E  -  G


Other members


Pilgrim function






Eells, Richard



Received A.B., M.A. and LL.D. degrees from Whitman College and Princeton University and is presently Professor of Business (Emeritus) at Columbia University, and Special Advisor to the President of Columbia University; also special advisor to the president of the New York Botanical Garden. During his past 15 years service at Columbia University he was Director of Studies of the Modern Corporation, adjunct professor of Business, and councillor to the Dean of Graduate School of Business. Previously, manager of Public Policy Research, General Electric Company (NYC) for ten years. Field director, Near East College Association (AUB and others). Following military service in the USAF, he was Chief of the Division of Aeronautics and Holder of the Guggenheim Chair of Aeronautics, The Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.). He has received grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and Sloan Foundation and has served as consultant to IBM, General Electric, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, and others. He is the author and co-author of fifteen books on corporate social policy matters (and spionage) and the editor of thirty-five volumes on business matters.

Ekblom, Harry E.



Retired as chairman and CEO of European-American Banking Corporation in 2002. He had been a member of the board since 1984. Partner in Ekblom & Ekblom LLC and president of Harry E. Ekblom & Co. Inc. He is the former vice chairman of A.T. Hudson & Co. Inc. Director Harris & Harris Group Inc.

Eliot, Ellsworth, Jr



Yale; joined the surgical staff of Presbyterian Hospital in 1893; he remained at the Hospital as an Attending Surgeon until 1918 and was thereafter consultant in surgery until his death. He was Chief of Surgery of Vanderbilt Clinic of P&S from 1895 to 1900 and at various times held surgical professorships at both P&S and the Cornell University Medical College.

Esher, Viscount Reginald



Usually described as "secretive" or "mysterious" together with "lot's of influence". Wrote confidential memoranda for Queen Victoria. Supposedly had bizarre sexual interests and stood in contact with the Rothschild family. A British statesman who stood in close contact with Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s father.

Evans, James H.



University of Chicago Law School, high positions at Reuben H. Donnelley Corp., Dun & Bradstreet Inc., and the Seamen's bank for Savings, in the navy during WWII, chairman 1965 Red Cross Campaign for Greater New York, chairman of the Union Pacific Corporation, director Citicorp, AT&T, Bristol-Myers, General Motors Corp. and Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., governor Foreign Policy Association, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, University of Chicago and the American Youth Foundation, Bohemian Grove visitor.

Fairhaven, Lord



Had mining and railroad interests in the United States, which were created by his father. Much of the American fortune, which the 1st Lord Fairhaven inherited, was energetically deployed in the collection of works of art and the Abbey is now the permanent home of an outstandingly rich collection of furniture, pictures and art objects. Lord Fairhaven was also involved with landscape gardening.

Farish, William Stamps III


born 1939

Farish is an American millionaire. Owner of a trust company in Houston, Texas called W.S. Farish & Co. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 2001-2004. Member of the Council of American Ambassadors. Horse-breeder. Chairman of Churchill Downs. Major Republican Party donor and a family friend of President George W. Bush for several decades. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Kentucky in 2003. When George Bush was elected vice president in 1980, Texas mystery man William Stamps Farish III took over management of all of George Bush's personal wealth in a "blind trust." Known as one of the richest men in Texas, Will Farish keeps his business affairs under the most intense secrecy. Only the source of his immense wealth is known, not its employment. Will Farish has long been Bush's closest friend and confidante. He is also the unique private host to Britain's Queen Elizabeth: Farish owns and boards the studs which mate with the Queen's mares. That is her public rationale when she comes to America and stays in Farish's house. On March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money manager) had pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal.

Faulkner, Sir Eric Odin



Educated at Bradfield and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Artillery, chairman Union Discount Co. 1959-1970, chairman Glyn, Mills & Co., chairman of Lloyd’s Bank (City of London), governor Hudson's Bay Co., director of Vickers, advisory director of Unilever, negotiated with rebel Rhodesian leader Ian Smith in 1965 at the directions of the Prime-Minister of England, chairman British Bankers' Association 1972-1973 and 1980-1984, chairman Committee of London Clearing Bankers from 1972-1974, chairman Industrial Society 1973-1976, Order of the British Empire 1974, organized the formation of the City Communications Organisation in 1976 (City of London interests).

Field, Marshall



Owned Marshall Field & Company which had factories in the U.S., Europe, China and Australia. He owned stocks and bonds in about one hundred and fifty corporations, and he was a director of many. He owned many millions of bonds and stocks in railroads. The history of many of them reeked with thefts of public and private money; corruption of common councils, of legislatures, Congress and of administrative officials; land grabbing, fraud, illegal transactions, violence and oppression not only of their immediate workers, but of the entire population. He owned Baltimore & Ohio stock; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe; Chicago & Northwestern, and tens of millions more of the stock or bonds of fifteen other railroads. He also owned an immense assortment of the stocks of a large number of trusts. The affairs of these trusts have been shown in court, at some time or other, as overflowing with fraud, the most glaring oppressions, and violations of law.

Flagler, Henry Morrison



His mother was from the Harkness family, worked at L.G. Harkness and Company, partner in the newly organized D. M. Harkness and Company in 1952, married married Mary Harkness in 1853, founded the Flagler and York Salt Company in 1862, the end of the Civil War caused a drop in the demand for salt and the Flagler and York Salt Company collapsed, bringing him heavily into debt, after borrowing money he reentered the grain business as a commission merchant and became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler start Standard Oil in 1870 (with a loan from National City Bank of Cleveland) and two years later it will dominate the US oil market, Flagler later goes into the railroad business and becomes the second largest land owner in Florida.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson, Sr.



Son of the Forbes Magazine founder. A 1941 graduate of Princeton University. Publisher of Forbes magazine 1964-1990. Legendary for his lavish lifestyle, his private Capitalist Tool jet, his Highlander yachts, and huge art collection. Has a substantial collection of Harley Davidson motorbikes. Member of the Bohemian Grove and the Pilgrims Society. Member of the American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson "Steve", Jr.



Princeton. President and editor-in-chief Forbes Magazine. Director Americas Society. Lost the 1996 presidential nomination to Bob Dole. Lost the 2000 presidential nomination to George W. Bush.

Forbes, Christopher


Christopher Forbes received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Princeton University in 1972. Director of Forbes, Inc. since 1977. Corporate Secretary at Forbes 1981-1989. Appointed to the Board of Regents of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. in 1987. Vice-chairman of Forbes Inc. since 1989. He is responsible for Forbes’ advertising and promotion departments. Director of Senesco Technologies since 1999 (genetech). Director of Raffles Holdings. Sits on the Boards of The New York Historical Society, The Newark Museum, The Business Committee for the Arts, The Brooklyn Museum, The Friends of New Jersey State Museum, The New York Academy of Art, The Victorian Society in America, The Princess Margarita Foundation and the Prince Wales Foundation. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors of The Princeton University Art Museum, a National Trustee of the Baltimore Museum of Art, and serves on the Advisory Committee of the Department of European Decorative Arts of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Member of the Knickerbocker, The Century Association, The Brook, Essex Hunt, Grolier, American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Franklin, George S., Jr.



His father was a CFR director. Franklin Jr. attended Harvard University and was a roommate of David Rockefeller. Franklin was a Council on Foreign Relations executive director from 1953 to 1971. Franklin was the first secretary of the Atlantic Council of the United States, co-founded by Pilgrim Dean Acheson. Franklin was a co-founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973, together with David Rockefeller, and became a secretary of this Commission in later years.

Fraser, Leon

exec. committee

born 1889

Law professor and trustee at Columbia University 1914-1917. Director NY Federal Reserve Bank. President of the First National Bank of New York. President of the Bank for International Settlements. Director of General Electric, U.S. Steel, and Mutual Life Insurance of New York. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1936-1945

Fréchette, Louise

Guest speaker


Received a Bachelor of Arts degree from College Basile Moreau. She earned a degree in history from the University of Montreal in 1970 and a post-graduate diploma in economic studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium in 1978. Ms. Fréchette began her career in 1971 in Canada's Department of External Affairs. She was part of her country's delegation to the General Assembly in 1972, and then served as Second Secretary at the Canadian Embassy in Athens until 1975. From 1975 to 1977, Ms. Fréchette worked in the European Affairs Division in Canada's Department of External Affairs. Returning to Europe, she served as First Secretary at the Canadian Mission to the United Nations in Geneva from 1978 to 1982. During that period, she participated in a session of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Madrid from November 1980 to July 1981. After serving as Deputy Director of the Trade Policy Division in the Department of External Affairs from 1982 to 1983, Ms. Fréchette became Director of the European Summit Division from 1983 to 1985. She received her first ambassadorship in 1985, serving as Canada's ambassador to Argentina with concurrent accreditation to Uruguay and Paraguay. Ms. Fréchette was named Assistant Deputy Minister for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Department of External Affairs and international trade in October 1988. In that capacity, she directed a review of Canada's relations with the region, which led to Canada's entry into the Organization of American States (OAS). In January 1991 she became Assistant Deputy Minister for Economic Policy and Trade Competitiveness. She served as Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations from 1992 to 1995. Deputy Minister of National Defence of Canada from 1995 to 1998. Became the first Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1998. Also chairs the steering committee on U.N. Reform and Management Policy. In 1998, she was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada. Spoke to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs in 1998. In 1999, when corruption in the oil-for-food program was rampant, Frechette intervened directly to stop United Nations auditors from forwarding their investigations to the U.N. Security Council. She and he assistant Iqbal Riza were hiding and shredding years of documents. In 2000 she attended a Bilderberg meeting. Gave a speech to the annual luncheon meeting of the Pilgrims of the United States in New York on April 25, 2001.

Funston, George Keith



A banker's son, he worked his way through Trinity College and Harvard Business School before becoming a salesman for American Radiator, and later, Sylvania. President Trinity College 1945-1951. President New York Stock Exchange 1951-1967. Chairman Olin Mathieson Chemical Co. 1967-1972. Director Illinois Central Industries, National Aviation Corporation, Putnam Trust Company, Chemical Bank, IBM, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Republic Steel, Winn Dixie Stores, Avco Corporation, Paul Revere Investors, and more.

Gallatin, Eugene



Great grandson of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849 - born in Geneva in an old noble family), who was a U.S. Treasury Secretary between 1801 and 1814. During the War of 1812, Albert made it possible for his associate, John Jacob Astor, to transport his furs across the battle lines. Albert also was a U.S. diplomat to England and France. Eugene Gallatin was a professional art collector.

Gardner, John W.



B.A. and M.A. in psychology from Stanford University, Ph.D. from the University of California, analyzed enemy propaganda broadcast to Latin America 1942-1943. Marine Corps and the OSS 1943-1945. Joined the Carnegie Corporation in 1946. President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1955-1965. Founder and chairman of Common Cause (lobby force of private citizens). Edited a volume of JFK's speeches and position papers. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1964. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under LBJ 1965-1968. Chairman of the National Urban Coalition (group of leaders who came together to tackle the problems of race and poverty that underlay the nationwide riots of 1968). Governor Nelson Rockefeller asked Gardner to fill Kennedy's vacant Senate seat (he declined) 1968. Trustee Stanford University 1968-1982. Founder and chairman of Independent Sector 1980-1983 (lobby force of private citizens). Director Institute of Medicine. Member of The Scientific Advisory Board of the Air Force. Member of the Advisory Board of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Director or advisor of Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Rockefeller University, Shell Oil Company, American Airlines, the Enterprise Foundation and National Center for Action. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Founding member of the national advisory board of the Haas Center. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities was established at Stanford University in 2000.

Gates, Thomas Sovereign, Jr.



Son of an investment banker. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1928 and joined the investment banking firm of Drexel and Company in Philadelphia. Became became a partner in 1940. Rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy 1940-1945. Under-secretary of the Navy 1953-1957. Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959. Secretary of defense 1959-1961, who authorized U-2 reconnaissance flights. Director and president Morgan Guaranty Trust Company 1961-1965. CEO and chairman of Morgan Guaranty Trust Company in 1965. Nixon appointed him chairman of the Advisory Commission on an All-Volunteer Force, which presented its influential report in November 1969. Ambassador to China 1976-1977. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Member Pilgrims Society. Member Bohemian Grove.

Gerard , James W.



Lawyer, New York state Supreme Court justice 1908-1913 (Hearst's newspapers opposed his appointment), ambassador to Germany 1913-1917 and expelled when the submarine war against the U.S. began, treasurer of the Democratic National Committee 1914-1932, again New York state Supreme Court justice 1917-1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1944 and 1948.

Giffard, Lord Hardinge Stanley



A leading barrister, politician and government minister, serving as Solicitor General and Lord Chancellor (1886-1892 and 1895-1905) of Great Britain. His lasting legacy was the compilation of a the complete digest of "Laws of England" (1905-1916), a major reference work published in many volumes and often called simply "Halsbury's". "Halsbury's Laws" was followed by a second multiple-volume reference work in 1929, "Halsbury's Statutes", and later by "Halsbury's Statutory Instruments". During the crisis over the Parliament Act of 1911, Halsbury was one of the principal leaders of the rebel faction of Tory peers that resolved on all out opposition to the government's bill. Giffard was also President of the Royal Society of Literature, Grand Warden of English Freemasons, and High Steward of the University of Oxford.

Gifford, Walter S.



Undergraduate from Harvard. President of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) from 1925 to 1949. Videoconferencing was first introduced in 1926 when Walter S. Gifford used Video Teleconferencing to speak with the Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1950-1953.

Gilpatrick, Roswell L.



Deputy Secretary of Defense under Kennedy, special adviser to Kennedy and part of his "Special Group" (on Cuba), director CBS, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gordon, Albert Hamilton



Received his MBA at Harvard, one of the old banking titans, acquired the investment banking house of Kidder, Peabody & Co. in 1931 and chaired it until 1968, opened offices of this company in Hong Kong and Japan, director of Sloan Kettering Hospital, Paine Webber Inc., The Americas Society, and the New York Road Runners Club, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gould, Edwin



Jay Gould’s son (famous for being extremely cruel), chairman of the St. Louis & Southwestern Railroad which owned the Arkansas & Texas Railway, director Paragould & Southeastern Railway, director Bowling Green Trust Company, consolidated competition into the Diamond Match Company in 1899, member Jekyll Island Georgia Club, member of the Pilgrims of New York in 1903.

Gould, Samuel B.



M.A. degree from New York University 1936, during World War II he served as an officer in the Navy, president of Antioch College for five years, president Boston University for six years, first chancellor of the Santa Barbara State College 1959-1962, director of National Commercial Bank & Trust, American Council on Education, chairman of the Institute of Man and Science, chairman Research Foundation of the State University of New York, trustee John D. Rockefeller III Fund, Salk Institute Educational Records Bureau Kettering Foundation, and other positions.

Grace, J. Peter



Bachelor of Arts from Yale University in 1936, president and CEO of the chemical giant W.R. Grace & Co. 1945-1992 (also big in South-America), director Citibank, chairman of the Order of the Knights of Malta in the United States, chairman National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, president Catholic Youth Organization for the Archdiocese of New York, member Willard Garvey's International conference on privatizing education, chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development, involved in Project Paperclip 1945, trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (Pilgrim Heinz II also), involved with Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe in which Fascists and the CIA were involved, chairman President’s Private Sector Survey on Cost Control (under Reagan), chairman Advisory Committee of AmeriCares 1982-1995 (involved with Bush, Brzezinski & Powell), director Friends of the Democratic Center in Central America (involved the Iran-Contra affair), member and governor Council for National Policy, member Council on Foreign Relations, member 1001 Club, member Newcomen Society.

Graham, William J.



News message about his death: William J. Graham, long a prominent actuary and outstanding insurance executive, died February 11, 1963, in Southside Hospital, Bay Shore, Long Island, at the age of 85. Mr. Graham's name became almost synonymous with the development of group insurance during the first half of the century. He was frequently re- ferred to as the, "Father of Group Insurance," for he played a key part in the 1911 discussions with the Montgomery Ward Company which led to the first of the modern forms of group insurance. From that point on, Mr. Graham crusaded for the use of group insurance in industry and commerce, and he was personally responsible for much of its spectacular growth and en- largement into the fields of annuities and health. Mr. Graham was born in Louisville, Kentucky, September 23, 1877. A graduate of Xavier College in Louisville, he also held an M.A. from St. Fran- cis Xavier College in New York. In 1938 he was awarded an honorary LL.D. from Hobart College. His mathematical aptitude early led him into the actuarial field. He be- came an Associate of the Actuarial Society of America at 21, and four years later became a Fellow. Later, he became a Charter Member of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the British Institute of Actuaries. Mr. Graham started his insurance career as an actuary with the Sun Life Insurance Company of America (Louisville) in 1898, and from 1902 to 1905 he served on the actuarial staff of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. In 1905 his career gained considerable momentum through the service he rendered as consulting actuary (jointly with S. Herbert Wolfe) to the investi- gation of the life insurance companies of New York conducted by a group of state insurance departments. Almost simultaneously, he was invited to help reorganize the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company, which he served'as a vice-president, actuary, and director from 1905 to 1911. Mr. Graham joined the Equitable as western superintendent of agencies in 1911. When the Equitable established a Group Insurance Department the following year, he was made its superintendent. He thereafter rapidly rose, becoming vice president in 1929. He was elected a member of the Equitable's Board of Directors in 1937 and given charge of all agency activities, both group and ordinary. After more than 37 years of service with the Equitable, he retired on June 30, 1948, continuing, however, to serve on Equitablc's Board until December 31, 1958. Among Mr. Graham's innumerable writings was an insurance bestseller entitled The Romance of Life Insurance. Appearing first as a series of arti- cles in the 1908 issues of The World Today, it told a constructive story of life insurance which was much needed in those post-investigation days. Mr. Graham's broad human sympathies caused his interests to spread far beyond his employment and even beyond the insurance field. He headed the Insurance Institute of America and served as vice-president of the New York Chamber of Commerce; president of the American Management Association (which he helped to found); director of the American Arbitration Associa- tion; chairman of the Group Association; member of the Insurance Commit- tee of the United States Chamber of Commerce; governor of the National Industrial Conference Board; and a member of the New York Southern So- ciety. His New York club memberships included the Links, Nassau County, and the Pilgrims. He was also a member of the Pendennis Club in Louis- ville; the Royal Societies in London, England; and the Kentuckians. An imaginative, courageous, and dedicated master builder, Mr. Graham has left an indelible imprint not only on the insurance world, but on the social and economic life of our country. A hard taskmaster, he commanded and en- joyed great admiration, respect, and loyalty on all sides. His engaging, attrac- tive personality, and his endless drive and enthusiasm won him high praise not only as an expert technician but as one of the best all round salesmen in the insurance world. Mr. Graham is survived by a daughter, Mrs. William S. Adams, Jr., and four grandchildren.

Greenwood, Lord Hamar



Canadian-born Liberal member of parliament 1906-1922. Secretary of the Overseas Trade Department 1919-1920. Chief Secretary for Ireland 1920-1922. Conservative Member of parliament 1924-1929. Treasurer Conservative Party. Baron since 1929. Viscount since 1937. Director of one of England's greatest steel firms - Dorman, Long, and Company. President British Iron and Steel Federation 1938-1939.

Grenfell, Lord William Henry



Lord Desborough. Athlete, sportsman, and public servant. He filled almost all the offices in local government and local justice which were open to him in Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, and it has been calculated that at one time he was actually serving on no fewer than 115 committees, where his services were recognized as of real value. During the war of 1914-18 he was president of the Central Association of Volunteer Training Corps which passed more than a million men into the regular army and was eventually taken over by the War Office. In 1915 he represented the minister of munitions in France. Appointed chairman of the British Olympic Association in 1905. Chairman of the London Pilgrims 1919-1929. In 1921, he declined for family reasons, to become Governor-General of Canada.

Grenfell, Sir William (Max-Muller)



A British diplomat. This person was a member from the Grenfell family of Grenfell & Company, a British merchant bank, that merged with Morgan to become Morgan, Grenfell & Company. These days it still exists as Morgan Grenfell Asset Management, which is owned by Deutsche Bank. Pilgrim Lord Desborough was also a Grenfell.

Grey, Lord Edward



1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon. Educated at Winchester College and at Balliol College, Oxford. Elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal in 1885, having previously succeeded to his grandfather's baronetcy in 1882. He served under Lord Rosebery as Parliamentary Undersecretary for the Foreign Office in Gladstone's last government, from 1892 to 1895. During the Boer War (1899-1902), when the Liberals split between radical Pro-Boers and Liberal Imperialists, Grey stood decidedly on the side of the Imperialists like Rosebery and Herbert Henry Asquith. Foreign Secretary 1905-1916. In 1914, Grey played a key role in the crisis leading to the outbreak of World War I. His attempts to mediate the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia by a "Stop in Belgrade" came to nothing due to the tepid German response, and when Germany declared war on France (3 August) and invaded Belgium (4 August), Grey was able to muster enough support to bring Britain into the war on August 4, 1914, despite initial radical wariness. In the early years of the war, Grey negotiated several important secret treaties, bringing Italy into the war (1915) and promising Russia the Turkish Straits. He maintained his position as Foreign Secretary when the Conservatives came into the government to form a coalition in May 1915, but when the Asquith government fell due to machinations between Lloyd George and the Tories, Grey went into opposition. Liberal Leader in the House of Lords in 1923-1924. Presided over a 1930 Pilgrims dinner attended by the international delegates of the London Naval Conference. He is probably best remembered for a remark he supposedly made to a friend one evening just before the outbreak of the First World War, as he watched the lights being lit on the street below his office: "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime."

Grosvenor, Gerald Cavendish



6th Duke of Westminster. His wife can be traced directly to the Russian Peter the Great, personal fortune is estimated at 5 billion pounds, chairman Grosvenor Group, owns over 300 acres of the best property in downtown London, plus large land holdings in Canada, Australia, Hawaii and elsewhere, possibly a partner of the Royal Bank of Scotland through the National Westminster Bank, Knight of the Order of the Garter.

Guthrie, Lord



General Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank. He was educated at Harrow School and went to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1957 and was commissioned into the Welsh Guards in 1959. He served with his Regiment as a young officer in the United Kingdom, Libya, Germany and Aden. In 1966 he joined the SAS and served in the Middle East, Malaysia and East Africa. In 1970 he returned to the Welsh Guards and for two years commanded an armoured infantry company in Germany. After a year as a student at the Staff College, he served in the Ministry of Defence as the Assistant to the Head of the Army, the Chief of the General Staff. From 1975-1977 he was the Brigade Major of the Household Division and from 1977-1980 he commanded the Welsh Guards in Berlin and Northern Ireland. He was appointed as a Colonel to the branch overseeing operations worldwide and during his time there became briefly the Commander British Forces New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and recaptured the island of Espirito Santo, which had been taken over by insurgents. Awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1980. In 1981 he was appointed Commander of the 4th Armoured Brigade in Munster, West Germany, following which he was Chief of Staff, Headquarters 1st British Corps in Bielefeld. He became the General Officer Commanding the 2nd Infantry Division and North East District in 1985. In 1986 he became Colonel Commandant of the Intelligence Corps. Knighted in 1990. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 1994. After a further tour in the Ministry of Defence he became in succession the Commander of the 1st British Corps, the Northern Army Group, the British Army of the Rhine before becoming the Chief of the General Staff and finally the Chief of the Defence Staff (1997-2001). CFR/MORI report 2001: "In his valedictory speech to the Pilgrims Society in London in May of this year, the outgoing Chief of the British Defence Staff, Field Marshall Lord Guthrie, stated that the USA was the most important ally Britain had ever had, and that NATO was its most important alliance." Colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick to the Queen in 1999 and Colonel Commandant of the SAS in 2000. Became Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank in June 2001. Joined N.M. Rothschild & Sons at the latest in 2002. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since 2002. Member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Member of the steering committee of the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). Member of the European Council of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. In December 2002, Blair sent Lord Guthrie and Jack Straw to Turkey as an unofficial military envoy to shore up support for an invasion of Iraq and to discuss plans to remove Saddam Hussein from power. Became a non-executive special advisor of Aon Special Risks in 2004, a leading Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks and Kidnap and Ransom insurance broker and risk consultant. Freeman of the City of London, a member of the Knights of Malta, and a Commander of the Legion of Merit USA. Member of the House of Lords. In May 2004 Guthrie said at a conference on terrorism that terrorists might kill millions in the future due to biological or even nuclear weapons. He also said that he did not think that Iraq had nuclear weapons, but that this was an understandable mistake of the Bush Administration. In that same year he stated that Syria was one of the largest supporters of terrorism and has been exploiting Lebanon for a long time. Attended a discussion of the Windsor Leadership Trust in 2005. October 7, 2001, The Observer: "Lord Guthrie, the suave former British Chief of Defence Staff, has been a close friend of [Pakistani president] Musharraf for more than 20 years."