Judith H. Young, Ph.D.
04 October 2008
Comment: The author's faith in
the human spirit is justified when speaking of normal people. And
the normal people may yet triumph after much suffering, which at
this point looks inevitable.
But even should the normal population
eventually triumph, they must be ever on guard against that
psychopathic 6% of the population perennially testing for society's
weak spots. Knowledge, such as contained in Dr.
Ponerology, is the only protection.
Judith H. Young, Ph.D., has a B.A. and
an M.A. in Philosophy and a doctorate in Political Science (Brandeis
University, 1973). In the 1960s she was a published think tank researcher
with a Top Secret security clearance in the areas of arms control, strategic
studies and international aerospace activities.
In 1973-74 she taught International Politics at Mount Holyoke University in
In the 1990s Judy became a practitioner and teacher in several venerable
healing arts, including animal-assisted therapy and traditional Reiki. She
founded a nonprofit animal and nature center dedicated to promoting the
healthy development of children and youth, which she directed from
1994-2004, and she published widely in the field of equine-assisted
activities and ecotherapy.
After the shocking events of 9/11/2001, Judy
returned to her earlier vocation as a writer and educator in the field of
International Politics, while also maintaining a professional practice in
complementary and alternative healing.
Part I - Brute Force, The
Power to Hurt, and Psychological Control
04 October 2008
In the aftermath of Congressional approval of
bailout legislation granting sweeping powers to the financial elite, the
body politic appears to be helplessly mired in the relentless unfolding of
classical fascism before its very eyes.
Coming to terms with this terrifying predicament can benefit from a primer
that renders naked the forms of raw power used by the global elite in
advancing its agenda for full spectrum dominance.
This will enable us to
determine if we are in fact helpless and to use care and deliberation in
finding the means to take our power back.
In his seminal book
Arms and Influence, Thomas C. Schelling
addresses the comparative efficacy of brute force and the power to hurt in
influencing or controlling others.1
A classic example is the application of American
power to achieve the unconditional surrender of Japan in World War II:
continuing to use brute force to overcome Japanese military forces and
occupy Japan (as the Allied Forces had done in Germany) was deemed far more
cumbersome than terrorizing the Japanese through the use of atomic bombs
against two civilian targets. This use of the power to hurt, with the
implicit threat of its further use on a wider basis, got virtually immediate
The application of these two sources of power by the power elite is not hard
With respect to brute force, it is no secret that the US military
has been training and arming state and local law enforcement across the
country, including supplying some of the same weaponry used in a war zone
against an external opponent. Even more alarming, the 3rd Infantry
Division's 1st Brigade Combat Team Unit, fresh from action in Iraq and
having access to both lethal and non-lethal weapons, including tanks, has
recently been assigned to a 12 month tour of duty for domestic security
Regarding the power to hurt, as the populace witnesses the official
acceptance of torture, as well as the increasing brutalization of ordinary
citizens (e.g., the use of taser guns to inflict massive electrical shock
and even death), it inevitably adopts a mode of self-protective retrenchment
In a pervasive climate of fear, protest and dissidence become less and less
likely, and the march to a full-blown police state is thereby facilitated.
Among the most blatant applications of the power to hurt, used as a form of
terrorist manipulation, have been the elite's obscene threats of a massive
nationwide martial law in the service of its bailout
But in addition to brute force and the power to hurt,
the elite uses another
form of power that is chilling in its efficacy: sophisticated techniques for
controlling information and, more generally, for controlling the perceptions
and behavior of the populace through mental and emotional manipulation of
the very reality it experiences.
Elite control of the media extends beyond manipulating the news that the
public receives to molding public opinion and behavior by means of media
advertising and entertainment. Examples range from sponsorship of the TV
show 24, which attempts to legitimize "enhanced interrogation techniques"
(the sanitized phrase for torture), to manipulative TV commercials showing
stars cheerfully accepting personal identification technology that smacks of
The elite cabal exploits its control over media
and entertainment to keep the public misled, distracted and ultimately
imprisoned in a matrix of disinformation, rampant consumerism and the lowest
common denominators of human nature, including raw violence and mindless
In a renowned speech given in Berkeley in 1962, British writer Aldous
Huxley contrasted his dystopic novel
Brave New World
with George Orwell's novel
1984, written just after the collapse
of the Hitlerian terror regime and while the Stalinist terror regime was
still in full swing.3
In Huxley's view, 1984 was,
"a projection into the future of a society
where control was exercised wholly by terrorism and violent attacks upon
the mind-body of individuals," whereas his own novel addressed "other
methods of control... probably a good deal more efficient."
"We are in process of developing a whole
series of techniques which will enable the controlling oligarchy... to
get people to love their servitude.... There seems to be a general
movement in the direction of this kind of... a method of control by which
a people can be made to enjoy a state of affairs by which any decent
standard they ought not to enjoy."
Huxley's concerns about the newly available
non-terrorist techniques for,
"inducing people to love their servitude"
were echoed by Nobel Prize winner
Bertrand Russell, who predicted that as
a result of the gradual and ruthless use of technological advances, "a
revolt of the plebs would be as unthinkable as an organized insurrection
of sheep against the practice of eating mutton."4
A powerful form of psychological control used by
the global elite is to induce widespread depression stemming from a feeling
of futility or helplessness.
This brings to mind the famous quote from Thoreau that most humans live,
"lives of quiet desperation," which he
elaborated on by stating that "what is called resignation is confirmed
It also brings to mind the concept in clinical psychology
known as 'learned helplessness'.
The phenomenon of
learned helplessness was discovered through psychological
experiments in 1967 by Martin Seligman and Steve Maier. A
group of harnessed dogs was given painful electric shocks, which they could
end by pressing a lever. Another group received shocks of identical
intensity and duration without a means to stop them.
The dogs who could stop the pain recovered from
the experience quickly, but those who could not learned that they were
helpless and exhibited symptoms similar to chronic clinical depression: when
they were put in a shuttle-box apparatus in which they could escape electric
shocks by jumping over a low partition, most of the dogs just lay down
passively and whined rather than trying to escape the shocks.5
Another powerful from of elitist mind control is to create dependency on
authority figures through "shock and awe" techniques. In her brilliant work
the "shock doctrine" of Disaster Capitalism, Naomi Klein argues
that it is the knowledge of human nature gained through the application of
torture techniques by intelligence agencies that has infused the broader
mind control strategies of the disaster capitalists.6
In the CIA's basic interrogation manual declassified in 1963, for example, a
window of opportunity is highlighted in which torture reduces its victim to
a state of traumatized disorientation and childlike regression, creating an
opening for the interrogator to be transformed into a protective father
This is one of the classic tactics of tyrants across the planet.
In the view of Klein and others, it was used
after the shock of
9/11 to create a national lens of perception within the
overall control matrix, a kind of template to be used by the mind to
reflexively process all relevant concepts in terms of the 'war on terror'.
Klein sees the solution as contained in the problem: as we gain awareness of
the same pattern playing out again and again, we can become prepared for the
next shock and its exploitation by disaster Capitalists:
"If we understand how our states of shock
are exploited, if we can recognize the signs, then the next time there
is a crisis (and it can be
an economic crisis)... then when the next
shock hits we can prepare."
"I have a quote... from
Milton Friedman, who says that only a crisis,
actual or perceived, produces real change, and... when the crisis hits,
the change depends on the ideas that are lying around. So it's not just
about recognizing a pattern; it's also about having your [reformist]
ideas lying around when the next shock hits."
NAOMI KLEIN & KEITH OLBERMANN EXPLAIN "THE SHOCK
Despite the apparent setback of the new bailout
legislation, I share Klein's confidence in our ability to overturn the
psychological impairments resulting from shock and awe tactics.
generally, I am optimistic about reversing the spectrum of impairments
grouped here under the rubric of psychological control. Even cases of severe
mental disorders induced by the horrific CIA
mind control program known an
MK Ultra have been healed, in a benevolent use of a technique
known as reverse engineering.
As a practitioner in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM),
I have become personally familiar with extraordinary new techniques for
healing previously intractable syndromes such as learned helplessness and
war-induced post-traumatic stress disorder.
As an educator who has worked with children and adults with cognitive
disabilities, I have seen next to miraculous results from the innovative
methods now available.
And, finally, as a human being who reveres the human spirit and its
perennial indomitability, I refuse to believe that a small cabal of beings
solely in service to self will ever be able to take over the minds and souls
As our best minds address the hair raising elitist victory represented by
the bailout legislation, I encourage their deconstructing just how this
criminality managed to succeed by tracing its origins in history in terms of
the threefold model of power given in this article. In my own view, the
current crisis is a crisis in the Chinese sense of the term, i.e., an
opportunity in disguise.
Because the crisis is rightly perceived as a
conflict between Wall Street and Main Street, as an
incongruence between the actions of government and the political will and
best interest of its constituents, and more generally as a power grab by
authoritarian capitalism that is in full daylight for all to examine, it is
an opportunity like no other for educating the populace. It is an
opportunity like no other to awaken and educate the people so they are no
longer sitting ducks for the three forms of power delineated in this
Especially the third: history abounds with
examples of how the first two forms of power lose their hold, indeed in many
cases back off, when confronted with a people who value the quality of life
over life on any terms, a people who will go to any lengths to protect their
basic rights as human beings.
It is that spirit that infused the birth and early life of our Republic.
am betting that it is still alive and well in America.
1. Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and
Influence, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1966
2. Gina Cavallaro, "Brigade homeland tours start Oct. 1," the Army
Times, September 30, 2008.
4. Bertrand Russell, The Impact of Science on Society, Simon and
Schuster, New York, 1953, pp. 49-50
5. Christopher Peterson, Steven F. Maier, and Martin E. P. Seligman,
Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control,
Oxford University Press, USA, 1995
6. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism,
Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt & Company, New York 2007, passim.
Part II: States of Mental Disempowerment
21 October 2008
In Part I of "Deconstructing the Power of the Global Elite," I discussed a
threefold model of power:
Power to Hurt
In Part II, I will address several forms of
psychological control designed to induce states of mind that are inherently
disempowering, that eliminate or severely diminish our will to take
corrective action in the face of grievous harm.
As stated in a famous quote from
Henry David Thoreau, the mass of men
live lives of quiet desperation, marked by a state of resignation which is
This phenomenon, which is so antithetical to the
joyful natural instincts of newborns, has not come about by accident, but
rather through the careful crafting of a cold-blooded global oligarchy.
An oligarchy whose insidiousness calls to mind
an ancient story in which a perfect murder is committed by Brak the ice man,
who kills a woman with an icicle dagger: both he and his weapon melt away in
the next day's sun, leaving nothing behind as a basis for prosecuting the
For in addition to brute force and the power to hurt, the global elite uses
another form of power that is as stealth like and chilling as Brak's perfect
crime: sophisticated techniques for psychological control stemming in large
part from the ability to mold the perceptions and behavior of the populace
through mental and emotional manipulation of the very reality it
As observed by
Aldous Huxley in 1962 in
explaining his novel Brave New World, these are methods of control
"probably a good deal more efficient" than
control "exercised wholly by terrorism and violent attacks upon the
mind-body of individuals." 1
Although it would take volumes to do justice to
deconstructing the crimes against the human spirit perpetrated by the
globalists, I will here attempt to expose several of their common themes:
In my view, if we explore the ways these
states of mind disempower us, they will be stripped of their disabling
mystique and reveal the very ways they can be neutralized.
This truth is stated well by Jungian Analyst and
Clarissa Pinkola Estés in discussing the core agenda of
terrorists, that of casting a net of mental poison over their victims by
trying to deprive them of hope - by trying to limit their living life as a
completely free person focused on goodness, love, peace, and happiness:
"How strongly that poisonous net holds when
one is unaware of what it is made of, and how easily it falls apart when
one consciously begins to contradict its malicious urgings." 2
Normalizing the Abnormal
Dr. Estés observes that the disorder
of normalizing the abnormal is rampant across cultures. When there are
formidable punishments for breaking silence, for pointing out wrongs, for
demanding change, we cut away our rightful rage and become used to not being
able to intervene in shocking events. Despair, fatigue and resignation
Normalization of the abnormal has been achieved in large part through the
power elite's control of the news media and entertainment. This dominance
has permitted not only deciding the "information" the public is allowed to
receive, but also the molding of public opinion and behavior.
One example is sponsorship of the TV show 24,
carefully designed to desensitize the viewers to the use of torture. Another
is the use of TV commercials showing stars cheerfully endorsing invasive
personal identification technology, as part of a carefully designed program
for grooming us to accept Big Brother surveillance and control, including
the eventual implantation of microchips under our skin.
The power elite goes to any lengths to keep the public misled, distracted,
fearful, and ultimately imprisoned in a matrix of disinformation, rampant
consumerism and the lowest common denominators of human nature, including
raw violence and mindless sexuality.
As Huxley observed in 1962, the controlling
oligarchy has long been at work developing scientific methods of control to,
"induce people to love their servitude" - to
make them "enjoy a state of affairs which by any decent standard they
ought not to enjoy." 4
This dystopic scenario was echoed by Bertrand
Russell, who predicted that as a result of the gradual and ruthless use of
"a revolt of the plebs would be as
unthinkable as an organized insurrection of sheep against the practice
of eating mutton." 5
I would contend that the disorder of normalizing
the abnormal consists in large measure of reshaping our very construct of
human nature in terms of its basest parameters, especially in the areas of
acquisitiveness, violence, and sexuality.
Massive effort has gone into studying and
modifying human behavior to serve the global elite's greed for money and
power. The modern consumer is not reflective of genuine human nature, but
rather a phenomenon created in great part by the psychoanalytic studies,
experiments and recommendations of the brilliant capitalist asset
The widespread aberration of a dumbed down
populace, unaware and largely uncaring regarding its destiny, has taken
years of careful elitist effort to orchestrate. And the disgusting extremes
of human sexual behaviors that are fast approaching the excesses of the
infamous last days of the Roman Empire are similarly a product of diligently
researched scientific techniques of psychological and social control.
It is terrifying but essential to come into awareness that it is in great
part the knowledge of human nature gained through the application of torture
techniques by intelligence agencies that has infused the broader mind
control strategies of the ruling class. More generally, its control
techniques have evolved in large measure from "black" psychological
operations (psyops) that are carefully compartmentalized and hidden from our
bone fide representatives in all three branches of government.
Many of the current mind control techniques have
been derived from barbaric projects secretly conducted by governments,
private laboratories and universities. In his 2000 book titled
Controllers, Dr. Armen Victorian used the Freedom of
Information Act to document experiments by the CIA and other
agencies exploring new forms of "non-lethal" weapons which exploited
hospital patients, pregnant women, school children, prisoners and military
veterans without their consent.
Other extremely dangerous experiments, including
nuclear radiation experiments, have been conducted on an unsuspecting public
at large, and even on our troops in Iraq and Afghanistan.6
The phenomenon of normalizing the abnormal was given experimental validation
in the 1970s through controlled studies with groups of dogs. The experiments
revealed a great deal about the innate flight or fight reactions to danger
and indicated that self-protective instincts can be overridden by inducing
In one experiment the bottoms of cages were
wired to produce a shock on one side only, resulting in the expected
avoidance behaviors; then the entire floors of the cages were wired to give
random shocks, resulting in confusion, then panic, and then just lying down
in resignation, taking the shocks as they came and no longer trying to avoid
or outsmart them.
Next the cage doors were opened, but the dogs
did not move to escape as expected, leading to the hypothesis that they had
adapted to or "normalized" their pain and were consequently exhibiting
symptoms similar to chronic clinical depression.7
Learned helplessness manifests in everyday situations or environments in
which people perceive, rightly or wrongly, that they have no control over
what happens to them, e.g., war, famine, or detention (those who refused to
care or fend for themselves in the Nazi concentration camps were called
When the instincts for self-determination are injured, as
observed by Dr. Estés, humans will 'normalize' assault after assault, acts
of injustice and destruction toward themselves, their offspring, their loved
ones, their land, and even their moral and spiritual values.8
The electroshock of the dogs in the learned helplessness experiments has, as
Naomi Klein documents, been copied on a societal level by the
financial oligarchy. The capitalist elite shocks a nation with an event like
9/11, and in the ensuing stage of confusion and panic rushes in with
salvation in the form of protective father figures who provide a narrative
on the shocking events that allows the profoundly disoriented victims to
make sense of the trauma.9
Hence the extraordinary power of the mind
control matrix known as the
But what is learned can be unlearned; what has been forgotten can be
relearned. Especially in the case of our inherent instincts of preservation,
we can engage in forensic analysis with a view to restoring the natural
skills that give us power:
[The] normalizing of the shocking and
abusive is refused by repairing injured instinct.... To re-learn the
deep... instincts, it is vital to see how they were decommissioned to
begin with.... [We compose] a map of the woods in which we live, and
where the predators live, and what their modus operandi is.... [Then] if
our wild nature has been injured by something, we refuse to lie down to
die. We refuse to normalize this harm. We call up our instincts and do
what we have to do."10
Klein demonstrates a similar optimism:
"Once the mechanics of the shock doctrine
are deeply and collectively understood, whole communities become harder
to take by surprise, more difficult to confuse - shock resistant."11
The Betwixt and Between Syndrome
The relentless march toward tyranny in the United States and other nations
with a heritage of freedom, underscored by the blatant criminality of the
recent bailout package implemented against the political will and interest
of the populace, seems to portend a terrifying future for humanity. It
leaves us in a no man's land between the familiarity of our previous reality
and the uncharted dangers lying ahead.
This loss of bearings should be seen as a form of psychological control by
the globalists over the populace for two reasons.
First, it is a situation
they have engineered, and engineered in such a way as to serve their
Second, our fear of a destiny they have designed for us keeps
us from exercising our full potential of actively opposing its unfolding.
At a time of the implementation of what can only
be perceived as their endgame, we find ourselves floundering and cut off
from our inner fire.
Humans have an instinctive fear of the unknown, which is exacerbated if
trends indicate an unknown that is negative rather than positive. In the
present case the unknown seems to be characterized by the probability of
enormous global destabilization, with massive suffering in store for the
populace. Although the world as we have known it is far from acceptable, the
horizon appears quite possibly unbearable - hence the phrase "looking into
the abyss" used recently by a number of analysts.
This makes the betwixt and between predicament more difficult to navigate
than it would be in less extreme situations, such as adolescence as a normal
and predictable transition from childhood to maturity.
Another exacerbation is the endless onslaught of
crises that the oligarchy orchestrates in order to keep us in a state of
continual disorientation, seemingly unable to process one trauma before the
next one hits.
But as in the case of normalizing the abnormal and learned helplessness, the
solution lies in keen understanding of the problem. Once we dissect the
betwixt and between predicament, a predicament that all of us have
experienced and navigated in our personal lives but may well not have
recognized and named as such, our fear will lose its hold and we can reclaim
The betwixt and between predicament occurs whenever we are forced to revise
our previous sense of self and reality, and are required to remain in a zone
of unfamiliarity, disorientation and loss of control until a new set of
truths emerges and is integrated.
All of us have faced this predicament again and
again in our lives, e.g., during the teen years, after a major loss, and in
our daily lives when our personal growth process entails the death of old
aspects of the self and the birth of new ones. Even transitions that one
welcomes gladly, such as marriage, a better job, or moving, are in fact
highly stressful because of their magnitude.
Anthropological insights on initiations and rites of passage have much to
teach us regarding the betwixt and between phenomenon.
Rites of transition are marked by distinct
(although often overlapping) stages:
Separation: a detachment or departure
from a previous state, whose familiarity provided a sense of
Marginality/Ambiguity: entering the
margin between the former and the new state of being, not quite here
but not quite there, having lost the security of familiar boundaries
and facing disorientation
Consummation: a culmination in which one
integrates a new state of being and sense of self...12
In a classic essay on the betwixt and between
Victor Turner observes that the transition from separation to
ambiguity is marked by temporary invisibility: one cannot be classified
either in the old or the new way and is therefore structurally invisible.13
This goes a long way in explaining the fear that marks major transitions and
The good news is that, as with the process of grieving, there is a
well-charted process by which we can move from the frightening state of
ambiguity and achieve a new equilibrium: a new equilibrium that is in fact
healthier and more resilient because it is based on full awareness of the
truth of things. It is less painful to accept the need for change than to
stay in denial.
Indeed, as the renowned mythologist
Campbell stresses, there is great dignity in answering the call to
heroism, a call that is now sounding to all of humanity.
The good news goes further: Turner and others in fact see potential gifts in
the betwixt and between ambiguity that is so emotionally difficult. The
inability to classify oneself, while one is in the stage of uncertainty and
not-knowing, is also freedom to explore new ways of constructing reality and
identity. The stage of ambiguity can become one of enormous creativity and
fertility as we move to a new reality that we ourselves construct.
It is vital to keep this awareness as we face and oppose the unfolding of
the financial elite's endgame of cementing its global control through
current economic crises and so-called solutions it has itself engineered.
As an advancing power nears its goal of full
spectrum dominance, its crimes break the surface for all to witness, as
evidenced by the audacity of the corporatocracy in forcing the passage of
the bailout package and in its brazenly self-serving implementation.
Our Republic was not always ignorant and apathetic in the face of such
criminality. In reaction to an offer in 1905 of a $100,000 donation by
D. Rockefeller for the missionary work of the U.S. Congregationalist Church,
its most eminent leader asked,
"Is this clean money? Can any man, can any
institution, knowing its origins, touch it without being defiled?"
The Reverend Washington Gladdington,
echoing the prevalent outlook of the era, berated the accumulation of wealth
on every side,
"by methods as heartless, as cynically
iniquitous as any that were employed by the Roman plunderers or robber
barons of the Dark Ages. In the cool brutality with which properties are
wrecked, securities destroyed, and people by the hundreds robbed of
their little, all to build up the fortunes of the multi-millionaires, we
have an appalling revelation of the kind of monster a human being may
No longer can the oligarchs use the
insidiousness of the iceman Brak to further their agenda. And longer do we
need to allow them to disempower us through technocratic techniques
of psychological control. The efficacy of these techniques has stemmed in
great measure from our internalization of oppression, a process we can work
to reverse once we understand it.
The technocrats would have us believe we are helpless to join battle. We are
I support this optimistic claim with a comment
on Part I of my deconstruction of the power of the global elite, which
serves as a powerful ending to end Part ll:
"I for one have been subjected to much of
this torture as being part of a marginalized class of society. The
criminal global elites like to practice their abuse experiments on the
less fortunate that cannot defend themselves and offer any resistance,
but as the author so rightly observed the human spirit is indomitable
and will not go quietly into the night.
Excellent job in exposing these
psychological crimes for what they are. When people start realizing they
were once human beings and hate what the behavioral criminals are doing,
we can stop this learned helplessness and say with Patrick Henry, 'Give
me Liberty or give me death'."15
2. Clarissa Pinkola Estés, "An Open letter: Healing from Terrorism
Sickness," September 15, 2001, p.3.
3. Estés, Women Who Run With the Wolves, Ballantine Books, New York,
1992, p. 244.
5. Bertrand Russell, The Impact of Science on Society, Simon and
Schuster, New York, 1953, pp. 49-50.
6. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism,
Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt & Company, New York 2007, passim.; Dr.
Armen Victorian, The Mind Controllers, Lewis International, Inc., Miami,
2000; Colin A. Ross, The CIA Doctors: Human Rights Violations by
American Psychiatrists, 2006.
This phenomenon brings to mind another form of disempowerment that
afflicts freedom fighters and others who see all too clearly the
abnormal and grotesque nature of the oligarchy's evil: the evil is so
horrific to those with an open eye that they recoil utterly. There is a
powerful Latin phrase for phenomena (such as incest) that are so far
outside the archetypal realm of acceptability that they fall under a
special category: "contra naturum."
The power elite's audacity is indeed opposed
to the very laws of nature. Rather than allowing our disbelief and
horror to disable us, including our horror over dehumanization efforts
that attempt to degrade the majesty of the human species, we must find
the outrage needed to confront and eradicate it as an evil that is so
aberrational as to be itself sub-human.
7. Estés, Women Who Run With the Wolves, p.244.
8. Ibid., p. 246.
9. Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, p. 458;
Keith Olbermann interview with Naomi Klein: "Iraq Is the Classic Example
of The Shock Doctrine" [Video] December 2, 2007
10. Estés, Women Who Run With the Wolves, p. 252-53.
11. Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, p. 459.
12. Victor Turner, in Stanislov Grof, ed., Spiritual Emergency, Jeremy
P. Tarcher, New York, 1989.
14. Peter Collier and David Horowitz, The Rockefellers: An American
Dynasty, Holt, Reinhart and Winston, New York, 1976, p. 3.
15. See Keepers of the Trust community on the author's website