Eleanor White's comments:

This article shows clearly the military's intent to use every possible thought-influencing technology.  This technology is largely classified but there are leaks, like this article. 
We involuntary test subjects can tell you from first hand experience that far more invasive devices now exist.

This article represents one of the two parallel "tracks" on which thought-influencing technology is being used and further developed:

- Radio frequency signals, based on the WW II   phenomenon called "radar hearing"
- Ultrasound signals, which can be transmitted   through the air or piggybacked on to radio/TV   signals

Volume 5, Issue 6
October/November 1998
$25/6 issues/ 1 year
1998 Nexus New Times

EXCERPT: More in magazine.

Military Use of Mind Control Weapons
Judy Wall 1998


For years, rumours have persisted that the United States Department of Defense has been engaged in research and development of ultra-sophisticated mind- altering technology. Confirmation of this came to me recently in the form of two ITV News Bureau Ltd (London) wire service bulletins.[1]

The March 23, 1991 newsbrief, "High-Tech Psychological Warfare Arrives in the Middle East", describes a US Psychological Operations (PsyOps) tactic directed against Iraqi troops in Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm. The manoeuvre consisted of a system in which subliminal mind-altering technology was carried on standard radiofrequency broadcasts. The March 26, 1991 newsbrief states that among the standard military planning groups in the centre of US war planning operations at Riyadh was "an unbelievable and highly classified PsyOps program utilising 'silent sound' techniques".

The opportunity to use this method occurred when Saddam Hussein's military command-and-control system was destroyed. The Iraqi troops were then forced to use commercial FM radio stations to carry encoded commands, which were broadcast on the 100 MHz frequency. The US PsyOps team set up its own portable FM transmitter, utilizing the same frequency, in the deserted city of Al Khafji. This US transmitter overpowered the local Iraqi station. Along with patriotic and religious music, PsyOps transmitted "vague, confusing and contradictory military orders and information".

Subliminally, a much more powerful technology was at work: a sophisticated electronic system to 'speak' directly to the mind of the listener, to alter and entrain his brainwaves, to manipulate his brain's electroencephalograph ic (EEG) patterns and artificially implant negative emotional states-feelings of fear, anxiety, despair and hopelessness. This subliminal system doesn't just tell a person to feel an emotion, it makes them feel it; it implants that emotion in their minds.[2]

I noticed that the ITV wire service was from outside the United States.  Readers of Resonance may recall that in the Electromagnetic Weapons Timeline in issue no. 29, reference is made to the documentary video, Waco: The Big Lie Continues, which contained video footage of three EM weapons. This segment of the film was from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). I wondered if there was any significance to this.

At the library I pulled up back issues of my local newspaper for the same time-period of the Gulf War to see what the American wire services had said, if anything, about the use of this special PsyOps weapon. There was nothing said about it directly, but three news articles seemed related. In a news release from Associated Press during the same timeframe of the Gulf War truce, I read:

"The American pilot who shot down the second Iraqi warplane in 48 hours said Friday that continued Iraqi flights suggested that US warnings were not filtering down to Iraqi pilots… He said he hopes Saddam gets the message now.  'It's really too bad that these people have to die for their unwillingness to heed our warnings...

What I really think is, they don't communicate down to the people,' he said. 'If they have a communications problem, I suggest they fix it.'"[3]

That may have been coincidence but two earlier news articles, dated March 1, 1991, apparently have a common origin with the ITV news bulletin. The first article[4] tells us that approximately 100 members of the US 101st Airborne Division, fluent in Arabic, talked the enemy into surrendering. These soldiers rode in the Apache helicopter gunships that were involved in the longest helicopter-borne assault in history. They told the Iraqi troops that they would be slaughtered if they didn't give up.

"They got the point," one soldier is quoted as saying.

This all sounds very unremarkable, except when you read the editor's note: "The following dispatch was subject to US military censorship." Now why would they want to censor such a mundane tactic, except out of embarrassment that the US Army fighting forces had fallen to the level of a cheer-leading squad? ... in which case they would have nixed the thing entirely.

But upon re-reading the article, we may pick out certain key phrases:

"He [the soldier interviewed] was one of dozens of Arabic speakers that played a key role in the allied ground attack against Iraq, and part of an attempt by the US Army to use finesse, intelligence work and tactics to complement brute strength."

If we fill in the missing blanks with such descriptions as "the megaphone was used to direct psychoacoustic frequencies that engaged the neural networks of the enemy's brain, causing him to think any thought and feel any emotion that the Americans chose to lay on him", then it starts to make sense. And it would no longer seem so surprising that one soldier could talk 450 enemy soldiers into surrendering. The possibilities are there, and, as the next article[5] documents, that is exactly what happened. Iraqi troops gave up en masse.

We quote:

"They were surrendering in droves, almost too fast for us to keep up with..."; "...two Iraqi majors, both brigade commanders, who gave up their entire units..."; and " of them gave up to an RPV [remotely piloted vehicle). Here's this guy with his hands up, turning in a circle to give himself up to a model airplane with a camera in it."

Irrational? Not if there was also a voice being beamed into his head from that little flying toy, saying, "Give up, give up!" Otherwise, how do we account for the editor's note at the beginning of the article: "The following is based on pool dispatches that were subject to military censorship." Without that note, we could smugly think that the Iraqi soldiers were cowards or crazy, but why censor that idea?


The mind-altering mechanism is based on a subliminal carrier technology: the Silent Sound Spread Spectrum (SSSS), sometimes called "S-quad" or "Squad". It was developed by Dr Oliver Lowery of Norcross, Georgia, and is described in US Patent #5,159,703, "Silent Subliminal Presentation System", dated October 27, 1992.

The abstract for the patent reads:

"A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio-frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum are amplitude- or frequency-modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones, or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic, or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener."

According to literature by Silent Sounds, Inc., it is now possible, using supercomputers, to analyze human emotional EEG patterns and replicate them, then store these "emotion signature clusters" on another computer and, at will, "silently induce and change the emotional state in a human being".

Silent Sounds, Inc. states that it is interested only in positive emotions, but the military is not so limited. That this is a US Department of Defense project is obvious.

Edward Tilton, President of Silent Sounds, Inc., says this about S-quad in a letter dated December 13, 1996:

"All schematics, however, have been classified by the US Government and we are not allowed to reveal the exact details... ...we make tapes and CDs for the German Government, even the former Soviet Union countries! All with the permission of the US State Department, of course... The system was used throughout Operation Desert Storm (Iraq) quite successfully."

The graphic illustration, "Induced Alpha to Theta Biofeedback Cluster Movement", which accompanies the literature, is labelled #AB 116-394-95 UNCLASSIFIED" and is an output from "the world's most versatile and most sensitive electroencephalograph (EEG) machine". It has a gain capability of 200,000, as compared to other EEG machines in use which have gain capability of approximately 50,000. It is software-driven by the "fastest of computers" using a noisenulling technology similar to that used by nuclear submarines for detecting small objects underwater at extreme range.[6]

The purpose of all this high technology is to plot and display a moving cluster of periodic brainwave signals. The illustration shows an EEG display from a single individual, taken of left and right hemispheres simultaneously.  Ile readout from the two sides of the brain appear to be quite different, but in fact are the same (discounting normal leftright brain variations).


By using these computer-enhanced EEGs, scientists can identify and isolate the brain's low-amplitude "emotion signature clusters", synthesize them and store them on another computer. In other words, by studying the subtle characteristic brainwave patterns that occur
when a subject experiences a particular emotion, scientists have been able to identify the concomitant brainwave pattern and can now
duplicate it. "These clusters are then placed on the Silent Sound[TM] carrier frequencies and will silently trigger the occurrence of the same basic emotion in another human being!"

Up to Contents

Back to Non-Lethal Weapons - "Psychotronics" and "Silent Sound"



There is a lot more involved here than a simple subliminal sound system. There are numerous patented technologies which can be piggybacked individually or collectively onto a carrier frequency to elicit all kinds of effects.

There appear to be two methods of delivery with the system. One is direct microwave induction into the brain of the subject, limited to short-range operations. The other, as described above, utilises ordinary radio and television carrier frequencies.

Far from necessarily being used as a weapon against a person, the system does have limitless positive applications. However, the fact that the sounds are subliminal makes them virtually undetectable and possibly dangerous to the general public.

In more conventional use, the Silent Sounds Subliminal System might utilise voice commands, e.g., as an adjunct to security systems. Beneath the musical broadcast that you hear in stores and shopping malls may be a hidden message which exhorts against shoplifting. And while voice commands alone are powerful, when the subliminal presentation system carries cloned emotional signatures, the result is overwhelming.

Free-market uses for this technology are the common self-help tapes; positive affirmation, relaxation and meditation tapes; as well as methods to increase learning capabilities.

In a medical context, these systems can be used to great advantage to treat psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. As a system for remediating the profoundly deaf, it is unequalled. (Promises, promises. This is the most common positive use touted for this technology over the past 30 years. But the deaf are still deaf, and the military now has a weapon to use on unsuspecting people with perfectly normal hearing.)

In fact, the US Government has denied or refused to comment on mindaltering weapons for years. Only last year, US News & World Report ran an article titled “Wonder Weapons”, basically a review of the new so-called ‘non-lethal’ or ‘less-than -lethal’ weapons.’ Not one word about S-quad, although the technology had been used six years earlier!

Excerpts from the article read:

“Says Charles Bernard, a former Navy weapons-research director: ‘I have yet to see one of these ray-gun things that actually works…”; and DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) has come to us every few years to see if there are ways to incapacitate the central nervous system remotely,’ Dr F. Terry Hambrecht, head of the Neural Prostheses Program at NIH, told US News, ‘but nothing has ever come of it,’ he said. ‘That is too science-fiction and far-fetched.”’

It may sound “science fiction and far-fetched” but it is not. However, that is just what the powers-that-be want you to believe, so as to leave them alone in their relentless pursuit of...what?

The idea behind non-lethal weapons is to incapacitate the enemy without actually killing them, or, in the case of riot control or hostage situations, to disable the participants without permanent injury, preferably without their knowing it. The electromagnetic mind-altering technologies would all fall into this class of weapons, but since they are all officially non-existent, who is to decide when and where they will be used?

And why should selected companies in the entertainment industry reportedly be allowed access to this technology when the very fact of its existence is denied to the general public?

As recently as last month [February], this stonewall approach of total denial or silence on the subject still held fast, even toward committees of the US Congress!

• The Joint Economics Committee, chaired by Jim Saxton (R-NJ), convened on February 25, 1998 for the “Hearing on Radio Frequency Weapons and Proliferation: Potential Impact on the Economy”. Invited testimony included statements by several authorities from the military:
• Dr Alan Kehs, of the US Army Laboratories, discussed the overall RF threat.
• Mr James O’Bryon, Deputy Director of Operational Testing and Director of live fire testing for the Office of Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon, discussed the role of Live Fire Testing and how it plays a role in testing military equipment with RF weapons.
• Mr David Schriner, Principal Engineer of Directed Energy Studies with Electronic Warfare Associates and recently retired as an engineer with a naval weapons testing facility, talked about the difficulty in building an RF weapon and about the terrorist threat.
• Dr Ira Merritt, Chief of Concepts Identification and Applications Analysis Division, Advanced Technology Directorate, Missile Defense and Space Technology Center, Huntsville, Alabama, discussed the proliferation of RF weapons primarily from the former Soviet Union. Although these statements gave information of technical interest, they are perhaps more important for the information they did not give: information on the existence of radiofrequency weapons that directly affect the human brain and nervous system.

This technology did not spring up overnight. It has a long history of development and denials of development-by the US Government and probably half of the other governments of the world as well.

We know that the former Soviet Union was actively engaged in this type of research. In a previous article we reported that during the 1970s the Soviet KGB developed a Psychotronic Influence System (PIS) that was used to turn soldiers into programmable ‘human weapons’. The system employed a combination of highfrequency radiowaves and hypnosis. The PIS project was begun in response to a similar training scheme launched in the US by President Carter, according to Yuri Malin, former security adviser to USSR President Gorbachev.[8]

In my Electromagnetic Weapons Timeline[9] I covered a period of 60 years of interest and development in EM weapons—information gathered from the many articles and news clippings sent in by readers of Resonance. In my article on synthetic telepathy[10] I traced the development of the ‘voice in your head’ technology dating back to 1961, all my references coming from the open scientific literature.

Jan Wiesemann has written an apt description of the situation which now exists in the United States, about the ‘forces that be’ and how the situation came about:

“During the Cold War the United States not only engaged in a relatively open nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union, but also engaged in a secret race developing unconventional weapons. As the intelligence agencies (which prior to the Second World War had merely played a supporting role within the government) continued to increase their power, so did the funds spent on developing techniques designed to outsmart each other.
“And as the US intelligence community began to grow, a secret culture sprang about which enabled the intelligence players to implement the various developed techniques to cleverly circumvent the democratic processes and institutions...
“Like many other democracies, the US Government is made up of two basic parts the elected constituency, i.e., the various governors, judges, congressmen and the President; and the unelected bureaucracies, as represented by the numerous federal agencies.
“In a well-balanced and correctly functioning democracy, the elected part of the government is in charge of its unelected bureaucratic part, giving the people a real voice in the agenda set by their government.
“While a significant part of the US Government no doubt follows this democratic principle, a considerable portion of the US Government operates in complete secrecy and follows its own unaccountable agenda which, unacknowledged, very often is quite different from the public agenda. “[11]

Jan goes on to quote one of the United States’ most popular war heroes: Dwight D. Eisenhower, who served as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces during World War II and was later elected 34th President of the United States.

In his farewell address to the nation in 1961, President Eisenhower said:

“...we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defence establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations.
“This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is felt in every city, every state house, every office of the federal government. We recognise the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.
“In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military -industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or our democratic processes.”

The United Nations was established in 1945 with the aim of “saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war”. In 1975 the General Assembly considered a draft first proposed by .the Soviet Union:

“Prohibition of the Development and Manufacture of New Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction and New Systems of Such Weapons”.

In 1979 the Soviet Union added a list of some types of potential weapons of mass destruction:

1) Radiological weapons (using radioactive materials) which could produce harmful effects similar to those of a nuclear explosion;
2) Particle beam weapons, based on charged or neutral particles, to affect biological targets;
3) Infrasonic acoustic radiation weapons;
4) Electromagnetic weapons operating at certain radio-frequency radiations which could have injurious effects on human organs.[12] In response, the US and other Western nations stalled. They gave a long, convoluted reason, but the result was the same.

In an article entitled “Non-Lethal Weapons May Violate Treaties”,[13] the author notes that the Certain Conventional Weapons Convention[14] covers many of the non-conventional weapons—“those that utilize infrasound or electromagnetic energy (including lasers, microwave or radiofrequency radiation, or visible light pulsed at brainwave frequency) for their effects”.

Harlan Girard, Managing Director of the International Committee Against Offensive Microwave Weapons, told me he believes the strategy behind the government’s recent push for less-than-lethal weapons is a subterfuge. The ones that are now getting all the publicity are put up for scrutiny to get the public’s approval. The electromagnetic mind-altering technologies are not mentioned, but would be brought in later under the umbrella of less-than- lethal weapons.

These weapons were recently transferred from the Department of Defense over to the Department of Justice. Why? Because there are several international treaties that specifically limit or exclude weapons of this nature from being used in international warfare.

In other words, weapons that are barred from use against our country’s worst enemies (notwithstanding the fact that the US did use this weapon against Iraqi troops!) can now be used against our own citizens by the local police departments against such groups as peaceful protestors of US nuclear policies.

The secrecy involved in the development of the electromagnetic mind-altering technology reflects the tremendous power that is inherent in it. To put it bluntly, whoever controls this technology can control the minds of men-all men.

There is evidence that the US Government has plans to extend the range of this technology to envelop all peoples, all countries. This can be accomplished, is being accomplished, by utilising the nearly completed HAARP project[15,16] for overseas areas and the GWEN network now in place in the US. The US Government denies all this.

Dr Michael Persinger is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada. You have met him before in the pages of Resonance where we reported on his findings that strong electromagnetic fields can affect a person’s brain. “Temporal lobe stimulation,” he said, “can evoke the feeling of a presence, disorientation, and perceptual irregularities. It can activate images stored in the subject’s memory, including nightmares and monsters that are normally suppressed.”[17]

Dr Persinger wrote an article a few years ago, titled “On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms”.[18]

The abstract reads:

“Contemporary neuroscience suggests the existence of fundamental algorithms by which all sensory transduction is translated into an intrinsic, brain-specific code. Direct stimulation of these codes within the human temporal or limbic cortices by applied electromagnetic patterns may require energy levels which are within the range of both geomagnetic activity and contemporary communication networks. A process which is coupled to the narrow band of brain temperature could allow all normal human brains to be. affected by a subharmonic whose frequency range at about 10 Hz would only vary by 0. 1 Hz.”

He concludes the article with this:

“Within the last two decades a potential has emerged which was improbable, but which is now marginally feasible. This potential is the technical capability to influence directly the major portion of the approximately six billion brains of the human species, without mediation through classical sensory modalities, by generating neural information within a physical medium within which all members of the species are immersed.

“The historical emergence of such possibilities, which have ranged from gunpowder to atomic fission, have resulted in major changes in the social evolution that occurred inordinately quickly after the implementation. Reduction of the risk of the inappropriate application of these technologies requires the continued and open discussion of their realistic feasibility and implications within the scientific and public domain.”

It doesn’t get any plainer than that. And we do not have open discussion because the US Government has totally denied the existence of this technology.

I would like to give special thanks to: Jan Wiesemann for sending the Silent Sounds[TM] statement and patents which were the keystone of this article; Mike Coyle, whose computer search turned up many more related patents; Harlan Girard, who has provided numerous official government documents; and to the many who have provided newsclippings and articles, moral and financial support to Resonance, without which we’d have ceased publication long ago.

About the Author:
Judy Wall is Editor and Publisher of Resonance, the Newsletter of the MENSA Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group. pp.11--13,15-16

Up to Contents



The Threat to Civil Liberties
by Judy Wall, Editor/Publisher RESONANCE
Newsletter of the MENSA Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group
NEXUS Magazine, October-November 1999
Vol. 6,  No. 6

Judy Wall can be contacted by mail at:

Judy Wall, Editor/Publisher
684 County Road 535
Sumterville      FL
USA           33585

Eleanor White's comments:  This hard hitting article by Judy Wall, who is NOT a mind control victim and in fact avoids victim testimonials in favour of only factual objective material, contains some POWERFUL items not widely known among involuntary mind control experimentees. 

The most important facet of this article is that Judy Wall presents evidence unknown to most of the public IN SPITE OF ITS BEING UN-CLASSIFIED, and in the public domain for the past two decades.

The main technology used is a mix of ultrasonic voice or brain entrainment, mixed with microwave voice-to-skull or ordinary radio and TV signals, described in detail in Appendix US1:


The microwave voice-to-skull technology is described in the 1974 article from American Psychologist magazine, Appendix PM6:




The United States Air Force uses aerial mind-control broadcasts against civilian population as well as enemy troops. Some of these actions against civilians are done with the intent of influencing public opinion and the outcome of elections.

In a previous article, we examined mind-control technology, especially that utilizing Silent Sound [TM], in which radio-frequency broadcasts carry subliminal patterns that entrain the listener’s brainwaves into a pre-selected emotional state. According to ITV wire service reports, this technology was used during Operation Desert Storm in 1991, as part of the US Psychological Operations (PsyOps) directed against Iraqi troops. [1,2]

To the Desert Storm offensive we can now add several other incidents. Alex Horvat, editor of The Probe, calls to our attention the 1998 video, Exotic Weapons of Mass Control, produced by Bob Fletcher.

“The excerpt played on Fletcher’s video is from TLC (The Learning Channel) and clearly states that Commando Solo was used in Haiti for what was called Operation Uphold Democracy. As the general populace was violently opposed to Aristide and most in favor of his ouster, it took nearly a year of this clandestine counter-programming to get them to change their minds. Instead of butchering a population physically, we can no manipulate them mentally, virtually enslaving their thoughts with a criss-cross pattern of flights by an EC-130 (which is just a C-130 heavily laden with electron-ic hardware.) [3]

We were not at war with the citizens of Haiti, yet the U.S. Government directed military weapons against this friendly, or at least neutral, civilian population. The U.S. Government sanction the “rigging” of the Haitian election by mental control of the people, programming them to cast their votes for the Americans’ favored candidate. And they had the nerve to call it “Operation Uphold Democracy”. Some sense of humor! Stalin would have loved it. Hitler would have loved it. Why is the U.S. Government doing this? Who is behind this flagrant violation of civil liberties? Is it the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) which has a long history of interfering in foreign government politics? Or has this become standard military procedure?

The rationale is always the same: “to make the world safe for democracy”. Yet what is democracy if not freedom? Freedom to think your own thoughts; freedom to express your own opinions; freedome to vote for the candidate of your own choice.

Fletcher’s video also mentions that the same technology was used against the Bosnia population for a week to influence their election. [4] This was probably done during Operation Joint Guard in 1995. [5]

The questions arise: If they have used mind-control broadcasts against foreign civilian populations to influence elections, will they use them against American citizens—or have they already? What other countries may be the recipients of this innovative technology?

Just what is this EC-130E Commando Solo? The United States Air Force has helpfully published a fact sheet that describes the Lockheed built air-craft. [6] This 1995 bulletin states that the “unit flyaway cost” is more than US $100 million each, and that there are eight in the inventory. Its primary function is “Psychological operations broadcasts”. The crew consists of four officers (pilot, copilot, navigator, control chief/EWO) and seven enlisted members (flight engineer, loadmaster, five mission crew.)

According to the fact sheet:

“Air Force Mission: Commando Solo conducts psychological operations and civil affairs broadcast missions in the standard AM, FM, HF, TV and military communications bands. Missions are flown at maximum altitudes possible to ensure optimum propagation patterns. The EC-130 flies during either day or night scenarios with equal success, and is air refuealable. A typical mission consists of a single ship orbit which is offset from the desired target audience. The targets may be either military or civilian personnel.
“Secondary missions include command and control communications counter-measures (C3CM) and limited intelligence gathering.
“Air Force Features: Highly specialized modifications have been made to the latest version of the EC-130. Included in these modifications are enhanced navigation systems, self-protection equipment, and the capability of broadcasting color television on a multitude of world-wide standards throughout the TV VHF/UHF ranges.
“Air Force Background: Air National Guard EC-130 aircraft flown by the 193rd Special Operations Group were deployed to both Saudi Arabia and Turkey in support of Desert Storm. Their missions included broadcasts of ‘Voice of the Gulf’ and other programs intended to convince Iraqi soldiers to surrender.
“The EC-130 was originally modified using the mission electronic equipment from the EC-121, known at the time as the Coronet Solo. Soon after the 193rd SOG received its EC-130s, the unit participated in the rescue of US citizens in Operation Urgent Fury, acting as an airborne radio station informing those people on Granada of the US military action.
“Volant Solo, as the mission is now known, was instrumental in the success of coordinated psychological operations in Operation Just Cause, again broadcasting continuously throughout the initial phases of the operation.” Operation Just Cause? this is another propaganda name, applied to the U.S. invasion of Panama to take out that country’s leader, General Noreiga, the CIA’s erstwhile partner in drug smuggling. Apparently the General had made someone mad—how else to account for the massive in-vasion of this tiny tourist country? To wit: “A superpower whipped the poop out of 10 percent of the police force of a Third World nation. You are supposed to be able to do that. It was done well, and I credit those who did it. But it is important that we draw the right lessons from it” according to an anonymous US Marine. [7]

Our Commander-in-Chief had another point of view:

“...the roll call of glory, the roster of great American campaigns—Yorktown, Gettysburg, Normandy, and now Panama.”
• President George Bush, March 1990 [8]

In a phone call to the USAF Special Operations Command Public Affairs Office, I questioned the legitimacy of using these subliminal broadcasts against civilian populations. [9]

[Judy Wall’s article on Silent Sound for details.]

I was told that it was all perfectly legal, having been approved by the U.S. Congress (!). It may be okay by Congress, but I sincerely doubt that it would be approved by the recipient populations.

That conversation also elicited more information concerning the Commando Solo units. For instance, the Air National Guard of the individual states in the U.S. can also operate Commando Solo aircraft, should the Governor of a state request assistance. That means the PsyOps mind-control technology can be directed against U.S. citizens.

The Commando Solo aircraft have participated in the following missions— possibly more, as the early missions of Volant Solo 1 were not known to this spokesperson:

• Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada, Oct-Nov 1983, Jan-Jun 1985)
• Operation Just Cause (Panama, late December 1989)
• Operation Desert Shield (Kuwait, Iraq, from August 1990)
• Operation Desert Storm (Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iraq, 1991)
• Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti, 1994-1995)
• Operation Joint Guard (Part of a UN operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1995)
• Operation Desert Thunder (part of a UN operation in Iraq)
• Operation Desert Fox (Iraq, 2 to 3 days in December 1998)

Other countries are known to have a similar aircraft, but the PR officer declined to identify them, suggesting that I check out Jane’s Defence Weekly for such information. Not having access to that particular publication, I searched through my copy of Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems 1993094. [10] The Commando Solo unit was not listed, but a browse through the book was informative as to the numerous types of electronic offence and defence systems available. These include sta-tionary and mobile land units (many housed in large trucks), shipboard and airborne models as well as well as space-based technology. If the military is spending US $100 million per airborne unit (times eight, we’re talking US $800 million here), I think it is safe to assume that they have tried out mind control equipment with less expensive, roving land units (trucks), but use the airplanes to cover wider areas and hard-to-reach locations of the world.

And I might add, we can asume that they have tried out the efficacy of this mind-control technology. Even the US military would not waste $800 million on something unless it has been proven to work, and work effectively, even under the adverse situation of military combat. This is an important point.

The initial research into mind control in the USA was conducted udner the auspices of the CIA. The flagrant abuse of human rights in experimenting on unsuspecting persons was based on the supposition that the veracity of experiments would be compromised if a subject knew that he was participating in an experiment. In the case of mind-control technology, tehis supposition might very well be true. But that does not justify its use—or so said the Nuremburg Code, the tenets of which were used as a legal basis to pro-secute Nazi scientists for war crimes. However the US seems to have excused its own military and scientific community from adhering to that Code. [11]

The next logical step in mind control would be to incorporate this tech-nology into satellite communications. Since other countries are known to have similar capabilities, there could occur a situation in which electronic mind control warfare is waged against a civilian population, receiving conflicting mental manipulation from both sides. What would be the mental state of individuals so targetted? Would it cause a rise in mental aberrations and schizophrenia? And what are the limits of mind manipulations? Can people be forced to commit suicide? Can physical ailments or psychosomatic illnesses be induced?

A March 1990 report from Bosnia-Herzegovina in the former Yugoslavia sug-gests the latter may have already happened. The report concerns 2,990 ethnic Albanians who were admitted to hospital with complaints of lung and skin problems for which doctors could find no physical cause. [12]

It is not a far step from manipulating a person’s emotional state to influencing bodily functions. Indeed, much of the literature on documenting microwave effects on biological systems deals with precisely this phenomenon. In fact, studies of the physical effects of microwave exposure (including radio frequencies) generally preceeded studies of mental effects.

A meeting sponsored by Defense & Foreign Affairs and the International Strategic Studies Association was held in Washington DC in 1983. High-level officials from many countries met for this conference. They discussed psychological strategies related to government and policymaking.

A summary of the agenda reads:

“The group will be discussing the essence of future policymaking, for it msut be increasingly clear to all that the most effective tool of government and strategy is the mind... If it’s any consolation to the weapons-oriented among defense policymakers, the new technologies of communications—satellites, television, radio, and mind-control beams—are ‘systems’ which are more tangible than the more philosophically based psychological strategies and operations.

[Eleanor White’s comment: Anyone know where to get a copy?] “But we should make no mistake; it will be the ‘psychologically based’ systems which determine the world’s fate in coming years: the condition of the minds of populations and leaders. And we should not ignore the fact that the USSR [this was in 1983] is working on electronic systems to ‘beam’ messages directly into the brain. What good, then, are conventional systems if these types of weapons are not countered? And, on a more basic level, what good is a weapon system if public opinion or political constraints prohibit its deployment?” [13]

It is obvious that they found the answer to that last question. If the public does not know about a weapon system, it cannot prohibit its deploy-ment. This is the situtation that applies to mind-control technology.

The US military is aware that certain actions or procedures may not be acceptable to the American public. Metz and Kievit express these concerns in their paper, “The Revolution in Military Affairs and Short Conflict War.” [14]

“The use of new technology may also run counter to basic American values. Information age—and in particular, information warfare -- technologies cause concerns about privacy... American values also make the use of directed-energy weapons ... morally difficult, perhaps unacceptable.

The advantage of directed-energy weapons over conventional ones is deniability.

“Against whom is such deniability aimed? ... deniability must be aimed at the American people.”

Later they state: “We must decide whether innovative military capabilities are, in fact, acceptable and desirable. That can only happen through open debate. The military must be a vital participant, but not the sole one.”

But there has been no open debate.

On July 21, 1994, the US Department of Defense proposed that non-lethal weapons be used not only against declared enemies, but against anyone engaged in activities that the DOD opposed. That could include almost any-body and anything. Note that the mind-control technology is classified under non-lethal weapons. [15]

A 1998 news item states that US Air Force General John Jumper “predicts that the military will have the tools to make potential enemies see, hear, and believe things that do not exist” and that “The same idea was con-tained in a 15-volume study by the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, issued in 1996, on how to maintain US air and space superiority on the battle-fields of the 21st century”. [16,17]
It seems that, in miltary parlance, a “prediction” means: “Don’t be surprised when you find out we’ve already got this, but it’s classified and we can’t admit to it just yet.”

Notice that General Jumper predicts that mind control technology will be used against potential enemies. The military and government agencies may apply this term to any group or individual they perceive as a threat to their own interests. Potential enemies may be counter-culture individuals, those of opposing political viewpoints, economic or financial competitors, biological undesirables, etc. It is part of the military agenda to identify potential threats so as to be prepared to meet them. Experience has shown that the US Government (the CIA and FBI, for example) has moved against these people or groups, slandering, harassing, even killing them, without adequate cause or legal sanction.

A weapon that can be used in secret lends itself to abuse by unethical individuals in positions of power. The military and secret services have shown themselves often to be lacking in ethical constraints. After all, the job of the military is war; it is killing people; and so, just how this is accomplished may be considered irrelevant. Lesser evils, like mind control, pale by comparison.

Of course, it can be argued that it is far more humane to brainwash a person via mind control technology than it is to torture or kill them. Others vehemently deny this. They’d rather be dead than a mental slave to Big Brother! That is what revolutions are about. And if I recall correctly, that is the idea behind the US Bill of Rights.

Awareness of the existence of mind-control technology, and hence its dangers and possibility for misuse, seems to be more prevalent than in Europe than in other areas. The European Parliament recently passed a “Resolution on environment, security, and foreign policy”. [18] This document includes these articles:

“23. Calls on the European Union to seek to have the new ‘non-lethal’ weapons technology and the development of new arms strategies also covered and regulated by international conventions...
“27. Calls for an international convention introducing a global ban on all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings.”

The United States will ignore these resolutions, of course, as it has other EP requests; for example, as mentioned in the same document:

“24. Considers HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project) by virtue of its far-reaching impact on the environment to be a global concern and calls for it’s legal, ecological and ethical implications to be examined by an international independent body before any further research and testing; regrets the repeated refusal of the United States Administration to send anyone in person to give evidence to the public hearing or any subsequent meeting to be held by its competent committee into the environ-mental and public risks connected with the HAARP programme currently being funded in Alaska...”

One of HAARP’s potential uses is a communications system. The military officially acknowledges two communications-related applications:

(1) to replace the existing Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine communica-tions system now operating in Michigan and Wisconsin;

(2) to provide a way to wipe out communications over an extremely large area, while keeping the miltary’s own communications system working. [19]

As we have seen, the mind-control subliminal messages are carried on radio-frequency broadcasts.
[Judy Wall’s article on Silent Sound for details.]

The HAARP facility could be used to broadcast global mind-control messages, or such messages could simply be inserted into existing systems.

Dr. Igor Smirnov, of the Institute of Psycho-correction in Moscow, says in regard to this technology: “It is easily conceivable that some Russian ‘Satan’, or let’s say Iranian [or any other ‘Satan’], as long as he owns the appropriate means and finances, can inject himself [intrude] into every conceivable computer network, into every conceivable radio or television broad-cast, with relative technological ease, even without disconnecting cables.

You can intercept the [radio] waves in the aether and then [subliminally] modulate every conceivable suggestion into it. If this transpires over a long enough time period, it accumulates in the heads of people. And eventually they can be artificially manipulated with other additional measurements, to do that which this perpetrator wants [them to do]. This is why [such technology] is rightfully feared.” [20]

To return to the USAF Fact Sheet, it concludes: “In 1990 the EC-130 joined the newly formed Air Force Special Operations Command and has since been designated Commando Solo, with no change in mission. This one of a kind aircraft is consistently improving its capabilities.
The next few years should see continued enhancements to the EC-130 and its worldwide mission.”

About the Author:

Judy Wall is the Editor of RESONANCE, the newsletter of the Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group of American MENSA Ltd. Viewpoints expressed here are her own personal views.

1. Wall, Judy, “Military Use of Mind Control Weapons”, NEXUS, 5/06, Oct-Nov 1998
2. “Psychological operations” are defined as:
“Planned operations to convery selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups and individuals.
The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or re-inforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator’s objectives. Also called PsyOps.” From “Joint Doctrine for Information Operations”, Joint pub-lication 3-13, 9 October 1998. Thanks to Harlan Girard of the International Committee on Offensive Microwave Weapons (PO Box 58700, Philadelphia PA 19102-8700, USA) for the excerpt.
3. Horvat, Alex, “Commando Solo”, The Probe, vol. 4, No. 1, Winter 1998/99, p.44; available from PO Box 905, St. Peters, MO 63376, USA.
4. Fletcher, Bob, Exotic Weapons of Mass Control; video available from The Probe (see above) or Global Insights, A675 Fairview Dr. #246, Carson City NV, 89701 USA, tel 1-800-729-4131.
5. An item of interest is that the US had a new type of aerial reconnaissance plane positioned over the former Yugoslavia from July 14, 1995, about six months before the US officially intervened. The 10-million-dollar unmanned saucer-shaped spy craft is nicknamed “Dark Star”.
Information from C-Com (Classified Communications 3(12), Dec 1995; Erich A. Aggen, Jr., (editor), citing CE Chronicles nos. 1 and 2 and Raising Awareness newsletter.
6. Fact Sheet, dated March 1995. The address on the publication is AF Special Operations Command Public Affairs Office, 100 Bartley Street, Hurlburt Field, FL 32544-5273, USA.
They no longer supply printed copies, but you can access the document at
7. Morrison Taw, Jennifer, “Operation Just Cause: Lessons For Operations Other Than War”, Rand Corp., 1996, p. vii; quoting from “Some Questions Whether the US Is Ready for LIC”, Navy News and Undersea Technology, August 27, 1990, p.7.
8. Morrison Taw, Jennifer, ibid,. p.1.
9. Telephone conversation of February 26, 1999, with AF Special Operations Command Public Affairs Office; voice (850) 884-5515, email
10. Blake, Bernard (ed.) Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems 1993-94, Jane’s Information Group Inc., 1340 Braddock Place, Suite 300, Alexandria VA 22314-1651, USA; also Jane’s Information Group, Sentinel House, 163 Brighton Road, Couldson, Surrey CR5 2NH, UK.
11. (a) “US Nullifies Nuremburg Law”, Earth Island Journal, Winter 1996-97. (b) Hightower, Jim, “Unregulated Experiments on Humans”, New Times, June 19-25, 1997; cites Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, “Unchecked Research People Raises Concern on Medical Ethics”, New York Times, May 14, 1997. © See “Ban on Medical Experiments Without Consent is Relaxed”, New York Times, November 5, 1996, p.1; copy available for 50 cents from David Park Brooks, 3456 17th St., San Francisco CA 94110. (d) Also see Senator John Glenn’s bill S-193, “Human Subjects Research Protection Act of 1997”, Congressional Record, US Senate, January 22, 1997. (e) “In 1994, a congress-ional subcommittee found up to 500,000 Americans between 1940 and 1974 were endangered by secred defense-related tests including radiation experiments, mustard gas, LSD and biological agents.” See Pitch Weekly, April 17-23, 1997.
12. Schaefer, Paul, “Experimentation and Warfare”, article citing The Kansas City Star, between March 25 and 31, 1990.
13. Summary, The Perth Corporation, Defense & Foreign Affairs, November 1983.
14. Metz, Steven, and James Kievit, “The Revolution in Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War”, US Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050, USA, pp. 15-16 and 29. [See also Krawczyk, Glenn, “Big Brother’s Recipe for ‘Revolution in Military Affairs’”, NEXUS 2/26, June-July 1995.]
15. Schaefer, Paul, “Psyops: Invisible Warfare”, Zuni Mountain Citizen (precise date unknown, late 1998/ early 1999), p.5.
16. “Microwave Weapons”, Microwave News, March/April 1998; Louis Slesin (editor), citing Aviation Week, March 9, 1998.
17. Same article as above, citing Microwave News, January/February 1997.
18. “Environment, Security, and Foreign Affairs”, Resolution A40005/99, Minutes of 28/01/99 - Provisional Edition, European Parliament. For copy, thanks to Grattan Healy, Advisor on Energy & Research, Green Group in the European Parliament, LEO 2C35, Rue Wiertz Straat, B-1047 Bruxelles, Belgium, email
19. For more info on HAARP, see Begich, Nick and Jeanne Manning, Angels Don’t Play This HAARP, Earthpulse Press, PO Box 201393, Anchorage AK 99520, USA, Tel. (907) 249-9111.
20. From a German documentary, “Geheimes Russland: Moskau - Die Zombies dr roten Zaren” (“Secret Russia: Moscow - The Zombies of the Red Czars”) aired on German TV network ZDF on December 22, 1998. Script translation by Jan Weisemann. The full text is to be published in Resonance, No. 35.
21. Reed, Chris, Lockheed C-130 Hercules and Its Variants, Schiffer Publishing Ltd, Atglen, PA, 1999

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SYNETICS Corporation

George D. Hughes Jr.


Prametric Difference Waves for Low Frequency Acoustic Propagation


Prior research indicates that an array of ultrasonic sources operated
with an offset in frequency will produce infrasonic or very low
frequency energy. This energy is useful because it is omni-directional,
and it propagates well with little absorption. With sufficient energy,
the resulting infrasonic waves can be disabling or lethal. Synetics
proposes an approach toward developing infrasonic waves that can
ultimately be incorporated into future man-portable small arms weapon
systems. This approach utilizes modernized pneumatic technology which
produces an extremely high-powered ultrasonic source. The resulting
frequency generated is precisely controlled such that the desired high
power infrasound frequency can be generated at the target by beating two
focused ultrasonic sources.


The potential post applications of the parametric difference wave
generator include non-lethal crowd control, non-lethal self defense
units for police and personal use, and soot and crustacean removal
devices for commercial industries.



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Altered States Ltd commercial site clearly demonstrates the
very thin line between "subliminal learning" using "Voice FM",
and "silent hypnosis" as experienced by involuntary

The reader is invited to scan the sample phrases from these
so-called "learning tapes".  Whether it's "learning" or
"hypnosis" is left for the reader to decide.

Image shows how voice is transformed to an inaudible signal.

Ph: +64-9-815-5095 or +64-9-815-5059
Fax: +64-9-815-5067
Postal address:
P.O.Box 68-344, Newton,
Auckland, New Zealand.
Street address:
6A Western Springs Rd,
Morningside, Auckland,
New Zealand.

The original commerical link from which the text below was
copied on March 22, 2000 is:^/sub/silent.htm


Only your mind can hear. Your ears hear nothing but your mind
hears and accepts the powerful suggestions.

You can safely play these tapes anywhere - in a car, while
watching TV or listening to your favorite music, while working
or even as silent sleep programming.

Warning: Everyone within listening range of the tape will be
programmed by the suggestions. To assure yourself that strong
suggestions are recorded on the tape, take it to any Radio
Shack store, play it on their stereo and read the output with
a Radio Shack Sound Level Meter (Item 33-2050)

How To Use The Tapes: Increase the volume until it is just
below any tape noise. If your stereo deck has treble and bass
controls, you can boost the subliminal output by increasing
the treble and decreasing the bass. The player then emits a
strong but inaudible frequency - modulated 60 - 90 decibel
signal that is received and demodulated by the human ear.

Technical Information The Suggestions are delivered on a
carrier frequency of 14,800 cps, via a low-distortion sinewave
signal. This frequency is slightly above the audible hearing
range but the frequency-modulated (FM) signal is still
strongly impinging upon the diaphragm of the ear. The listener
can expect his subconscious mind to accept the suggestions
with repeated listening.

[EW: Note the similarity to Lowery patent, US 5,159,703]

How To Use The Tapes: Increase the volume until it is just
below any tape noise. If your stereo deck has treble and bass
controls, you can boost the subliminal output by increasing
the treble and decreasing the bass. The player then emits a
STRONG BUT INAUDIBLE frequency-modulated 60 to 90 decibel
signal that is received and demodulated by the human ear.

The Silent Subliminals is a new brain / mind technology
developed by an aerospace engineer. This new technique has
been licensed to Valley of the Sun Audio /

Video for this incredible new tape series. Patent pending.
Note: Because the frequency is beyond normal recording range,
the tape cannot be duplicated:

Examples of Suggestions:

- "Every day you become thinner and thinner"
- "You now lose weight and full fill your goals"
- "You attain your weight goals and the body you desire"
- "You have the power and ability to attain the perfect weight
   and body you desire"
- "You have the self-discipline to lose all the weight you
- "You live a healthy lifestyle and eat a proper diet"
- "You now quit smoking because it serves you"
- "You lose all desire to smoke"
- "You accept that you now quit smoking"
- "You are a non-smoker"
- "Quit smoking. Quit smoking. Quit smoking"
- "You have the willpower to do anything you want to do"
- "You have great self- discipline and you use it to quit
- "Cigarettes disgust you"
- "You are very sure of yourself"
- "You accept that you have great inner courage"
- "You are self-reliant and self-confident"
- "You are full of independence and determination"
- "You have great inner courage"
- "Every day in every way, you become more and more
- "You feel good about yourself"
- "You project a very positive self-image"
- "You are relaxed and at ease"
- "You detach from worldly pressures and experience an inner
- "Negativity flows through you without affecting you"
- "You accept other people as they are"
- "You peacefully accept the things you cannot change, and
   change the things you can"
- "You are at peace with yourself, the world and everyone in
- "Your mind is like calm water
- "You direct your time and energy to manifest your desires"
- "You have the self-discipline to accomplish your personal
   and professional goals"
- "Every day, you increase your self-discipline"
- "You do what you need to do and stop doing what doesn't
- "You freely choose to do what you need to do"
- "You are assertive and feel good about yourself
- "You now focus your energy upon attaining success"
- "You know exactly what you want and you go for it"
- "You can accomplish whatever you set out to do"
- "Be ultra-successful. Be ultra-successful and become
- "Every day in every way, you become more successful"
- "Your creative thinking opens the door to monetary
- "You easily achieve and maintain a penile erection"
- "Your body performs perfectly during sex without thinking
   about it"
- "A hard, firm erection is your natural response to sexual
   stimulation "
- "You can make love for a long before you ejaculate"
- "Every day you feel better about your sexual prowess and
   your ability to achieve and maintain a hard, firm erection

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below, posted by Eleanor White, describes nearly identical
techology being commerically developed by American
Technologies Corp., San Diego CA, (as of March 22, 2000):


The ORIGINAL LINK FOR THIS PAGE (As of March 22, 2000):

Machine Listening Group Digital Life Consortium

A beam of light can be controlled in many ways - it can be
aimed at one person in a crowd, spread to fill a room, or
projected to create rich, distant imagery.

We can now do these very same things with sound.
To my friends in the UK:

Thanks to those who have contacted me regarding the BBC piece;
I'm happy it was so well received.  I recently had a very
polite British visitor, who seemed to enjoy the demonstration
a great deal... click the photo to see who it was.
The Audio SpotlightTM, invented and developed at the MIT Media
Lab, is a device which uses subtle nonlinear properties of the
air to create an extremely narrow Sound BeamTM.  This beam of
sound behaves just like a beam of light - 'shining' it at a
specific listener allows only that person to hear it, and
projecting it against a surface creates an acoustic 'image' at
the point of reflection.  It is the first device that provides
total control over both the location and distribution of high
quality sound, something impossible to achieve with
traditional loudspeakers.

The circular transducer is very thin, and can be constructed
in a variety of sizes and configurations as needed.  A typical
Audio Spotlight transducer has an active area of approximately
1 foot diameter, and, depending on size and frequency content,
projects an approximately three-degree wide beam of sound
audible to well over 100 meters.  Harmonic distortion has been
reduced to close to that of a traditional loudspeaker, sound
level is quite appreciable (on the order of 80-90dBA) at
several meters, and frequency response, depending on size,
extends down to a few hundred Hertz, and upwards beyond the
range of hearing. Continued research is being conducted on all
facets of the technology.

While still under development, we are testing applications of
the device in collaboration with several of our Media Lab
Sponsors in preparation for eventual commercial release.

Put sound wherever you want it.TM

F. Joseph Pompei


The Audio Spotlight can be used in two major ways:  As
directed audio, sound is directed at a specific listener or
area, to provide a private or area specific listening space.
As projected audio, sound is projected against a distant
object, creating an audio image.  This audio image is
literally a projected loudspeaker - sound appears to come
directly from the projection, just like light.

The Audio Spotlight consists of a thin, circular transducer
array and a specially designed signal processor and amplifier.
The transducer is about half an inch thick, nonmagnetic, and
lightweight.  The signal processor and amplifier are
integrated into a unit about the same size as a traditional
audio amplifier, and has similar power requirements.


Because it is impossible to generate extremely narrow beams of
audible sound without extremely large loudspeaker arrays, we
instead generate the sound indirectly, using the nonlinearity
of the air to convert a narrow beam of ultrasound into a
highly directive, audible beam of sound.

The device transmits a narrow beam of ultrasound (blue),
which, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the air itself,
distorts (changes shape) very slightly as it travels. This
distortion creates, along with new ultrasonic frequencies,
audible artifacts (green) which can be mathematically
predicted, and therefore controlled. By constructing the
proper ultrasonic beam, this nonlinearity can be used to
create, within the beam itself, an audible sound beam
containing any sound desired. This is presently done in
real-time using low cost circuitry, a specially designed
amplifier, and transducers developed at MIT specifically for
this project.


The directivity, or narrowness, of an acoustic wave generated
by a circular transducer is proportional to the ratio of the
diameter of the transducer to the wavelength of the sound. So
a transducer much larger than the wavelength of the sound
creates a very narrow beam.

Audible sound contains wavelengths reaching lengths of several
feet, so a reasonably sized loudspeaker will always produce a
very wide, non-directional source at lower frequencies. The
Audio Spotlight, in contrast, outputs short, millimeter sized
ultrasonic waves, which form a very narrow beam even in a
small transducer, which in turn generates audible sound.  The
nature of the nonlinear transformation also essentially
eliminates sidelobes in the resulting beam, and maintains
relatively uniform directivity across the entire audible
frequency range.

The figure to the right compares the directivity of the Audio
Spotlight (yellow) to that of an ordinary loudspeaker
(purple).at 400 Hz.  Note that the directivity of the Audio
Spotlight is only three degrees, compared to the essentially
omnidirectional directivity of the loudspeaker.

In order to obtain such narrow directivity from a traditional
loudspeaker system, one would need a loudspeaker array fifty
meters across!

A loudspeaker is like a light bulb, but the Audio Spotlight is
like a laser.


The use of nonlinear interaction of high frequency sound to
generate directive low frequency sound sources has been a well
researched subject in the field of underwater acoustics since
the early 1960's. Often misattributed to so-called "Tartini
Tones", the effect is more accurately described as a
parametric array, a term introduced by Westervelt [1].  In the
past several decades, many underwater sonar researchers have
used the effect to both generate directive low frequency sonar
beams, detect underwater sound (parametric receiving array),
and extend the bandwidth of underwater transducers.

The first published demonstration of an airborne parametric
array was in 1975 by Bennett and Blackstock [2]. Rather than
using inaudible ultrasound, they instead used very intense,
high frequency audible sound to produce simple difference
tones. While their goal was not a practical audio reproduction
device, they nonetheless effectively demonstrated that the
parametric array would work in air in addition to underwater.

In the early 1980's, several Japanese companies, such as
Nippon Columbia, Ricoh, and Matsushita, attempted to develop
the parametric array for the reproduction of broadband audible
sound.  They typically deployed large arrays containing
hundreds of piezoelectric transducers, such as the one to the
right [3], to transmit simple AM modulated audible signals.
While successful in reproducing sound, tremendous problems
with cost, robustness, and extremely poor sound quality (up to
50% total harmonic distortion) caused them to abandon the
technology as unfeasible.

More recently in mid 1996, an American company produced their
own version of this device and proclaimed it 'a revolution' in
audio. In fact, this device, contrary to their claims and
unbeknownst to the popular press, was very similar to those
described in audio journals a decade earlier (shown to the
left), and of course suffered from the very same problems of
poor sound quality and lack of robustness that plagued the
earlier researchers [4].  Since then, there has been no
published evidence of progress towards a practical device.


Since his days as a part-time musician and young acoustics
engineer at Bose in the early 1990's, Mr. Pompei recognized
that a key ingredient missing from audio reproduction was the
ability to reliably spatialize sound.  While in a natural
environment, sound occurs all around us, giving us a
tremendously strong impression of our environment, the
reproduction of sound over loudspeakers, at best, provides a
very vague and limited spatial impression.  Similarly, what
was missing from music, he decided, was the ability to
choreograph musical instruments in space, just as you would

While pursuing as a Master's student techniques related to '3D
Audio' technologies, he realized that this method would simply
not work in an uncontrolled acoustic environment - if the
listener moved out of the small 'sweet spot', the illusion
would vanish, and there were no practical remedies to this
problem, so long as traditional loudspeakers were used.  The
solution, then, was to not rely on psychoacoustic illusions,
but instead to create sound independently of the loudspeaker.
One of several ideas he had at the time was the use of
interacting ultrasound beams to produce audible sound.

After briefly researching the idea, he discovered the numerous
papers describing the underwater parametric array and the
earlier attempts of its application as an audible sound
source.  From these papers, he saw that there were two key
concepts which were overlooked in the previous attempts,
mitigating their success:


Earlier attempts used simple AM modulation to generate the
ultrasound signal, which does create audible byproducts, but
also substantial distortion.  The nonlinear transformation
from ultrasound to audible sound is much more complex than AM
demodulation.  Therefore, in order to reduce distortion, this
specific transformation needed to be mathematically modeled,
inverted, and then applied as a preprocessing algorithm.   The
lowest-order preprocessing method, used in the earliest MIT
prototypes, was derived from a simple model [5] proposed in

Transducer Design

The transducers used in previous attempts were common
piezoelectric transducers used for ultrasonic ranging.  These
transducers are highly resonant, and do not have sufficient
bandwidth to reliably reproduce the preprocessed ultrasonic
signal.  Thus, even with a preprocessing algorithm,
substantial distortion would continue to result until we
developed transducers capable of reliably reproducting the
broadband preprocessed signal.

As a side project during his Master's work, he continued his
development of these ideas, studying nonlinear wave
interactions and ultrasonic transducer design, eventually
deciding to pursue the area as the focus of a doctoral
dissertation.  Of all the universities that he applied to, he
decided that the free-wheeling nature of the MIT Media Lab was
the ideal environment for developing the idea.

The first full size prototype was demonstrated in April 1998
to our Media Lab Sponsors, and performed beyond all
expectations. The first demonstration was a John Coltrane
solo, whose saxophone was heard loud and clear, projected like
a spotlight all around a movie theater, and flying right over
the audience. Power consumption was nominal (<30W),
construction was straightforward, and distortion had been
reduced by several orders of magnitude compared to all earlier

A paper [6] describing the results of the first prototype, as
well as a live demonstration, were presented at the 105th
Convention of the Audio Engineering Society in September,
1998, and received a standing ovation.  While the parametric
array itself is not patentable, MIT has applied for patents on
key aspects of the technology which make it a practical
This directivity plot of a prototype clearly illustrates the
extreme narrowness of the beam. (Published in [6]).  During
the summer of 1998, we compared distortion of prior devices
with our  prototype.  Note that distortion has been reduced
nearly to that of a traditional loudspeaker.  (Published in

Since then, development has been remarkably productive, with
engineering and mathematical advances resulting in more sound
output, better sound quality, and reliable performance.

"Everything you do with light, you can now do with sound."TM


[1]  Westervelt, P. J., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v35 535-537
[2]  Bennett, M. B., and Blackstock, D. T., J. Acoust.  Soc.
     America, v57, 562-568 (1975)
[3]  Yoneyama, M., et al., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v73,
     1532-1536 (1983)
[4]  Blackstock, D. T., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v102 3106(A)
     (1997) link
[5]  Berktay, H. O., J. Sound Vib., v2, 435-461 (1965)
[6]  Pompei, F. J., J. Audio Eng. Soc., v47, 726-731 (1999)
     (originally in Proc. 105th AES Conv., Preprint 4853 (1998) )

About the Inventor:

Beginning his career in acoustics at 16 while in high school,
starting as the first high school co-op and becoming the
youngest engineer at Bose Corporation, Frank Joseph Pompei
continued working part-time and summers for Bose while earning
a degree in Electrical Engineering with an Electronic Arts
Minor from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.  Recognizing the
importance and underutilization of spatialized sound, he
decided to pursue research in psychoacoustics and application
of auditory localization at Northwestern University, earning a
Master's degree.  Acutely aware of the limitations of
traditional loudspeakers, he had the idea of using ultrasound
as an acoustic projector, and is now developing such a device
at the MIT Media Lab, continuing his education in pursuit of a

Mr. Pompei is honored to have been chosen as a British Telecom
fellow for his second year in a row.

For More Information:

A technical paper [6] describing the basic device (along with
a live demo) was presented at the Audio Engineering Society's
105th Convention (September, 1998).  Please contact them
directly with preprint requests.  The same paper was just
published in the September 1999 issue of the Journal of the
Audio Engineering Society.

"Official" press/public inquiries:  Contact our Communications
and Sponsor Relations team.

Or, you can email me.

All content (c) 1999 F. Joseph Pompei, MIT Media Lab, except
where noted.  B&W photo of early parametric array (c) 1983
Acoustical Society of America.  Reproduction, archiving,
and/or redistribution of any part of this document prohibited
without written permission from Mr. Pompei or the MIT Media
Lab.  Patents Pending.

Up to Contents