A  -  B



Other members


Pilgrim function






Adams, Charles Francis IV



Direct descendant of President John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Spent several years with his parents in St. Petersburg, Russia. Harvard College. Partner in Paine, Webber, Jackson, & Curtis banking firm 1937-1947. Director of Raytheon 1938-1942. U.S. Naval Reserve with active duty, commanding destroyer escorts in the Atlantic & Pacific theaters 1942-1945. Commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet 1945-1947. President of Raytheon (sales grew forty fold in his almost 40 years with the company) 1948-1960 & 1962-1964. Chairman of Raytheon 1960-1962 & 1964-1972. Retired as director of Raytheon in 1997. Director of the First National Bank of Boston, the Gillette Company, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Sheraton Corporation, Bath Iron Works, Associated Industries of Massachusetts, the Boston Chamber of Commerce, Pan American World Airways, and the Massachusetts Higher Education Assistance Corporation. Chairman of the Board of Visitors of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Trustee of the Children's Hospital, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Industrial School for Crippled Children, the Massachusetts Humane Society, the Naval War College Foundation and more. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Vice President of the Massachusetts Historical Society.

Acheson, Dean Gooderham



Yale Scroll & Key 1915. Harvard 1915-1918. Private secretary to the Supreme Court Justice 1919-1921. Became Under Secretary of the Treasury in 1933. U.S. Secretary of State under Harry S. Truman 1949-1953. Accused of being soft on Communism and had a dispute with General Douglas MacArthur. Mccarthy saw him as one the most dangerous Communists and believed that the "Acheson group had almost hypnotic powers over Truman". Member Council on Foreign Relations. His son, David C. Acheson ended up in the 1943 Skull & Bones class.

Acton, Lord



Born in Shropshire, England. Acton's family immigrated in 1948 to Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he was educated at St. George's College, Salisbury. Later he received his bachelor's and master's degrees in modern history at Trinity College, Oxford. In 1989, he took his seat in the House of Lords as the fourth Lord Acton, dividing his time between Iowa and London since his marriage to Patricia Nassif, a clinical professor at the UI College of Law. Later, the government of the United Kingdom put forth a proposal to restructure the House of Lords. This passed in November 1999, which resulted in the abolition of Acton's hereditary peerage. However, the Prime Minister appointed him as a Life Peer, and Acton returned to the House of Lords in April. Acton is also a writer whose articles have appeared in many American periodicals, including The New York Times Book Review, The North American Review, British Heritage, the Christian Science Monitor, The Chicago Tribune and The San Francisco Chronicle. In 1995, Acton and his wife wrote a book on the legal history of Iowa entitled, "To Go Free: A Treasury of Iowa's Legal Heritage," published by Iowa State University Press to commemorate Iowa's sesquicentennial. He also received the Iowa State Historical Society's Throne/Aldrich Award in 1995 for the best article on Iowa history published by The Palimpset. His articles have appeared in The Iowan and The Des Moines Register. His latest book is "A Brit Among the Hawkeyes," published by Iowa State University Press. Has spoken at the Iowa City Foreign Relations Council (ICFRC), which is in the neighborhood he often lives. He and his wife split their time between Ceder Rapids and London. He is a member of the Royal Africa Society and the Pilgrims Society. Lord Acton is writing a book about one his forefathers, Sir John Acton, who, according to him, ruled Naples and Sicily in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Adler, Julius Ochs



His family started the New York Times, received the Distinguished Service Cross, the Purple Heart, the Silver Star, Star with Oak Leaf Clusters, the French Legion of Honor and the French Croix de Guerre for his achievements as commander of a battalion of infantry on the Western Front in France in WWI, as a General he commanded the 77th Infantry Division, responsible for the defense of Hawaii from 1941 to 1944. After World War II, joined The New York Times as vice-president, later to become general manager, publisher of the Chattanooga Times, invited by General Eisenhower to visit the liberated concentration camps in 1945, which inspired him to write a bunch of articles on his experiences, appointed as major general in the Army Reserve in 1948.

Aiken, Alfred Lawrence

exec. committee


Graduated from Yale in 1891, president Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1914-1917, president and chairman National Shawmut Bank of Boston 1918-1924, director New York Life Insurance Co 1924-1936, president of New York Life Insurance & Co. in 1936, trustee of Clark University and Wellesley College, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Aldrich, Herbert I.



This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, a U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940.

Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth



Nelson W. Aldrich. Private in the Rhode Island National Guard during the American Civil War. Elected to Rhodes Island city council 1869. Rhodes Island city council president 1872-1873. Republican Congressman 1879-1881. Senator 1881-1911. His daughter marries John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901. In 1906 Aldrich is accused of taking huge bribes from corporations in an article of Cosmopolitan. Attends the Jekyll Island meeting on November 22, 1910. Chairman Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Committee on Rules, Select Committee on Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia, Committee on Finance, and the National Monetary Commission. Aldrich worked together with co-Pilgrim and congressman/banker Edward Butterfield Vreeland to establish the Federal Reserve.

Aldrich, Winthrop Williams



Winthrop W. Aldrich was the uncle of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller. The major stockholder in Equitable Trust Company (merged with Chase National Bank in 1930). President of Chase National Bank and later chairman of the board from 1930 to 1953 (Chase National Bank eventually became J.P. Morgan Chase). Ambassador to England from 1950 to 1953 and gave a speech to the English Pilgrims on March 19, 1953. Director of Westinghouse Electric, American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), International Paper, Discount Corporation of New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance, and American Society for the Control of Cancer.

Aldrich, Malcolm Pratt


born 1900

Yale Skull & Bones 1922. Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich. Head of the Commonwealth Fund.

Aldrich, Hulbert Stratton


born 1907

Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich, president of Greer School with mrs. David Rockefeller (1942/1947), vice chairman of Chemical Bank 1959-1972, director of Ametek Incorporated, IBM World Trade Corporation, Empire Savings Bank, George W. Rogers Construction Corporation, Peter Paul Incorporated, president of Commonwealth Fund (succeeded Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness), Royal Globe Insurance Group and Hill Samuel Group Limited, London.

Alexander, Charles Beatty



Grandson of a co-founder of Princeton Theological Seminary, trustee of Princeton University, married into the Crocker fortune of 40 million (1888) dollars, director of the International Banking Corporation, Mercantile Trust Company; Equitable Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance, Society of the U.S., Tri-State Land Company, Windsor Trust, member of the Society of the Cincinnati.

Alexander, Henry Clay



Studied at Vanderbilt University and Yale where he graduated in 1923 and 1925, Trustee of Vanderbilt University, president J.P. Morgan & Company, chairman Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York in 1960, director General Motors & Johns-Manville Corporation

Anderson, Arthur Marvin


died 1966

Director of Northern Pacific Ry, director U.S. Steel Corporation, vice-chairman J.P. Morgan & Company, has a ship named after him.

Angell, Ernest



Lived from about 1890 to the 1970s, attended Harvard in 1907, New York lawyer, married Elizabeth Chapin of the American Motors fortune, national chairman of the A.C.L.U., member of the International Commission of Jurists meetings in Athens and New Delhi.

Angelson, Mark A.



Educated at Rutgers College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and at Rutgers Law School. Angelson began his career in 1975 as a lawyer with Sullivan & Cromwell. From 1982 through 1995, he practiced with Sidley & Austin, serving as Co-Chair of International Operations and Resident Managing Partner of the law firm's offices in Singapore, New York and London. During this period, he participated in the development of substantial, notably successful law practices in each of those cities, and served on the boards of various multinational companies and not-for-profit organizations. From 1996 until 2001, Mr. Angelson served in various capacities, including as Executive Deputy Chairman, at Big Flower Holdings (NYSE: BGF), a printing and advertising services holding company, and its successor, Vertis Holdings, Inc. At Big Flower, he was involved in approximately 30 printing industry acquisitions and related financings, and the $2 billion leveraged recapitalization and sale of control of the company to Thomas H. Lee Fund IV and Evercore Capital Partners. Before assuming his current position, Mr. Angelson served as Chief Executive Officer of Moore Wallace Incorporated (TSX, NYSE: MWI), the third largest printing company in North America. He was a principal architect of the merger between RR Donnelley and Moore Wallace, and of the earlier merger between Moore Corporation Limited (TSX, NYSE: MCL) and Wallace Computer Services, Inc. (NYSE: WCS). Prior to joining Moore as CEO, Mr. Angelson served as Moore's Non-Executive Chairman and Lead Independent Director. Previously, Mr. Angelson served as Deputy Chairman of Chancery Lane Capital, the New York-based private equity investment firm that led the Chancery Lane/GSC Partners L.P. investment in Moore and recruited the Moore management team. Today he is Chief Executive Officer of Chicago-based R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company (NYSE: RRD), the largest provider of printing and print-related services in the world, with approximately 43,000 employees, annual revenues of approximately $8 billion, nearly 600 locations around the globe and more than 40,000 customer relationships. The company provides these services to the catalog, retail, magazine, book, directory, advertising, financial, healthcare, telecommunications, automotive and many other industries. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (New York), a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (London), a Trustee of Northwestern University, a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, and a member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain, the Yale Club of New York City, The Economic Club of Chicago, the Chicago Club and the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago.

Annenberg, Walter H.



Son of Moses Annenberg, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. The story of Moses & Max (older brother) Annenberg is a tale of a hardworking immigrants and financial geniuses who got their start working alongside violent Chicago gangsters while employed by newspaper titan William Randolph Hearst at the turn of the last century. After some time, the owner of the Tribune, Bertie McCormick, decided to hire Moses Annenberg away from Hearst. For a while, the Annenberg brothers were sending out thugs to battle each other. Fifteen years later, Max Annenberg was alleged to be an associate and friend of Chicago crime boss Al Capone. In 1924, Moses Annenberg got involved with a racing news service in Chicago and Milwaukee. Soon there were reports that those who didn't take the Annenberg race wire service were themselves the victims of beatings, fire bombings and, on occasion, murder. The crime syndicates had come to be dependent on Moses Annenberg. Without his service they couldn't operate their illegal gambling rackets. In 1938, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, traveled from Washington D.C. to give a speech in Philadelphia condemning Moses Annenberg, who, at that time, was backing the Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania. Ickes charged it was Annenberg's violent tactics during the Chicago newspaper wars that inspired gangsters like Al Capone. Ickes said that "the hiring of Moses Annenberg by Hearst was the beginning of the subsequent flood of lawlessness that almost engulfed law enforcement in the United States." Moses, Walter, and 2 other business associates were indicted in 1939 for evading more than $2 million in taxes and another $3 million in penalties and interest. Moses was later separately indicted for conspiring to bribe a Philadelphia detective. In April 1940, Moses Annenberg agreed to plead guilty to one count -- "willfully" evading $1,217,296 -- and to pay almost $9 million in fines and penalties. In exchange for his plea the government agreed to drop all charges against his son, Walter Annenberg. In the 1940s, Walter Annenberg established Triangle Broadcasting, which at its peak controlled 6 AM radio stations, 6 FM radio stations, and 6 TV stations. He is also the founder and owner of Triangle Publications, which owned the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Daily News, TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine. Received the Alfred I. DuPont Award (Pilgrim) in 1951. Received the Marshall Field Award (Pilgrim) in 1958. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at The University of Pennsylvania in 1958. Ambassador to England 1969-1974. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in 1971. In 1988, News Corp. acquired Triangle Publications, including TV Guide. Founder-trustee and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. Annenberg also served as Trustee of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships and the Winston Churchill Traveling Fellowships. He was Emeritus Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The University of Pennsylvania and The Peddie School. Annenberg received honorary degrees from many international universities. Annenberg was named Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was also named Officer of the French Legion of Honor, and presented with the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy. (received dozens of other awards and honors) He was a member of the Associated Press, the American Society of Newspaper Editors, International Press Institute, National Press Club, Overseas Press Club, American Newspaper Publishers Association, Sigma Delta Chi, the International Arts-Medicine Association, and the Inter-American Press Association. Has been awarded by the ADL. A former Commander of the United States Naval Reserve, Annenberg also was a member of the Navy League of the U.S. He also has his own foundation, the Annenberg Foundation. Walter Annenberg was a generous philanthropist who gave millions to universities, art museums, charities and PBS. He was a friend to kings and presidents.

Armour, Norman



Embassy secretary at Petrograd (then the capital of Russia) 1916-1918, ambassador to Haiti 1932-1935, Canada 1935-1938, Chile 1938-1939, Argentina 1939-1944, Spain 1945, Venezuela 1950-1951 and Guatemala 1954-1955. Married European nobility in the form of Princess Myra Kondacheff, member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Armstrong, Anne Legendre



Born in New Orleans. Daughter of an aristocratic New Orleans coffee merchant. Graduated from Vassar College. She married Tobin Armstrong, a Texas cattle rancher, in 1950, whom she met in 1942 on the 825,000 acre King Ranch. The King Ranch has been home to many international power elites including Prince Charles and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis. Tobin was close friends with the Bushes. She served as vice chairman of the Texas Republican Party from 1966 to 1968. In 1971 and 1972, she was cochairman of the Republican National Committee. As counselor to the President, Armstrong was a member of the president's Domestic Council, the Council on Wage and Price Stability, and the Commission on the Organization of Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy. First American woman ambassador to Great Britain from 1976 to 1977. In 1977, Prince Charles visited the Armstrong Ranch to play polo with Anne's husband. Director of American Express (with Henry Kissinger and Vernon Jordan), Boise Cascade, General Motors, and Halliburton (with Cheney). She chaired the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1982 to 1990 and was a trustee of Southern Methodist University and the Smithsonian Institution. She also chaired the Georgetown University's Center for Strategic and International Studies advisory board.

Astor, William Waldorf



Educated in Germany and in Italy and at the Columbia law school, member of the NY state assembly 1878-1879, senator 1880-1881, minister to Italy 1881–1885, heir to about 100 million dollars, reversed the family immigration by returning to England in 1890 and bought some large real estate, purchased the Pall Mall Gazette 1893, purchased the London Sunday Observer 1911, was made a baron in 1916 and a viscount (of Hever) in 1917, his elder son became leader of Tory democracy, his younger son bought a large share in The Times of London. His son, Waldorf Astor (unconfirmed Pilgrims member), was a chairman of the Royal Institute for International Affairs from 1935 to 1949 and had helped to establish it.

Astor, William Vincent



Heir of the John Jacob Astor fortune, Franklin D. Roosevelt supporter in 1932, New Deal supporter after WWII, director of Chase National Bank, Western Union Telegraph Company, Great Northern Railway Company, the United States Lines, New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital and other institutions and corporations, trustee of the New York Public Library and the New York Zoological Society, governor of New York Hospital, staff officer in the Navy during both World Wars, seemed to have a bit of competition from the English branch of the family. (He and his former wives had themselves or married to Huntingtons and Whitneys)

Astor, (Roberta) Brooke Russell



Daughter of USMC General John Henry Russell, wife of Vincent Astor, president Vincent Astor Foundation from 1959 and on, which gave away about 195 million in all, author of 2 fiction books.

Astor, Francis David Langhorne



Educated at Eton College he went on to Oxford University where he suffered a nervous breakdown and left university in 1933 without obtaining a degree, psycho-analyzed by Anna Freud, at Oxford in 1931 he met Adam von Trott zu Solz, later executed for the role he played in a failed assassination of Hitler, who had a lot of influence on him, during World War II David Astor was wounded in France, In 1936, he joined the Yorkshire Post newspaper where he worked for a year then joined his father's newspaper, The Observer where he would serve as editor for 27 years, He warned of the dangers of big government and of big business, influenced by his friend and employee of The Observer, George Orwell, he supposedly was anti-big government, very critical of corrupt politicians, pro-blacks, pro-life, etc, in 1977 The Observer was sold to Robert O. Anderson, the American owner of the Atlantic Richfield oil company. (had lots of aggressive competition)

Astor, Gavin



2nd Baron Astor of Hever, controlling shareholder Times Publishing Co. Ltd. This company controlled the The Times Book Co. Ltd., Issuing House Year Book Ltd., St. Paul's Engineering Ltd., The Review (Insurance) Ltd., The Times Pension Trusts Ltd., The Times London Incorporated. and The Gardeners' Chronicle Ltd. Director Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1952-1959, chairman Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1959-1966.

Astor, John Jacob, 8th



Better known under 3rd Baron Astor of Hever, educated at Eton College, Birkshire (England), Lieutenant in 1966 in the service of the The Life Guards, managing director of Honon et Cie in 1982, managing director of Astor France in 1989, Deputy Lieutenant of Kent in 1996, Chief Whip of the House of Lords 1998. Freemason.

Attlee, Clement Richard



Educated at Oxford, he was called to the bar in 1905. His early experience as a social worker in London's East End led to his decision to give up law and devote his life to social improvement through politics. In 1907 he joined the Fabian Society and soon afterward the Labour party. He was a lecturer in social science at the London School of Economics, and, after service in World War I, he became (1919) the first Labour mayor of Stepney. Attlee entered Parliament in 1922. In 1927 he visited India as a member of the Simon commission and was converted to views that strongly favored Indian self-government. He joined the Labour government in 1930 but resigned in 1931 when Ramsay MacDonald formed the National government. As leader of the Labour party from 1935, Attlee was an outspoken critic of Conservative foreign policy, objecting particularly to the government's failure to intervene in the Spanish civil war. During World War II he served (1940–45) in Winston Churchill's coalition cabinet, and on Labour's electoral victory in 1945 he became prime minister. Under Attlee's leadership, the Bank of England, the gas, electricity, coal, and iron and steel industries, and the railways were nationalized. His government also enacted considerable social reforms, including the National Health Service. Independence was granted to Burma (Myanmar), India, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Palestine, and Britain allied itself closely with the United States in the cold war confrontation with the Soviet Union. The postwar economic crisis required stringent economic and financial controls, which reduced support for the government. Labour won the 1950 general election by a narrow margin, but in 1951, Attlee decided to go to the country again and was defeated. He was leader of the opposition until his retirement in 1955, when he received the title of Earl Attlee.

Bache, Jules Semon



American banker and art collector who made an enormous fortune on Wallstreet, organized the banking firm of J. S. Bache and Company, president and treasurer of Dome Mines Limited, director of Chrysler, Lake Superior Railroad, Louisiana Oil Refining, Tennessee Copper & Chemical, Southern Agricultural Company, U.S. Industrial Alcohol Company, New River Collieries, Cuba Distilling, American Indemnity, Anniston City Land, New Amsterdam Casualty, Ann Arbor Railroad, Empire Trust Company and others, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bail, Ancell H.



This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940. More info is not available.

Baker, George Fisher



Harvard. Fortune of the Baker family estimated at 500 million in 1924 and later grew to about a billion dollars. Chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank, First Security Co., and had directorships in at least 50 other companies. Close associate of J.P. Morgan who wanted him on every board of the companies he financed. Trustee of the Frick Collection (Frick was an associate of Andrew Mellon and was waging a war on his slave-workers). Donated $2,000,000 to Henry Pomeroy Davison (Pilgrim) when he needed money for Red Cross work during WWI. One of the largest philanthropist ever and never appeared in public.

Baker, George Fisher III



Great-grandson of the wealthy banker George Fisher Baker, Harvard, general partner of Baker, Nye Investments L.P. in New York City, member Woods Hole Oceanographic, member, director of The American Institute for Cognitive Therapy, director Quebec-Labrador Foundation/Atlantic Center for the Environment (QLF), philanthropist.

Baker, James Addison III



Graduated from Princeton University in 1952. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Houston lawyer. Friend of the Bushes. Undersecretary of commerce 1975–1976. Deputy manager of the 1976 and 1980 Ford and Bush presidential campaigns. Joined the Reagan administration in 1981. White House chief of staff 1981–1985. Treasury secretary 1985–1988. Planned the 1988 campaign that won George H.W. Bush the presidency. Secretary of State 1989–1992. Played a prominent role in the Gulf crisis and the subsequent search for a Middle East peace settlement. Again White House Chief of Staff 1992-1993. United Nations special envoy to try and broker a peace settlement for the disputed territory of Western Sahara 1997. As an adviser to George W. Bush in the November 2000 presidential elections, he was influential in helping Bush secure the presidency by manoeuvring the disputed vote count in Florida to the Republican-leaning Supreme Court. Baker was the manager of the foreign debts of occupied Iraq since 2003. Senior counselor for the Carlyle Group and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Also a member of the Atlantic Council of the United States, the Bohemian Grove, and the Pilgrims Society. Honorary trustee of the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies.

Ball, George Wildman



Born on December 19, 1909 in Des Moines, Iowa. Grew up in Des Moines and Evanston, Illinois, where the family moved in 1922 after his father received a promotion to the Standard Oil Company headquarters located in Chicago. Graduated at the top of his class from Northwestern Law School in 1933. The law school dean nominated him for a position in the General Counsel's Office, under the direction of Herman Oliphant, in the newly established Farm Credit Administration. Ball moved to the Treasury Department in November 1933 upon the appointment of Henry Morgenthau (Pilgrims) as Secretary of the Treasury. When Franklin D. Roosevelt named Morgenthau to this post, Morgenthau brought along Oliphant as his legal advisor, and he, in turn, brought along Ball. Worked here from 1933-1935. Despite working on major New Deal policies, Ball felt his law training was lacking and returned to the Midwest in 1935 to "master the profession of law." He joined a Chicago law firm where he served as a tax attorney before moving to the prestigious firm of Sidley, McPherson, Austin & Harper in 1939. Ball's work involved the reorganization of railroads but more defining was the close relationship he developed with junior partner Adlai Stevenson while at the firm. It was also during this time that Ball started to become interested in foreign affairs. He began to attend Friday luncheons hosted by the Chicago Council on Foreign Affairs, which Stevenson chaired. Associate position in the General Counsel's Office of the Lend-Lease Administration under the guidance of Oscar Cox 1942-1944. Director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey in London 1944-1945. Ball was specifically responsible for assessing the effectiveness of the Allied bombing of German cities and transportation systems. In May 1945, Ball and John Kenneth Galbraith debriefed Albert Speer, the Nazi minister for armaments and war production, in an effort to confirm their speculations on the ineffectiveness of Allied bombings. Ball was awarded a Medal of Freedom for this work. General Counsel for the French Supply Council in Washington 1945-1946. Ball was finally able to join his firm, Cleary, Gottlieb, Friendly & Cox in July 1946. Monnet retained the firm to represent the French Government, and Ball soon found himself conferring with Monnet's deputy Robert Marjolin on the creation of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC, the later OECD). He continued to work with Monnet on establishing a European economic plan throughout 1949, and this preliminary work laid the foundation for the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). After the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in August 1952, Ball was retained as the ECSC's adviser and later served as an adviser to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC). Talked Adlai Stevenson into running for president twice and acted as his campaign advisor (James P. Warburg was one of his aides). Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and became part of its steering committee. Still attended Bilderberg in 1993, the year before his death. Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs under JFK 1961-1962. Under Secretary of State 1962-1966. In his new position, Ball worked on issues regarding trade and tariffs, economic affairs, the Congo, and European integration. He worked closely with Secretary of State Dean Rusk (Rhodes Scholar; Pilgrims; chair Rockefeller Foundation; SMOM) and dealt directly with the President on these matters. Very much opposed to the Vietnam war and decided to resign because of it in 1966. Partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1966-1968. Served as chair of the committee investigating the U.S.S. Pueblo incident in 1968. Permanent U.S. representative to the United Nations 1968. Fearing a Nixon victory in the presidential election, Ball resigned in September to campaign for his friend Hubert Humphrey. Senior managing director and partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1969-1982. Chairman of the in 1975 launched Washington Institute for the Study of Conflict (WISC), of which its English branch stood in close contact with Le Cercle. Unofficial advisor to Jimmy Carter 1977-1981. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and Pilgrims Society. Wrote a couple of books and articles on foreign affairs. His son, Alan Ball, is said to have been an MI5 operative and was a chairman of Tiny Rowland's Lonrho. Rowland worked with loads of Middle-Eastern terrorists, was a member of Le Cercle, and had MI6 agents like Nicholas Elliott on his board. In the 1990 book 'One Nation under Israel', Ball is quoted as having said: "When leading members of the American Jewish community give [Israel’s] government uncritical and unqualified approbation and encouragement for whatever it chooses to do, while striving so far as possible to overwhelm any criticism of its actions in Congress and in the public media, they are, in my view, doing neither themselves nor the U.S. a favor…They’ve got one thing going for them. Most people are terribly concerned not to be accused of being anti-Semitic, and the lobby so often equates criticism of Israel with anti-Semitism. They keep pounding away at that theme, and people are deterred from speaking out."

Barber, Charles Finch



CEO of American Smelting & refining, director Americas Society, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barco, James William


born 1916

American ambassador to the United Nations 1960-1961, vice-chairman Atlantic Council of the United States, trustee American University in Cairo, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barlow, Sir Clement Anderson Montague



Parliamentary Secretary of Labor. Involved with British empire building.

Barratt, J. Arthur



Organized the St. Louis World Fair and became Director General of the Pan American Union in Washington, the building for which was provided by Pilgrim Society member Andrew Carnegie.

Bartlett, Edmund



Chairman Schroder’s Limited NY.

Bayne, Stephen F., Jr



Married Lucie Culver Gould in 1934, appeared on 1969 Pilgrims list. Possibly a bishop.

Beck, James M.



Graduated Moravian College in Bethlehem. After an apprenticeship in law he was admitted to the bar in 1884 and entered the law office of William F. Harrity, with whom he formed a law partnership in 1891. Admitted to the bar of New York City in 1903, and in 1922 to the bar of England, he rose to be one of America's leading corporate lawyers. Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1888-1892, United States Attorney 1896-1900, joined the New York law firm of Shearman and Sterling, continued his law practices in New York, Philadelphia and Washington until 1921, appointed Solicitor General of the U.S. 1921-1925. As a Congressman he was the leading spokesman in the campaign against Prohibition and he tried to fight the principles and legislation of the New Deal. Reelected three consecutive times, he resigned in 1934. Beck was one of the first Americans to make a case for the Entente, the alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to World War I. His most famous book, "The Constitution of the United States" (1924), sold over fifty thousand copies.

Bell, Elliott V.



Reporter for The New York Times when the great depression hit in 1929, trustee Brookings Institution, director of Chase Manhattan Bank, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1952-1964, director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1966, vice president and trustee John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 1965-1972, chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, editor and publisher Business Week.

Belmont, August, Jr.



He was a son of August Belmont, the Rothschild agent that funded the North during the American civil war. The younger August Belmont was an 1875 graduate of Harvard University, served as director of the National Park Bank, and was an avid thoroughbred racing fan (owned Man O'War, one of the most famous race horses). Following the United States' entry into World War I, Belmont, at age 65, volunteered to assist and was sent to France by the U.S. Army. His widow Eleanor Robson Belmont died at 100 in 1979.

Benkard, Franklin Bartlett



He was graduated in 1925 at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, with his A.B. degree. He was graduated in 1928 at Colombia Law School with his L.L.B. degree. Joined Kelly Drye Newhall & Maginnis, New York in 1925. He was made a partner with Kelly Drye & Warren in 1941. He was director and treasurer of the Julliard School of Music from 1941 to 1977. He was appointed Associate Government Appeal Agent in 1944 Government Appeal Agent in 1945. He was in the Coast Guard Reserve patrolling the docks in New Jersey at night. After 1950, he became active in Head of the Harbor and did much to presence the zoning regulations. He was director of the Midnight Mission Society (an organization who helped 'unfortunate girls' i.e. unwed mothers). He was a member of: The Century Association Knickerbocker Club Bar, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the American Bar Association, and the New York State Bar Association. Also a member of Holland Lodge No. 8 F. and A.M., the New York State Society of the Cincinnati, the Pilgrims of the United States, St Nicholas Society of the City of New York, and the Society of the Mayflower Descendants.

Bennet, Courtenay Walter



British Consul at New York in 1908.

Benton, William



Graduated from Yale University in 1921, part-time vice president of the University of Chicago 1937-1945, chairman Encyclopedia Britannica 1943-1973, assistant Secretary of State 1945-1947 (active in organizing the United Nations), Democrat senator 1949-1953, United States ambassador to (United Nations) UNESCO in Paris 1963-1968, trustee of University of Chicago, trustee of several schools and colleges.

Beresford, Charles William de la Poer



Baron. Became a Navy commander in 1875. Sat in Parliament as a Conservative 1875-1880. Bombarded Alexandria, Egypt in 1882. Aide-de-camp to the Prince of Wales 1875-1876. Accompanying him on a visit to India, became a close personal friend of King Edward VII. Again in Parliament 1885-1888 and resigned under protest, authored “The Break-up of China” (1899), his brother was Military Attaché at the British Embassy in Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1898-1903. In 1897 Beresford was promoted to rear-admiral and again entered Parliament, this time representing York. He retained this seat until 1900, although he spent much of his time in China representing the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and from 1900 onwards was second in command of the Mediterranean fleet. He returned to Parliament in 1902, this time for Woolwich, but resigned in 1906 when he was promoted to admiral and appointed chief of the Channel Fleet. He was in command of the Mediterranean Fleet from 1905 until 1907. The first Pilgrim dinner in New York was held in his honor.

Bernstein, Leonard



A well-known musical conductor, spoke these words about the 1963 Kennedy assassination on November 24, 1980, as written down by the Associated Press: "We don’t dare confront the implications. I think we’re all agreed there was a conspiracy and we don’t want to know. It involves such a powerful high force in what we call the high places, if we do know, everything might fall apart."

Biddle, David H.




Biddle, Francis Beverly



Secretary to Associate Justice O. W. Holmes 1912, became a successful corporation lawyer, chairman National Labor Relations Board 1934-1935, director Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 1938-1939, appellate judge National Labor Relations Board 1939-1940, Attorney General of U.S. 1941-1945, U.S. judge for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg 1945-1946.

Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr.



Attended the Saint Paul's School in New Hampshire and later Temple University, rose in rank from private to captain during WWI, Minister to Norway 1934-1937, Ambassador to Poland in 1937, deputy ambassador to France after the Germans started invading Poland, US Ambassador to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Greece, Luxembourg, and Yugoslavia, who were in exile in London (considered to be one of the most important jobs during WWII) 1941-1944, resumed active duty in the Army as a Lt. Colonel, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in 1951. During those years he worked closely with General Eisenhower as deputy chief of SHAEF and as a representative to EUCOM and SHAPE. The 1950s found Biddle serving as Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania, on numerous Pennsylvania state boards and commissions, and as a trustee at Temple University. In 1961 President John F. Kennedy chose Biddle for his last diplomatic position, that of Ambassador to Spain, where he served until his death.

Bigelow, Robert W.




Bingham, Robert Worth



A member of a North Carolina family of aristocratic pretensions. Robert Worth Bingham rose to great heights as a newspaper publisher, political leader, philanthropist, and ambassador to Great Britain (1933-1937), but his life is surrounded by controversy to this day. Charges that he contributed to the death of his second wife (the richest widow alive at the time - of magnate Henry Flagler), an heiress whose bequest of five million dollars helped purchase the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times, followed him to the grave. For three quarters of a century the history of the Bingham family of Louisville, Kentucky, has been one of tragedy and controversy as well as wealth, power, and prestige. The breakup of the Bingham dynasty in 1986, vividly chronicled on CBS television's "Sixty Minutes" generated a flurry of books and articles on Bingham and his family, much of it portraying Bingham as a villain. In some accounts, Bingham drove his first wife to suicide and gave syphilis to the second before murdering her to gain control of her inheritance. Member American Bar Association; Society of Colonial Wars; Society of the Cincinnati; Sons of the American Revolution; Alpha Tau Omega; Phi Beta Kappa.

Bingham, Thomas Henry



After the 1992 collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), Lord Bingham of Cornhill was appointed to head an official inquiry into why the Bank of England failed to find out about the massive drug laundering going on at this bank. Bingham and a U.S. Senate inquiry castigated the Bank of England for its failures of supervision, but didn't conclude anything was done on purpose. Bingham was a member of the Privy Council since 1986, chairman Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts since 1994, trustee Pilgrim Trust (founded by Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness in 1930), president Seckford Foundation, member Advisory Council on Public Records, the Magna Carta Trust and the British Records Association, Lord Chief Justice of Great Britain 1996-2000. In 2002 wanted to legalize Cannabis. Became a member of the Order of the Garter in 2005.

Bissell, Pelham Saint George



President of the Sons of the Revolution, council of the Society of Colonial Wars, past commander, American Legion, Judge Advocate, Veterans of Foreign Wars and member of the League of Nations, served on the legislative committee of the Citizens' Union, vice-chairman of the Mayor's Fraternal Committee in 1922, president Justice of the New York Municipal Court 1934-1943.

Black, Eugene Robert



Yale Phi Beta Kappa, officer in the U.S. Navy in the Atlantic during WWI, vice-president Chase National Bank, president Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta 1928-1934, chairman Federal Reserve System 1933-1934, president World Bank 1949-1962, member Council on Foreign Relations, visitor of Bilderberg, trustee Ford Foundation in 1967, chairman Brookings Institution 1962-1968.

Bobst, Elmer Holmes



Re-organizer and head of the The American Cancer Society beginning in 1944. Chairman of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical, CEO of the New Jersey pharmaceutical giant Warner Chilcott, and considered an architect of the modern pharmaceutical industry. He has also been the president of La Roche, a pharmaceutical company he admitted was involved in illegally selling morphine to the underworld. In the seventies, Pope John Paul II Center for Prayer and Study for Peace was located on his estate. Directors of this center were Kurt Waldheim (Secretary General of the United Nations, ex-nazi war criminal, friend of Arnold Schwarzenegger), Cyrus Vance (Secretary of State, Pilgrim) and J. Peter Grace (Pilgrim, head of the Knights of Malta in the United States). Bobst himself was a member of the Knights of Malta. Bobst once wrote to his close friend Richard Nixon (who started the 'War on Cancer' in 1971), "If this beloved country of ours ever falls apart, the blame rightly should be attributed to the malicious action of Jews." Bobst's granddaughters and great-granddaughters have accused him of sexually abusing them. All this didn't prevent that a huge library would be named after him.

Boron, Robert Lew




Boucher, Richard A.



He entered the Foreign Service in 1977. After studying Chinese, he served from 1979 to 1980 at the U.S. Consulate General in Guangzhou. In Washington he then worked in the State Department's Economic Bureau and on the China Desk, and returned to China with his wife from 1984 to 1986 as Deputy Principal Officer at the U.S. Consulate General in Shanghai. Upon his return to Washington in July 1986, he served as a Senior Watch Officer in the State Department's Operations Center. From August 1987 to March 1989, he worked as Deputy Director of the Office of European Security and Political Affairs. He started as Deputy Press Spokesman for the State Department under Secretary Baker in March 1989 and became Spokesman under Secretary Eagleburger in August 1992. Secretary Christopher asked him to continue as Spokesman until June 1993. United States Ambassador to Cyprus from 1993 to 1996. United States Consul General in Hong Kong 1996-1999. Spoke to the Asia Society on March 24, 1998. US Senior Official for APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, since July 1999. Spoke to the London Pilgrims on November 28, 2002. Has repeatedly condemned Israel's practice of killing terrorists and instead called for negotiations to settle the Palestinian-Israeli dispute. Supported the 2003 war against Iraq because it wasn't cooperating with the sactions. Member of the Bohemian Grove.

Brandi, Frederic H.



Father was a top coal executive in the German Steel Trust. Moved from Germany to the United States in 1926. CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. in the 1950s and 1960s, up until 1971. He was replaced by Nicholas Brady of the Bohemian Grove Mandalay camp at that time. Brandi was also a member of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay.

Brewster, Kingman, Jr.



Graduated from Yale in 1941, where he was chairman of the Yale Daily News. His junior year, he turned down an offer of membership in Skull and Bones. Brewster's first job in 1941 was as a special assistant in the governmental office of Nelson Rockefeller. In 1948, he received his law degree from Harvard Law School. After teaching at Harvard Law School from 1950 to 1960, he accepted the post of Provost at Yale, serving from 1960 to 1963. President of Yale from 1963 to 1977. His presidency was marked by the Black Panther trial and the admission of women as undergraduates. After leaving Yale, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James ( the United Kingdom) from 1977 to 1981 and later was Master of University College, Oxford, serving from 1986 until his death there in 1988. He was a member of the Century Association and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Brownlie, Ian G.M.



He graduated from St. Paul’s School in Garden City, N.Y., and the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey. In 1962, he earned an M.B.A. from NYU’s Business School. Brownlie served in the Marine Corps from 1954–56 and retired from the Marine Corps Reserve as a captain. Professionally, he worked in real estate, specializing in commercial leasing, beginning his career with Brown, Harris & Stevens and was later affiliated with the Joseph F. Bernstein Co. He became a principal with Wm. A. White & Sons, which became Wm. A. White/Tishman East and was subsequently sold to Grubb & Ellis. Brownlie was a member of the Gardiner’s Bay Country Club, Shelter Island Yacht Club, the Union League Club of New York, St. Anthony Hall of New York, Inc., and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was active in politics in the Village of Dering Harbor, Inc., serving in various capacities — trustee, deputy mayor, and mayor (1970–98).

Bryce, Viscount James



In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was President of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in 1905 he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, D.C. (until 1913) and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin, a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Augustine Birrell. Wrote a few books including "The American Commonwealth" (1888). In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed. Meanwhile his academic honours from home and foreign universities multiplied, and he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1894. In earlier life he was a notable mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899-1901 he was president of the Alpine Club. He was ennobled in 1914, becoming 1st Viscount Bryce. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord Bryce was appointed by Herbert Asquith to report on alleged German atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning of German behavior; Lord Bryce's reputation in America was important in influencing American opinion toward Germany before their entry into the war. Bryce was acquainted with the Vanderbilts, and had detailed documents about the 1915 Armenian extermination by the Turks. (Some have argued in the past century that these local tension were exploited by Grand Orient Masons, as to give the French Rothschilds unhampered access to the Baku oil fields.)

Bristol, Lee Hasting



Clergyman, vice-president (in 1932) and president of Bristol-Myers Inc., president of the Association of National Advertisers.

Brittain III, Alfred



Director Bankers Trust Company Director since 1966, chairman of the board of Bankers Trust New York Corporation and Bankers Trust Company 1975-1987, member of the Audit, Compensation and Corporate Employee Investment Committees, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Brittain, Sir Harry

co-founder & chairman


Educated at Repton and Worcester College, Oxford, where he obtained a BA and an MA in law. Called to the Bar in 1897 but only practiced for a week before retiring from law in favour of business and journalism. Worked on the staff of both the Standard and the Evening Standard. Co-founded the Pilgrims Society in London and New York in 1902 and 1903, and became the first chairman of the UK Pilgrims. Secretary to Sir C. Arthur Pearson, owner of the Evening Standard. Worked with Pearson in the formation of the Tariff Reform League in 1903. The aims of the Commission were to examine and report on Chamberlains's fiscal proposals and their probable effects on British trade and industries. Director of numerous daily and weekly newspapers and other business concerns. Founded the Empire Press Union in 1909, which became the Commonwealth Press Union in 1950. Members of the CPU are newspapers of which there are currently over 700 from 50 Commonwealth countries in membership. These are represented by their proprietors, senior executives and editors. The Union's aim is to uphold the ideas and values of the Commonwealth and to promote, through the Press, understanding and goodwill among its members. British representative on the American Citizens Emergency Committee in 1914, serving on a special mission throughout the USA in 1915. Staff member of General Lloyd as captain of the London Volunteer Regiment, 1916, as Director of Intelligence National Service Department, and as the founder and chairman of the American officers club in London, 1917-1919. Member of the Executive Committee of the Economic League, a very secretive organization which was was set up in 1919 to fight Bolshevism and kept files on thousands of 'subversives' until it was wound up in 1994. In today's money, they millions of pounds every year working against the British left. After the war he was the originator and honourary life member of the Association of American Correspondents in London, 1919 and the president of the Anglo-American delegation to Holland for the celebration of the Pilgrim Fathers tercentenary, 1920. President of the British International Association of Journalists 1920-1922. Patron of the Society of Women Writers and Journalists from 1925, and was the originator and organiser of the first Imperial Press Conference, 1932. He was a member of the Anglo-American Brains Trust, 1942-1944 and was awarded the Silver Medal of Merit and Diploma by the Poor Richard Club of Philadelphia for his lifelong services to Anglo-American fellowship and understanding in 1958. Conservative MP for Acton 1918-1929. Member of the executive of the Empire Parliamentary Association from 1919 to 1929. Steered the Brittain Act for the protection of British birds through Parliament in 1925. Member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association from 1929. Honorary president of Friends of Italy 1936-1939. Member of the central council of the Anglo-German Friendship Society (mirrored by the Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft), together with Lord Walter Runciman and Lord McGowan. The driving force behind this foundation, founded in 1935, was Ernest Tennant, a merchant banker and friend of the Nazis international PR man von Ribbentrop since 1932. The group soon gathered 50 members of the House of Commons and House of Lords, 3 Directors of the Bank of England and "many generals, admirals, bishops and bankers". Pilgrims Lord Lothian and Lord Londonderry were among its council member. After the 1938 'Kristallnacht' 19 member resigned, including its president, Lord Mount Temple (Louis Mountbatten's father-in-law). On the other hand, 888 members did not withdraw. In 1939 a book called 'Tory MP': "At meetings of the Anglo German Fellowship leading Nazis advertise the merits of Germany's internal and foreign policy; the society recommends and advertises the writings of Nazi politicians; it shows Fascist films; it arranges a "German educationalist" to address teachers in this country; it arranges invitations for its members to attend the Nazi congress at Nuremberg." In 1936 Harry Brittain, Admiral Domville, Mount Temple and Sir Frank and Lady Newnes were "Ehrengaste" (guests of honour) at the Nuremberg Rally. The day before the official opening a reception was held to enable them to meet Hitler and his chief officials. Brittain was an executive member of the Anti-Socialist Union. Amongst his other honours, he was created KBE for public services in 1918, and CMG in 1924. He was a founder of the Commonwealth Press Union, organized the first Imperial Press Conferences, a Knight of the British Empire, and had a journalistic scholarship named after him in 1960. Carlton Club. Executive of the Anti-Socialist Union; Executive Committee, Economic League; Honorary President of the Friends of Italy; member, Anglo-German Friendship Society; Tory MP.

Brown, Franklin Q.

exec. committee


Listed in Who’s Who as a mystery individual listing no date or place of birth, no marriage, and no educational background. Involved with Redmond & Corporation, director of American Beet Sugar Company, American Light & Traction Company, S.A.L. Railway Company, J.G. White Engineering Corporation, Lima Locomotive Works, M. & Salt Lake Railroad, Cuba Grapefruit Company, Central Westchester & Fairfield Realty Company, Excess Insurance Company, and Insurance Securities Company, National Surety Company, president of Dobbs Ferry Bank, president of Independent Chemical Company, United States Railroad Administration.

Bruce, David Kirpatrick Este



Anglican/Episcopalian. State House of Representatives Maryland 1924-1926. State House of Representatives Virginia 1939-1942. American Red Cross Chief Representative in Great Britain 1940. OSS Agent stationed in London where he worked with the Vatican 1941-1945. U.S. Ambassador France 1949-1952, Germany 1957-59, Great Britain 1961-69 and China 1973-1974. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976. Husband of Paul Mellon’s sister (richest woman in America at the time). Their daughter disappeared in 1967.

Bruce, James



In law of Paul Mellon and seems to be the brother of David K.E. Bruce, director National Dairy Products Corporation, director Federal Home Loan Bank of New York.

Bullock, Hugh



Son of Calvin Bullock who set up the very powerful Bullock banking trust (unique among large banking houses in that it was a proprietary business), which included the Canadian Investment Fund (one of the most powerful Canadian investment trusts in the thirties. People were joking why king George V hadn't joined), Nation-Wide Securities, Carriers & General Corp. and Dividend Shares. Calvin Bullock advertisements (father) never carry the firm's address and Calvin himself was quite reclusive. Calvin also had a lot of personal interest in Napoleon, Lord Nelson and their battles.

Burden, William A. Moale



Vice president of The Pilgrims at least in 1973, great great grandson of Commodore Vanderbilt, interests in National Aviation Corporation, Brown Brothers, Harriman & Company, William A.M. Burden & Company, investments; and was a director of Aerospace Corporation; Allied Chemical Corporation; American Metal Climax (AMAX); Columbia Broadcasting System; Lockheed Aircraft Corporation; Union Oil & Gas Corporation; Cerro de Pasco Corporation (mining interests) and Manufacturers Hanover Trust. Burden was a member of National Aeronautics & Space Council, 1958-1959; Ambassador to Belgium, 1959-1961; member U.S. Citizens Commission for NATO, 1961-1962; trustee Columbia University; Foreign Service Educational Foundation; French Institute in the U.S.; regent, Smithsonian Institution and director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1945-1974. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States. Burden was decorated by Brazil; Germany; Peru; France; Italy and Belgium, in which countries, we may reasonably assume, the Vanderbilts have holdings. Reflecting his partnership with the British Crown in reuniting America and Britain, he was also a director of the Atlantic Council, which goal it seeks! The Vanderbilts intermarried with the Whitneys, partners in Standard Oil with the Rockefellers, and we note as of late 1973 John Hay Whitney was a vice president of The Pilgrims. Virginia Fair, daughter of Senator James Fair of California, a principal beneficiary of the Ophir Silver Mine, part of the Comstock Lode, married into the Vanderbilts.

Burger, Warren Earl



Floor manager at the 1948 and 1952 Republican conventions, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in 1955, Supreme Court Chief Justice in 1969, former Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution's Board of Regents, More than 800 dignitaties, including President Clinton, Attorney General Janet Reno and 13 sitting and retired Supreme Court justices attended the funeral services at Washington's National Presbyterian.

Burleigh, George W.



Lived from the second half of the 19th century until the first half of the 20th century in the New York area.

Burnham, Lord Edward Levy-Lawson



Jewish and a member of the B'naï B'rith. His father acquired the Daily Telegraph and Courier in 1855, a few months after it was founded by Colonel Sleigh. Edward Burnham became the co-editor of the newspaper from 1855 to 1873 and later took the paper itself. The Daily Telegraph is now owned by Conrad Black's Hollinger Group.

Burns, Arthur Frank



Born in Stanislau, Austria, earned all his degrees at Columbia University and did all his teaching there, economic adviser to president Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, chairman of the Federal Reserve System 1970-1978, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bush, Irving T.



Started to construct a 200 acre industrial park on the waterfront in Brooklyn in 1900, founder of the Bush Terminal Railroad, president of Bush Terminal Co., attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. He ordered the building of the London Bush House in 1919, which became the most expensive building at that time. It was meant to be an Anglo-American trade centre where buyers could purchase goods in one place. It lost it's original function after a few decades, but still exists today as an office to the BBC World Service. The main entrance is very grand, with two statues and four big columns reaching half the height of the nine-story building. Inscribed above the doors is the legend "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples". Two statues symbolise Great Britain and America, they each hold a flaming torch and a shield which have the British lion and the American eagle on them. In between the statues is an altar embossed with a Celtic cross. Irving T. Bush has no known relation to the Presidential Bushes.

Butler, Nicholas Murray



Butler earned an A.B (1882), M.A. (1883) and Ph.D. (1884), all in philosophy, at Columbia, specializing in the writings of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He studied for a year at the universities of Berlin and Paris. Became a staff member of the Department of Philosophy at Columbia College, later known as Columbia University. In 1882, Nicholas Murray Butler was appointed by Columbia president Henry Barnard to offer Saturday lectures for teachers. The turnout was enormous. Member New Jersey Board of Education from 1887 to 1895. Delegate to the Republican Convention 1888-1936. In 1891 Butler founded the Educational Review, a journal of educational philosophies and developments. He served as its editor until 1921. Organized the New York College for the Training of Teachers in 1892, affiliated with Columbia. Chairman the Paterson school 1892-1893. In these roles he led efforts to remove state political interference from local New Jersey school systems. In New York City, he did the same, spurring the creation of a citywide school board that emphasized professionalism and policy over political spoils (1895–1897). When New York City's consolidation was complete, New York State sought a similar reform with Butler's advice, completed in 1904. Participated in the formation of the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. Had become a close friend of Pilgrims Society member Elihu Root by this time. President of Columbia University 1901-1945. Professor Carroll Quigley wrote in 'Tragedy and Hope': "J.P. Morgan and his associates were the most significant figures in policy making at Harvard, Columbia and Yale while the Whitneys and Prudential Insurance Company dominated Princeton. The chief officials of these universities were beholden to these financial powers and usually owed their jobs to them... Morgan himself helped make Nicholas Murray Butler president of Columbia." Robert A. McCaughey wrote in 'Stand Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, 1754–2004': "A compulsive name-dropper given to self-puffery, Butler was nevertheless an effective administrator [of Columbia], and J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and E. H. Harriman sought to hire him to run their enterprises." Butler held the presidency in some of their railroad companies. President of the Germanistic Society of Columbia University in 1905-1906 and a director from 1908-1917. It organized and sponsored lecture series for German scholars in the United States. Travelled to Europe on occasion where he met with Kaiser Wilhelm and Mussolini in his early fascist days. Quote from the 1973 book 'The Glory and the Dream, a Narrative History of America, 1932-1972', by William Manchester, pages 67-68: "Nicholas Murray Butler told his students that totalitarian regimes brought forth "men of far greater intelligence, far stronger character, and far more courage than the system of elections," and if anyone represented the American establishment then it was Dr. Butler, with his 34 honorary degrees, and his thirty year tenure as president of Columbia University." (quoted by Charles Savoie) Supposedly Butler agreed with some of the Nazi racial theories about the superiority of the Teuton race. Another quote attributed to him is: "The history of American education and of our American contributions to philosophical thought cannot be understood or estimated with[out] knowing of the life work of Dr. William Torrey Harris." Harris, a supporter of Emmanuel Kant and Georg Hegel, shaped modern American education to a large degree. He also was highly influential in popularizing Hegel's philosophies in the second half of the 19th century. Established a friendship with Governor Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century. President University Settlement Society 1905-1914. Became a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1905. President American Academy in Rome 1905-1940s. President of the American branch of International Conciliation, an organization founded in 1905 by a Nobel peace laureate, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant (from an "old aristocratic family which traced its genealogy back to the Crusades", whatever that means). Chairman of the Lake Mohonk Conferences on International Arbitration, which met periodically from 1907 to 1912. President American Scandinavian Society 1908-1911. Influential in persuading Andrew Carnegie (a Pilgrims member, Hegelian, and Social Darwinist) to establish the Endowment in 1910 with a gift of $10,000,000 he served as head of the Endowment's section on international education and communication, founded the European branch of the Endowment, with headquarters in Paris, and held the presidency of the parent Endowment from 1925 to 1945. In 1912, Roosevelt ran for the presidency as the candidate of the Progressive Party, which drew most of its strength from Republicans, against the nominees of the constituted party: Taft for the presidency and Butler for the vice-presidency. By splitting the national vote, they permitted the Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to win the election. President France-America Society 1914-1924. Nicholas Murray Butler, in an address delivered before the Union League of Philadelphia, Nov. 27, 1915: "The peace conference has assembled. It will make the most momentous decisions in history, and upon these decisions will rest the stability of the new world order and the future peace of the world." Both Nicholas Murray Butler and Elihu Root were staunch supporters of the League of Nations that would emerge after WWI. In 1916 Butler failed in his attempt to secure the Republican presidential nomination for Root. President American Hellenic Society 1917-1940s. William Bostock paper (University of Tasmania), 'To the limits of acceptability: political control of higher education' (2002): "On October 8, 1917, the famous historian Charles A. Beard resigned from Columbia University in protest over the dismissal of two colleagues, Professors Cattell and Dana, for having publicly opposed the entry of the United States into World War I. Cattell and Dana urged opposition to the draft, incurring the censure of Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler and the Columbia Board of Trustees. There had also been a history of conflict over academic leadership and governance between Butler and Cattell, a distinguished psychologist." Michael Parenti, 'Against Empire' (1995), chapter 10: "A leading historian, Charles Beard, was grilled by the Columbia University trustees, who were concerned that his views might "inculcate disrespect for American institutions." In disgust Beard resigned from Columbia, declaring that the trustees and Nicholas Murray Butler sought "to drive out or humiliate or terrorize every man who held progressive, liberal, or unconventional views on political matters." Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1920. During the 1920s Butler was a member of the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, chaired by Thomas W. Lamont, a Rockefeller banker and Pilgrims Society member. John D. Rockefeller, Sr. once wrote a public letter to Butler explaining why he supported the prohibition movement. According to Richard Koudenhove-Kalergi in his 1958 book 'Eine Idee erobert Europa. Meine Lebenserinnerungen' (translated): "One of my most energetic American friends and patrons was the president of the Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler, the president of the Carnegie Endowment at the same time. He wrote the foreword to the American edition of Paneuropa." Kalergi's Paneuropa movement was set up and funded by Max Warburg and Louis Rothschild in 1923. Paul and Felix Warburg were promoting the movement in the United States and Rothschild-ally Leopold S. Amery was a major supporter from the United Kingdom. Stephen P. Duggan, the CFR director and co-founder of the Institute for International Education, became the president of the American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union (he held this position from 1925 to 1940). In 1927 Butler assisted the U.S. State Department in developing the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1928. President of the Pilgrims Society 1928-1946. Visitor of the Bohemian Grove and an honorary member by 1929. Butler gave the core members of the Frankfurt School’s Institute for Social Research a home in exile at Columbia University in 1934. These people were supporters of Georg Hegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber. Among these people was Herbert Marcuse, a Jewish Marxist Hegelian, who became the 'father of the New Left' in the 1960s. President Italy-America Society 1929-1935. Director of the New York Life Insurance Corporation 1929-1939. Nobel Peace Prize 1931. Received a gold medal from the National Institute of Social Sciences at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in 1932, together with J.P. Morgan. On November 19, 1937, Butler attended a meeting where Pilgrims Society member Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, received a Nobel Prize for his work in establishing the League of Nations. Both Butler and Lord Cecil held speeches about the role the League of Nations should have. Although it is only a rumor, Butler is supposed to have said at this meeting (in private) that communism was a tool of the British financial powers to knock down national governments and to bring about a world government in the future. Chairman Carnegie Corporation of New York 1937-1945. Vice-president International Benjamin Franklin Society in 1939. Governor Pan American Trade Committee in 1939. Governor of the Metropolitan Club, founded by J.P. Morgan in 1891, and which counted among its members two Vanderbilts, three Mellons, five Du Ponts, and six Roosevelts. He was a governor Honorary president American Society of French Legion of Honor from 1944 on. Decorated by China, France, Dominican, Republic, Cuba, Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Poland, Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Holland, Chile and other countries. Quigley has quoted Butler as saying "The world is divided in to three classes of people: a very small group that makes things happen, a somewhat larger group that watches things happen, and the great multitude which never knows what happened."