Tuesday, September 09, 1997 10:20:09 AM

Patent Pending

The Life Assessment Detector System (LADS), a microwave Doppler
movement measuring device, can detect human body surface motion,
including heartbeat and respiration, at ranges up to 135 feet
(41.15 meters). The primary function of the LADS is to provide a
reliable method by which medical and emergency personnel can
locate personnel buried in building collapses or injured on the
military battlefield.

LADS can detect such signs of life as movement, heartbeat, or

** NOTE: The referenced image of the LADS device is no longer
available at the web site.  What it showed
was mainly a small dish antenna mounted on the top of a tripod.
(August 9, 1998)

Originally designed to detect heartbeat and respiration of military
personnel wearing chemical-biological warfare protective
overgarments, the LADS has been restructured, greatly increasing its
operational range and providing a means for eliminating
"nuisance alarms" which could mimic human life signs, such
as fans, wind drafts, or swaying trees.  This is accomplished through
neural network technology, which "trains" the system to
recognize human motion and heartbeat/respiration functions.  If these
functions are not detected, the reasonable assumption is that there
are no survivors. Operating under such an assumption, the rescue team
can now proceed without fear of further loss of life; i.e., rescue
and medical personnel and equipment can be deployed more effectively
and efficiently.

The LADS consists of a sensor module, a neural network module, and
a control/monitor module.  The sensor module is an x-band (10 GHz)
microwave transceiver with a nominal output power of 15 milliwatts,
operating in the continuous wave (CW) mode. The neural network module
device can store many complex patterns such as visual waveforms and
speech templates, and  can easily compare input patterns to
previously "trained" or stored patterns.

The control/monitor module provides the LADS' instrument controls,
such as on-off switches, circuit breakers, and battery condition, as
well as motion, heartbeat waveform, pulse strength, and pulse rate

LADS provides life assessment capabilities for people who are:

- Trapped in building rubble;
- Battlefield casualties in a chemical/biological warfare environment;
- Victims of airline, train, or automobile crashes;
- Trapped in an avalanche or mud slide;
- Trapped on a mountain ledge;
- Trapped under a collapsed tent structure; or
- Hostages being held in a nonmetallic room.

For more information about the LADS, send E-mail to: (1998 info)

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Project Title: Radar Flashlight

Project Description:

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), through the Joint
(Justice-Defense) Program Steering Group (JPSG), is sponsoring
Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) in developing an inexpensive,
handheld, low-power radar  that will enable law officers to detect
individuals through interior building walls.  It works by sensing the
motion of an individual's chest when they breath.

Status Report:

GTRI is currently designing and refining the first prototype unit.  A
laboratory test area has been constructed consisting of a section of
home siding and drywall, a wooden front door, and a section of brick
and mortar.  The laboratory model shown here, was able to detect
individuals through each of these  materials.  It also demonstrated
the ability to detect an individual through the laboratory's cinder
block walls.  GTRI is working to combine the two parts of this device
into a single unit.  NIJ plans on demonstrating the Radar Flashlight
with law enforcement agencies through its National Law Enforcement
and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) (Southeast Regional
Center) before the end of 1999.


Dr. Pete Nacci
Project Manager
Tel: (703) 351-8821


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Current Millivision information at:

PM: TECH UPDATE: Frisking From Afar: OCT 95 Popular Mechanics magazine

Millimeter-wave camera picks up both metallic and plastic concealed

DEERFIELD, MA-Between microwave and infrared lies the millimeter wave
band. This little-heralded portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
turns out to be perfect for "remote frisking." Millitech Corp. has
designed a camera to accomplish just that.


The idea calls for measuring the time delay and intensity of
millimeter wave energy that radiates naturally. At millimeter
wavelengths, people are good emitters, while metals are very poor.
Dielectric objects, such as plastics, ceramics and powdered drugs,
are somewhere in between. Clothing and building materials, such as
wallboard,  are virtually transparent.

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The original link for this text (as of March 22, 2000) is:

Patriot Scientific Corporation

Patriot Scientific Corporation has developed radar
technologies with a wide range of possible applications.

This description below will highlight possibilities for use in:

- Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
- Communications
- Surveillance
- Ordnance Detection
- Stealth Radar

The Demonstration System: a diagram of the demonstration system. A pulse generator
is used to drive the transmit antenna. The pulse is a positive
spike going up to 100V then falling back to ground in one and
a half nanoseconds corresponding to a pulse transmit frequency
of 750 MHz.

The return signal is read by the receive antenna.  At this
point some simple analog processing is done and the signal is
digitized at a resolution of 6 GHz, and sent to a PC.

The PC correlates the data into a conventional waveform, does
some processing, then transmits the data over an ethernet
cable to a Pentium workstation (not shown).

The Pentium workstation is used to apply different digital
filters, combine waveforms, and display the results.  This
system can be used to demonstrate detection of small targets
buried in sand, people behind walls, and other targets.


Patriot has used its antenna system to demonstrate detection
of objects as small as a coke can buried in sand, through a
wall. Even small targets disturb the wavefront of the pulse,
producing reflections and modifing the field in measurable

Patriot will be testing this technology for suitability for
mine detection. We will be acquiring sample casings and
running further tests.

Advantages of Patriot's Impulse Radar System

The key to Patriot's Radar system is its ability to transmit
and receive pulses barely longer then single cycles at the
transmit frequency. The first waveform shown here is a pulse
generated by an earlier Patriot Design, based on "off the
shelf" antenna technology. The waveform on the bottom was
produced and received by Patriot's current Design.

The current Patriot antenna system produces a pulse at the
desired frequency with little leading or trailing noise. The
Patriot antenna system provides many advantages over
pulse-based systems.

Patriot originally developed the impulse radar system to allow
time domain processing in Patriot's GPR systems.  Because the
impulse is extremely short (3 nanoseconds), the time to return
can be used to gauge the distance traveled by the pulse.

Furthermore, the transmit and receive antenna's are very
directional, eliminating much of the multipath components of
the return signal.

The short pulse combined with the directional transmit and
receive to provide us with a number of important advantages:

- Very low average power during transmission
- Low interference from other transmitters
- Transmission invisible to conventional receivers
- High bandwidth digital data transmission possible
- Difficult detection by other impulse receivers


Interference with other sources and receivers is further
reduced by using directional antennas. The antenna design
shown is highly directional.

When penetrating the ground, we wish to eliminate as much of
the multipath signal as possible. The directional antennas
reduce the multipath signals detected to those that are
relatively inline with the wave path, and eliminate much of
the multipath signal that returns at odd angles.

Impulse radar uses low power inherently because the
transmissions occur in pulses separated by periods of no
transmission. The power of the pulses is offset by the dead
time between the pulses. The average output of the current
system is about 300 MICROwatts. THE LOW AVERAGE POWER OF AN

Interference can be further reduced in an impulse system by
using random interval spacing. As long as the transmit and
receive antennas are in sync, the period between pulses can be
varied to prevent aliasing with other continuous- or
pulse-transmission systems that might be operating in the same
locale. Furthermore, if an impulse system is being used to
transmit data, varying the intervals between pulses prevents
other impulse systems from locking onto the signal. Patriot
Scientific's current GPR system does not use random interval

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Hands-Free, Brain-Wave Control for your Computer

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse

What is it?

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse is a revolutionary hands-free
computer controller which allows you to move and click a
mouse cursor, play video games, create music, and control
external devices, all without using your hands.

How does it work?

A headband with three sensors detects electrical signals on
the forehead resulting from subtle facial muscle, eye, and
brain activity.  This headband connects to an interface box
which amplifies and digitizes the forehead signals and sends
them to your computer.  The Cyberlink software decodes the
forehead signals into ten BrainFingers for continuous cursor
control. It also decodes eye motion and facial gestures into
mouse button clicks, keystrokes, and cursor resolution
control. With a little practice, most or all of these
commands can be mastered to operate virtually all computer

I can do what...?

By learning to change the energy levels of your BrainFingers,
you will be able to do just about anything on a computer,
except turn it on! The Cyberlink Mind Mouse supports
hands-free mouse, keyboard and joystick cursor control,
switch closure, video game control, and music and art

...and it works with my software?

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse features a Windows 95 Mouse Driver
for hands-free control of third party software like games,
business software, Internet browsers, and a range of
assistive technologies, such as the X-10 Home Controller and
special needs word- processing and communication software,
including WiVik2, Words Plus, and Clicker Plus.

What kind of computer does it take?

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse has the following PC requirements:

     Pentium Processor
     16 MB RAM
     20 MB Disk Space
     VGA or better Display
     Windows 95

What comes with the Mind Mouse?

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse consists of the following

     Cyberlink Interface Unit
     Cyberlink Headband/Sensor Harness with 3 Sensors
     Cyber Trainer Software
     Windows 95 "Mouse" Driver
     User manual

How much is it?

The Cyberlink Mind Mouse is priced at $1495.00 (US$) plus
shipping. Free upgrades are included for one year.

The Times, Sept 2, 1996 p14 (1)
Title:the power of thought (innovations for paraplegics)
Author: anjana ahuja

Peter Gannicott, 36 yr old UK paraplegic who cannot speak ,
as a result of a motorcycle accident in 1982 , might be able
to activate his computer and other devices by thinking if
neurosurgery is successful.  London university's Emeritus
Professor of Physiology, giles Brindley, ad the Radcliffe's
Hospital 's chief neurosurgeon, Peter Teddy, have conceived a
way whereby signals produced by electrodes over the brain
should be able to operate a computer.


    Implants Can Now Allow Humans To Control Computers
                    By Nigel Hawkes
                     Science Editor
                   The Times (London)

AN AMERICAN scientist has entered the world of science
fiction by implanting electrodes in the brains of disabled
people so that they can control a computer by the power of

The implants have enabled two paralysed people to move the
cursor on the screen simply by thinking about moving part of
their body. They were able to convey messages such as "I'm
thirsty" or "please turn off the light" by pointing the
cursor at different icons.

The hope is that eventually patients will be able to
communicate complex ideas just by thinking about them. "If
you can run a computer, you can talk to the world," Dr Ray
Bakay of Emory University in Atlanta, whose team developed
the implants, said.

A number of laboratories around the world are working on
brain implants, but the only devices licensed for use so far
are bionic ears for the profoundly deaf and chips which can
control the tremor caused by Parkinson's disease.

The Emory implants go much further. They consist of two
hollow glass cones, each the size of a ballpoint pen tip,
placed into the brain's motor cortex, which controls body
movements. The cones are covered in chemicals that encourage
nerve growth, extracted from the patient's knees. Once
installed, nerve cells grow into the cones and attach
themselves to tiny electrodes inside.

The location of each cone is determined by monitoring the
patient's brain using scanners and identifying the most
active regions. Once the cones are in place and surrounded by
nerve cells, the patient is asked to think about moving some
part of the body, and signals from the electrodes are picked
up by a small transmitter-receiver, amplified, and used to
control a computer. Depending upon which nerves grow into the
cones, each patient may have to think about moving a
different part of the body to achieve the same effect.

They are trained by listening to a buzzer which becomes
faster and louder when they are thinking along the right
lines.  Dr Bakay says that controlling the cursor soon
becomes second nature.

The first two patients, New Scientist reports, were a woman
with motor neuron disease, who was given the implants 18
months ago and has since died, and a 57-year-old man
paralysed by a stroke.

They were taught very simple commands, with one cone being
used to move the cursor up and down and the other from left
to right. If they could give more complex commands, disabled
people could use them to make the computer speak for them. Dr
Bakay warns that this could still be years off. But he has
secured funding from the US National Institutes of Health to
continue the research with three more patients.

The British Telecom laboratories near Ipswich have also done
research into implantable chips, including a possible memory
chip which would take data from the eye and store it for a
computer. "There is a raft of wonderful benefits to bringing
chips and circuits inside human beings," said Dr Peter
Cochrane, head of research.

Communicating with 'thought power'

"Bionic brain implants allowing a computer to be operated
by the power of thought, have been developed by American
scientists," reports BBC News. Read all about it here:

The BBC report states that "the [brain] implant becomes
naturally 'wired' into the patient's brain as neurones grow
into the cones and attach themselves to the electrodes
mounted inside," and that "An FM transmitter under the scalp
transmits the signal without wires, batteries," to
operate the cursor on a computer...  hard to believe!

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[Eleanor White comments:  This article shows clearly that the reading
of minds is almost accomplished in the UNclassified world.  Since
CLASSIFIED technology is always a decade or two ahead of the
unclassified world, imagine what exists now in the black areas of
defense contractors and government labs!]

Rats Control Robot by Thought Alone

By Maggie Fox

WASHINGTON (June 23) - It sounds like something out of science
fiction -- a rat with a small electrode sticking out of its head
decides it wants a drink and, without touching anything at all,
gets a robotic arm to bring it some water.

Still, a team of neurobiologists say their rats can control a
machine with brainpower alone, and they think their technology may
someday help paralyzed people.

''The people in the lab started calling the experiment the
'thinking about drinking experiment,' John Chapin of Hahnemann
Medical College in Philadelphia, who led the research, said in a
telephone interview. ''But we don't know whether rats think.''

Whatever the rats are doing, they are controlling the robotic arm
without touching anything, said Chapin, who worked with colleagues
at Duke University in North Carolina.

Reporting in the July issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience,
they said they implanted tiny electrodes, no thicker than a hair,
into the brains of six rats.

''It doesn't hurt the animal,'' Chapin said. ''All there is is a
little plug coming out of the animal's head. He runs around the
cage and everything.''

The electrode is recording the activity of neurons -- on average 46
-- which Chapin found was important to making the experiment work.
Earlier studies that recorded the activity of just one or a few
brain cells did not work.

''We trained the rat initially to put his paw on a lever and to
press the lever down. When the lever got pressed down there was a
robot arm that moved over to a water dropper and then brought the
water back to the animal's mouth,'' Chapin said.

The rats had to carefully control the lever -- if they only pushed
the lever halfway, it would only bring the arm halfway to them.

Chapin's team then recorded the brain activity associated with the
movement of pressing the lever.

''We have an electronic device that converted those patterns of
activity in the brain of the animal into a single electronic signal
that could move the robot arm,'' Chapin said.

Soon they disconnected the lever from the robot arm and hooked it
up to the converting device alone.

They found, as other researchers have, that the brain activity
controlling the movement came before the actual movement.

''When control of the robot arm was switched to the brain, the
robot arm went over and brought water to the animal's mouth before
the animal even started to move,'' Chapin said.

''After a couple of days, the animals began to recognize that and
they stopped actually pressing the lever.''

Chapin said if the technique can be proven safe and reliable in
animals such as monkeys, which have bigger and more complex brains
than rats, it might eventually be tested in people with severe

''If this really becomes a workable thing, I think there are a lot
of people that could use it,'' he said.

It is important to record the signals from many neurons and not
just a few, Chapin said. Of the six rats tested, he added, just
four could get the arm to work.

''Two rats would do it a few times
and then they would stop,'' he said.

''The reason was we were not recording enough neurons in those
animals. The robot arm would jerk around a lot and it wasn't
smooth. When the animal tried to get his mouth around it, it would
kind of bop him on the nose. They didn't like it.''

For complex movements, such as those made by an artificial limb,
even more neurons will be required, he said.

''In principle, it should be possible to tap this information and
control a prosthetic limb,'' Dr. Eberhard Fetz of the University of
Washington in Seattle wrote in a commentary on the findings.

REUTERS 11:01 06-23-99

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Excerpted From
Popular Electronics Magazine
July 1973, Vol. 4, Number 1
by L. George Lawrence

Comments by Eleanor White:  This article is excerpted mainly to
provide experimenters and researchers with leads toward much better
quality evidence that electronic mind control works.  This article is
NOT rigorously enough referenced that it will stand as evidence by

Only those paragraphs which are of high relevancy have been
transcribed; the article is long and since it is not a courtroom-
ready document, I won't be adding to this transcription.

Items in square brackets [  ] are comments inserted by me to clarify
the original text.

[pg 65]

It is time that we closely examined brain control now that scientists
are actively seeking to unravel the mysteries that shroud that miniature
bioelectric giant known as the human brain.  Elements of brain control
can already be found in anti-collision radar technology involving birds.

It has also been substantiated that pumping energy in the gigahertz
range of frequencies through human heads, subjects can suddenly "hear"
without using their ears.

See Allan Frey's paper


[pg 66]

It was during these [Frey] studies that a profoundly important discovery
was made:  Deaf subjects often had the ability to hear radio frequency
sound.  The clinical criterion was that, if a given person could hear audio
above 5 kHz [higher range of a piano] by bone or air conduction, then radio
frequency sound could be heard as well.

This and related work has resulted in the manufacture of radio frequency
[!!] type hearing aids for the deaf, one of which is made by LISTENING INC.,
6 Garden Street, Arlington, Mass., and is known as the Neurophone Model
GPF-1.  [Not Flanagan's Neurophone]  It operates at 100 kHz [about five
times the normal maximum hearing frequency] and employs crystal control.

[pg 67]

These observations tie in with the fact that some individuals can detect
radio programs through fillings in their teeth.  This phenomenon was
technically verified by interposing shields between respective
people who exhibited this effect and the modulated radio frequency sources.

["Modulation" means "changes" made to an otherwise steady signal.]

When the lower half of the head was covered, including the maxillary
dental area, the radio frequency sound was perceived.  The sound ceased
on covering the top half of the head.  While the mechanism responsible
for this phenomenon is only imperfectly understood, it can be assumed to be
the result of DIRECT cortical stimulation.

[In other words, even when the sound seems to be coming from the teeth, it
is actually being directly received and interpreted in the brain, not the


[pg 68]


Brain-Wave Detection.  Some 40-odd years ago, university professor
F. Cazzamalli started publishing papers on the subject of brain-wave
detection [using radio signals] and implied that he had detected radiations
from the mind.  [See image above.]

As shown in Fig. 4, he placed his subjects in a shielded room (or Faraday
cage), emanated VHF radio waves through their heads, and claimed to have
recorded "beat frequencies" obtained with an untuned receiver consisting
of a galena crystal or diode tube [same thing for practical purposes],
a fixed capacitor, an antenna, and a sensitive light beam galvanometer.
[A "galvanometer" is a voltmeter; light beam types show up in physics
labs and are one of the most sensitive types of voltmeter.]

The trouble is that Cazzamalli never mentioned transmitter power in his
somewhat unprofessional papers [that's why we can't use this experiment
directly as standalone evidence].  His oscillograms meant to show variations
of the "beat" when his subjects were emotionally aroused or engaged in
creative tasks when they were in the Faraday cage.  ["Beat" as used by
Cazzamalli refers to EEG-frequency, i.e. ELF,  traces.]

Later he told an astounded world that his subjects would hallucinate when
under the influence of his "oscillatori telegrafica", it's frequency being
around 300 MHz at the time.  [Aviation radios are in this range.]

Tom Jaski, a noted science writer and engineer duplicated some of
Cazzamalli's work with a modern low-power oscillator that was swept from
300 MHz to 600 MHz. [Cell phones start at over 900 MHz.]

His subjects could not see the dial.  They were told to sound off as soon
as they felt something unusual.  At a certain frequency range - varying
between 380 MHz adn 500 MHz - the subjects repeatedly indicated points
with exact accuracy in as many as 14 out of 15 trials.  At these
"individual" ...

[pg 69]

...frequencies, the same subjects announced having experienced pulsing
sensations in the brain, ringing in the ears, and an odd desire to bite
the experimenters.  [I'd like to do that anyway - preferably using a hungry

The oscillator's output power was only a few milliwatts, while the
oscillator itself was located several feet away from the subjects.

[Any experimenters out there want to try this?  Milliwatts are quite
safe for short term expermiments.  Kids' walkie talkies are 50 to 100
milliwatts, for example.]


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Eye's Visions Electronically Read And Displayed

Eleanor White's comments:  Over decades of experience and among
around 300 involuntary neuro-electromagnetic experimentees, there have
been instances where two types of thought reading were evidently
performed by the experimenters:

- Electronic reading of thoughts "said to one's self"
- Electronic viewing through the eyes of the experimentee

This article is about picking up recognizable images from a living
brain (a cat's) and displaying those images on a screen.  Keeping in
mind that classified projects can be 20 or more years ahead of
unclassified work (e.g. the SR-71 aircraft), the claims of the
involuntary experimentees become much closer to believable in light
of the unclassified work described below.

(** NOTE:  While pondering the technology here, the reader should also
reflect on the apparent ease with which these experimenters can cut up
a cat's skull, restrain it, in obvious discomfort and extreme unwilling-
ness, to obtain this data.  We 300 victims would like to point this out
to show the world that this same callous attitude is what enables
similar covert experimenters to torture us around the clock and complete-
ly shatter our lives.)

If above link is broken
A Cat's Eye Marvel - EXCERPT:
by Leander Kahney
3:00 a.m.  7.Oct.99.PDT

In a dramatic demonstration of mind reading, neuroscientists have
created videos of what a cat sees by using electrodes implanted in
the animal's brain.  Garrett Stanley of Harvard, and Fei Li and
Yang Dan of the University of California, Berkeley, were able to
reconstruct in startling detail scenes flashed before a cat's eyes.

Read ongoing Med-Tech coverage

The reconstructed scenes clearly demonstrate the scientist's
ability to decode the language of the cat's visual system.

The researchers attached electrodes to 177 cells in an anesthetized
cat's thalamus, a region of the brain falling about half-way in the
visual processing pathway.

Having recorded patterns of firing as various scenes were flashed
before the cat's eyes, the team was able to reconstruct very
closely what the animal saw, which varied from people's faces to
scenes of a dark forest.

The research was applauded by other neuroscientists.

"The demonstration that you can reconstruct a movie from the
multiple cells in the thalamus is an important step in our
understanding of how signals are represented in the activity of
populations of cells," said Fred Rieke, an assistant professor of
physiology and biophysics at the University of Washington.

Stanley, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, said the
research provides clues about how prosthetics may one day be wired
into the mammalian nervous system. By understanding the language of
the brain, scientists will be able to create devices that talk to
it, he said.

"Trying to understand how the brain codes information leads to the
possibility of replacing parts of the nervous system with an
artificial device," he said.

Stanley predicted that in the next couple of decades, as more and
more of the neural code is decoded, brain interfaces may start to

But he cautioned it may take a lot longer. He noted that the team
also recorded the activity of cells higher up in the cat's visual
pathway -- in the visual cortex -- but the results were not as
startling because of the greater complexity of the cells.

"So little is understood about thoughts, perceptions, dreams, it's
impossible to predict how much progress we'll make in understanding
them," he said.

However, Ken Miller, as associate professor at the University of
California, San Francisco, said researchers around the world are
using similar techniques to decode higher brain functions.

"These methods could be applied to further up the visual pathway,"
he said. "It will become more difficult ... but it's a promising

The experiments were reported in the September 99 issue of the Journal
of Neuroscience.

BTW--the images they saw are posted

You  can see the images here:

Up to Contents


Original link (March 2000):


The Mind Switch refers to the technology that has been
developed which allows a person to turn on and off an
electrical appliance, such as a desk lamp or TV in 2-3 seconds
using EEG signals, without training. Proportional control,
such as turning up or down the volume of a radio is also
possible with the technology. This research is being carried
at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS).


Early in 1994 while studying the response of the brain to
environmental factors Professor Ashley Craig and Mr Paul
McIsaac of the Department of Health Sciences at UTS, noticed
an effect which appears to be common among all persons. That
effect is an increase in a particular brain signal when a
person closes his/her eyes for more than one second. The
important question that Ashley and Paul then asked was could
this effect be used to do something useful?, ie - could the
control of the brain signal be used, in turn, to control
something else?

At this stage Ashley contacted Professor Tony Moon, the Dean
of Science at UTS, to find out if anyone could help answer the
technical questions and design a system that might exploit the
apparent change in the signal level when a person closes
his/her eyes. Professor Moon introduced Ashley to Assoc Prof
Les Kirkup who is a associate professor in the department of
Applied Physics at UTS, who has experience in developing
electronics and instrumentation.

It was thought he could offer important input to the project.
He was initially sceptical that signals as small as those that
are present on the scalp, (where electrodes are placed to pick
up brain activity) could be detected reliably and analysed
sufficiently quickly to allow activation of an external
device, such as a lamp or TV. The data that had been gathered
on signal levels with eyes open and eyes closed showed that a
significant increase occurred in the 8-13Hz part of the 'brain
spectrum' commonly referred to as the 'alpha' region.

Les built a detection, discrimination and analysis system
based on Ashley and Paul's data and, much to his surprise at
least, the first person (Lucy) connected to the system showed
the capability of operating a switch which could control an
electrical appliance.

BACKGROUND - Technical

Serious work done on brain signals began with Berger in 1929
[Berger 1967]. Since that time the acquisition and analysis of
brain signals, referred to as Electroencephalography (EEG) has
advanced to such a state that EEG is regularly used to assist
in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, epilepsy and brain tumours.
[Geddes and Baker, 1989]. EEG has also been used in
biofeedback studies in which subjects may learn to modify
their EEG signals in response to visual representation of
their EEG signals.

This control usually take weeks or months to learn and is not
highly reliable. The system we have developed does NOT rely on
any learned skill by an individual. It simply requires a
person to close his/her eyes for more than 1 second to effect
sufficient change in the signals levels to allow for the
reliable operation of a switch. It turns out that it has been
known for many years that increase in signal level occur upon
eye closure, but this is the first example (to our knowledge)
of the recognition of its potential and the exploitation of
the effect.

The system used to detect the change in signals consists of
amplifiers, filters and other signal processing elements (full
DETAILS ARE STILL CLASSIFIED at the moment!). As there are
other sources which can generate signals which can interfere
with brain signals (and hence cause intermittent switching on
and off of appliances) we have developed a noise suppression
system which eliminates the effect of those noise sources.
This feature is very important as we are currently developing
the technology for disabled persons (we have a three year
grant from the Motor Accident Authority of New South Wales,
MAA) and reliability is a major issue. The funding from MAA
has allowed us to appoint Mr Andrew Searle who has become a
key figure in the technical developments regarding the Mind

In addition Mr Perez Moses is developing new noise suppression
techniques to be applied in this work.

Berger, H. 1967. On the electroencephalogram of man (trans. by
P. Gloor).EEG Clin.  Neurophysiol., Suppl. 28:1-350

Geddes, L. A. and Baker, L. E. 1989. Principles of applied
biomedical instrumentation 3rd ed.  (Wiley, New York):

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Center for Neural Communication Technology Organization

The NIH NCRR requires that its Centers have several basic components:
internal research projects, collaborative research projects, and
service to external investigators in the form of distribution and
training.  The organization of the Center for Neural Communication
Technology (CNCT) will be described here with links to more details
on individual projects.

The underlying goal for all of the work conducted by the CNCT is to
make multichannel recording and stimulation devices available to
researchers which will enable them to more efficiently communicate
with the brain.  Micromachined electrodes offer the potential to
extend small ensemble studies to tissue volume studies consisting of
dozens if not hundreds of cells.

Internal Research Projects

There are three internal research projects under the Center which are
designed to enhance the capability of the base technology:

Project 1, Extensions of Micromachined Microelectrode Technology:

    Extend the basic structure of the device to include fluid
    carrying channels for delivery of fluids to tissue volume,
    and/or to lesion at recording/stimulation site locations.

Project 2, Biological Neural Networks:

    Develop techniques for data acquisition from and analysis of
    neural circuits in the volume surrounding arrays of recording
    devices.  The direction which has been proposed for this project
    over the next grant period will be to study the relationships
    between the physical characteristics of the devices and the
    architecture of the neural tissue to rationalize the process of
    design and experimentally explore and model the deterioration of
    chronic implants over time to improve their behavior.  A recent
    poster presentation on data collected from the cochlear nucleus
    can be seen [on the original site.]

Project 3, Morphological Visualization and Assessment:

    Explore the envelope of tissue surrounding stimulation,
    recording and/or chemical delivery probes for histological
    evidence of deterioration of probe performance which has been
    observed electrophysiologically in vivo.

Collaborative Research Projects

In addition to internal projects, there are multiple collaborative
research projects with investigators outside the Center.
Collaborators contribute significantly toward improving and expanding
the use of the technology in areas including optimization of device
designs, evaluation of chronic connectors, interconnects and cranial
chambers, improvement of implantation methods, development of
protocols for chronic electrode site maintenance, testing of advanced
devices, and exploration of new application areas.

Here are links to webpages of some of our collaborators (more to come.....):

    Gyorgy Buzsaki, M.D., Ph.D., Rutgers University, Neural network
    activity in the hippocampal formation

    Steven Highstein, M.D. Ph.D., Washington University, Effects of
    microgravity upon the labyrinth

    David Martin, Ph.D., University of Michigan, Microstructure and
    processing of bioactive protein polymers

    John Middlebrooks, Ph.D., University of Michigan, Cortical
    representation of auditory space

Service to investigators outside of the CNCT is provided in the forms
of distribution of probes, and training in their use.

Distribution has been a key component of the CNCT since its
inception.  In fact, it provided the main motivation for applying for
the first NIH NCRR grant in 1994. To receive probes, we require that
investigators fill out an application.  Details of the variety of
devices which we offer to the research public are outlined in a
catalog. Standard devices are provided packaged appropriate for acute
use.  Prior to receiving additional batches of probes, we require the
submission of a feedback form so that we may track progress and use
the data to better understand and improve the technology.

The CNCT offers several training opportunities to provide education
and experience in the design, handling and application of
multichannel probes.

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July 1999 Statement by an Italian Doctor Regarding Unusual Human Implants

This physician has requested anonymity but is well-known to the
involuntary human experimentation community and can be contacted
through some of us.  Eleanor White

.................. statement by Italian physician .........................

"A physician of my acquaintance has repeatedly discovered metal objects
implanted into a number of residents - normal people, workers - of small
towns in the North-Western surroundings of Turin, towards the valley
ending in the French frontier.

"These devices, to the best of my knowledge, are not for any therapeutic
purpose.  Knowing that people have been used for involuntary electronic
implantation experiments, these patients may have also been implanted in
this way.  Further investigation would be needed to learn the truth
about these metallic implants."

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Unclassified Read-by-Radio Implant Development Project

Eleanor White's comments on this posting:  This posting describes
unclassified wireless telemetry of bodily functions, used for benign
and beneficial purposes.  This is about monitoring BY RADIO.

The reason it is of interest to involuntary neuro-electromagnetic
experimentees (military and intelligence) is that development programmes
like this one show that both the WILL and the MEANS to track someone's
bodily functions by radio EXIST, and exist RIGHT NOW.

People seeking to discredit us will say that such technology could not
possibly be in use now, or in some cases, even exist.  Keeping in mind
the typical 20-year spread between classified and unclassified technology,
as demonstrated by the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, it is clear that
classified military and intelligence programmes have highly advanced
methods of tracking a target's body functions.

PROGRAM; SBIR (Small Business Initiative Research)
CONTRACT NUMBER; F41624-93-C-2005




ABSTRACT; Biopotential recordings of human psycho-
physiological parameters are hampered in many field settings,
and some laboratory and clinic settings, by the sensor

[Eleanor White's comment:  Take SPECIAL NOTE of that
word "PSYCHO-"... that has great significance for neuro-
electromagnetic experimentees!]

Conventional electrodes which tether the subject to the
signal amplification and recording equipment, are cumbersome
to apply, often interfere with normal movements, are easily
dislodged, and induce electrical noise due to the movement of
the electrode wires carrying low level signals.

This project seeks to design essentially wireless electrode
recording systems that use radio frequency telemetry to
transmit the biopotential signal from the recording site to a
body-worn transceiver and then to a remotely located

[Eleanor White's comment:  That means, radio signals
THROUGH THE FLESH to an externally worn transceiver.  The
only difference between this UNclassified project and the
involuntary neuro-electromagnetic experimentees is distance,
which can be overcome with time.]

The present subcontractor has developed transceiver and
receiver technology that will be reviewed and customized as
needed for the present application. The focus here will be on
developimg a generic design for the sensor subsystem
("telectrodes") to include the transducer interface with the
skin, miniaturized amplifier and filter circuitry, an optimal
connection between the transducers providing differential
inputs to the amplifier, a longlasting but compact battery,
and transmitter.

Phase I will consist of a design specification, development
of a bench-top engineering prototype, design trade-off
studies using the prototype, and the delineation of a detail


[1] Life Sciences Advanced BioTelemetry System (LS-ABTS)
Engineering Specification, January 11, 1995.

[2] "Monitoring the Mysteries of the Fetus", NASA-Ames
Research Center, Videotape 1996.

[3-10] Deleted as irrelvant to showing implants are being
actively designed and used.  Eleanor White.

[11] J.W. Hines, C. J. Somps, et al., "Advanced Biotelemetry
Systems for Space Life Sciences: pH Telemetry", Procs. 13th
Annual International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Williamsburg,
Virginia, March 26-31, 1995, p.  37.  20

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Electronic Control of Mind and Behavior
edited by Schwitzgebel  and Schwitzgebel
published Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.
[Each chapter is by a different author]

Chapter 15
page 184

Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients
Dr. Jose M. R. Delgado
[EW: An MKULTRA perpetrator, yet unpunished. Intracerebral = in the brain]

Diagnosis and treatment of focal brain dysfunction associated with behav-
ioral abnormalities are complex tasks which require more effective
exploratory techniques.  Intracerebral electrodes, electrocorticographical
studies, and subsequent discrete neurosurgery have given the epileptologist
and stereotaxic surgeon new possibilities for clinical investigation which
as yet have been applied to only a small percentage of the patients suffer-
ing from neurological disorders including temporal-lobe epilepsy and related
episodic behavior problems.

In these therapeutic studies, recordings and stimulation of any chosen
cerebral structure can be performed over a period of days or weeks, and
neuronal sites identified as triggers for abnormal electrical patterns as-
sociated with behavioral disturbances can be destroyed by electrolysis or

Unfortunately in some patients episodic behavior disorders may be more dis-
abling than their epileptic seizures, and focal lesions may improve one
syndrome without modifying the other.  Furthermore, recording and stimula-
tion are usually performed under conditions which qualify their usefulness,
because the patients' mobility is limited by connecting leads, and the
behavior is likewise altered by the stressful and artificial environment
of the recording room.

    [Inset] Reprinted from The Journal of Nervous and Mental
    Disease, copyright [copy unredable] by the Williams and
    Wilkins Company, Vol. 147, No. 4.  Reproduced by permission.

    1 Research and instrumental development fro the construction
    of the stimoceiver was supported by the United States Air
    Force, 6571st Aeromedical Research Laboratory F 29600-67-C-
    0058.  Additional support for our research was provided by
    the United States Public Health Service, M-2004, and the
    Office of Naval Research, 609 (48).

    The circuit for EEG recording is a modified version of the
    unit described by Meehan (1965), and his help in providing
    us with the information and one of his units is gratefully
    acknowledged.  The help of Mr. Per Ha...[unreadable]
    developing telestimulation is also gratefully acknowledged.

During the last few years, methodology has been developed to stimulate
and record the electrical activity of the brain in completely unrestrained
monkeys and chimpanzees (Delgado, 1967; Delgado and Mir, in press).  This
procedure should be of considerable clinical interest because it permits
exploration of the brain for unlimited periods without disturbing their
rest or normal spontaneous activities. [EW: Dr. Delgado, you are all heart!]

This paper reports instrumentation used and clinical application in four
patients with psychomotor epilepsy in whom electrodes had been implanted in
the temporal lobes.  To our knowledge, this is the first use of intercereb-
ral radio stimulation and recording in man.

page 185

Implantation of electrodes

Electrodes were constructed and stereotaxically implanted according to
methods previously described (Mark & Ervin, 1969).  The electrode assemblies
which were connected to a McPherson skull plug, consisted of a plastic
stylet, 1.2 mm in diameter, with 15 stainless steel ? mm wide contacts at
3 mm intervals, plus one thermistor and three other contacts at the tip.

Using a McPherson Type 2 stereotaxic machine (Mark & Ervin, 1969), electrode
assemblies were implanted ???laterally into the anterior medical amygdala
of each patient.

Radio Stimulation

This system consists of two instruments:  (1) the RF transmitter that
measures 30 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm and includes the circuitry for controlling
repetition rate, duration, and amplitude (intensity) of the stimulating
pulse.  The repetition rate may be varied in steps between 10 and ?? Hz
and the duration between 0.1 and 1.5 millisec.  Single pulses may also
be generated.

Intensity control is accomplished by varying the frequency of the three
subcarrier oscillators that operate in the 100 to ?00 kHz frequency range.
A 100 MHz oscillator is turned on and off by the pulse train from the
subcarrier oscillators.  The duration of this pulse is determined by the
pulse-duration switch.  These bursts of 100 MHz RF energy are received
by (2) the receiver-stimulator which is carried ?? the subject, measures
3.7 cm x 3.0 cm x 1.4 cm, and weighs 20 grams.

The solid-state circuitry is encapsulated in epoxy resin which provides
it with very good mechanical strength and makes it waterproof.  Space for
the ? volt mercury battery is included in the size mentioned above.

After RF detection, the resulting subcarrier frequency is demodulated into
an amplitude.  This amplitude controls the current intensity of the
stimulation pulse by means of a constant current transistor in the output
circuit of the receiver.  This method makes the pulse intensity independent
of biological impedance changes over a wide range.  Under average stimu-
lation conditions, the battery life is approximately one week.

Operating range is up to 100 feet.

[EW: This is prototype equipment, unclassified, and operating sometime in
the 1970s.  Imagine classified equipment at the end of the 20th century!]

Three channels of stimulation are available.  The pulse intensity of each
channel can be controlled individually from the transmitter.  The pulse
duration and repetition rate are the same for all three channels.

Encephalographic (EEG) Telemetry

A miniature FM-FM amplfier-transmitter combination and telemetry receiver
are used for this purpose.  (1) The transmitting circuitry, carried by
the subject, consists of an EEG amplifier with a gain of 100, input imped-
ance of 2 megohms, frequency response from 2 to 200 Hz, and a voltage-
controlled oscillator (VCO) for each channel.  The VCO operates in one of
the frequency bands assigned for subcarrier oscillators by the IRIG stan-

In these studies, a three-channel system was used which operated on IRIG
channels (Delgado & Hamlin, 1962; Delgado & Mir, in press; Fonberg and
Delgado, 1961).  The outputs of all three subcarrier oscillators were
summed and connected to the single RF transmitter module.

The miniaturized RF transmitter operates at 216 MHz and it's range is
50 to 200 feet, depending on the environment.  The size of the three chan-
nel unit, including the battery, is 4.5 cm x 4.5 cm x 1.5 cm and it weighs
50 grams.

The signals from the depth electrodes are received by the amplifier.  The
output signal of the amplifier controls the frequency of the subcarrier
oscillator, and the oscillator output in turn controls the frequency of
the transmitter.

(2) After amplification of the received signal from the transmitter has
been demodulated, the composit subcarrier signals are connected to the
inputs of the three discriminators, which then separate and demodulate
their respective subcarriers to obtain the telemetered analog information.
In the instrumentation used in this instance, a 100 microvolt signal at the
input of EEG amplifier resulted in a 1-volt output from the corresponding
discriminator in the receiver.

The analog output signals from the receiver were connected to the inputs of
an EEG recorder and a magnetic tape recorder..  A microphone was also
mounted in the room with the subjects and conversation was also recorded
along with the EEG on magnetic tape.

[EW: So much for the idea that human implantation and MILITARY PARTICIPATION
therein is only a myth.]

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World's First Satellite-Tracked Human Implant Device
Applied Digital Solutions, Inc.

Eleanor White's comments:  This article clearly shows both availability
of technology, (the classified world has certainly had this for some time),
and intent to produce satellite-based human tracking implants.


PALM BEACH, FLORIDA - Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. today announced
that it has acquired the patent rights to a miniature digital
transceiver - which it has named "Digital Angel" -- that can be used
for a variety of purposes, such as providing a tamper-proof means of
identification for enhanced e-business security, locating lost or
missing individuals, tracking the location of valuable property and
monitoring the medical conditions of at-risk patients.
In the agreement signed last week, ADS acquired the right to develop
this unique product itself for all of its applications or to sublicense
the development of specific applications to other entities. A special
technology group has been formed within ADS to supervise the
development of the device.
The implantable transceiver sends and receives data and can be
continuously tracked by GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) technology.
The transceiver's power supply and actuation system are unlike anything
ever created. When implanted within a body, the device is powered
electromechanically through the movement of muscles, and it can be
activated either by the "wearer" or by the monitoring facility. A novel
sensation feedback feature will even allow the wearer to control the
device to some degree. The "smart" device is also small enough to be
hidden inconspicuously on or within valuable personal belongings and
priceless works of art.
Commenting on Digital Angel's many potential applications, Richard J.
Sullivan, Chairman and CEO of Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. (ADS),
said: "We believe its potential for improving individual and e-business
security and enhancing the quality of life for millions of people is
virtually limitless. Although we're in the early developmental phase,
we expect to come forward with applications in many different areas,
from medical monitoring to law enforcement. However, in keeping with
our core strengths in the e-business to business arena, we plan to
focus our initial development efforts on the growing field of
e-commerce security and user ID verification."
Sullivan added that the multi-purpose technology would enable ADS to
tap into a vast global market, through licensing and other commercial
arrangements, with an estimated total value in excess of $100 billion.
"The e-business to business security market alone could reach as high
as $10 to $12 billion in the near future," Sullivan added.
ADS is actively seeking joint venture partners to help develop and
market the unique technology. The company expects to create a working
prototype by the end of next year.
Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. is an e-business to business solutions
provider offering Internet, telecom, LAN and software services to a
wide variety of businesses throughout North America. For more
information, visit the Company's web site at:
Up to Contents


Advances in neuroscience 'may threaten human rights'
Nature Magazine - January 22, 1998

Paris.  Neuroscience is being increasingly recognized as posing a
potential threat to human rights, just as another area of biology --
research in human genomics -- may lead to an excessive focus on
genetic determinism and raises the spectre of genetic discrimination.
This was one of the conclusions to emerge from the annual public
meeting of the French national bioethics committee held last week in
Paris on the theme of 'Science and Racism'.

Jean-Pierre Changeux, the chairman of the committee and a
neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting
that understanding the working of the human brain is likely to become
one of the most ambitious and rich disciplines of the future.

"But neuroscience also poses potential risks", he said, arguing that
advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy
immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized,
it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance,
he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of
personal liberty, control of behavior and brainwashing. These are
far from being science-fiction concerns, said Changeux, and
constitute "a serious risk to society".

Denis Le Bihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission,
told the meeting that the use of imaging techniques has reached the
stage where "we can almost read people's thoughts".

The national bioethics committee is taking such threats so seriously
that it is launching a study to consider the issues and recommend
possible precautions. The study will also cover more immediate issues
such as the legal question of whether criminals are responsible for
their actions; Changeux predicts an increase in defense arguments
based on irresponsibility due to a genetic predisposition to certain
types of behavior.

In closing the meeting, Claude Allegre, the minister for national
education, research and technology, hinted at the creation of a
revamped parliamentary office of technology assessment, arguing that
the national bioethics committee's approach in the life sciences
needed to be applied to other areas of science.

Declan Butler
Nature; Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1998
Registered No. 785998 England.

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