoccupation of Khartoum. After becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army he headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman on September 2, 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail construction program he had instituted in the area. Kitchener quite possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident. He also reformed the debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20 000 m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899 Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Island in his honour. Became freemasonry District Grand Master of Egypt and Sudan in 1899. During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord Roberts and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899. Kitchener was made overall commander in November 1900 following Roberts' removal due to illness. Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, and the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February 1901 (due to British cabinet veto) that Kitchener had negotiated with the Boer leaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas. His no-prisoners policy became quite controversial. Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909), where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian army, against the wishes of the bellicose viceroy Lord Curzon (pilgrims Society), who became a passionate and lifelong enemy. Kitchener was promoted to Field Marshal in 1910; however, largely due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign, he was turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911. He then returned to Egypt as Viceroy of Egypt and the Sudan (1911–1914). At the outset of World War I (1914), Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War. Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. In 1916, Lord Kitchener embarked aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. While en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk, Hampshire struck a mine during a Force 9 gale and sank west of the Orkney Islands. His body was never found.

Knight, Robert Huntington



Attorney Shearman & Sterling, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1977-1983, member Council on Foreign Relations, director National Leadership Bank, heir to the Whitney fortune, trustee Asia Foundation.

Krech, Alvin W.



Chairman Equitable Trust Co. in the 1920s, involved with financing Communism.