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Associated Press (Exact date not shown on copy but tests took place 1982/83) Loma Linda (Veterans Hospital research unit)
San Bernardino County

An old medical, Russian-made device that transmits pulses
of 40 MHz radio signal at pulse rates designed to match
relaxed and sleeping states originally.

The machine, known as the LIDA, is on loan to the Jerry L.
Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital through a medical exchange
program between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Hospital researchers have found in changes behavior in

"It looks as though instead of taking a valium when you want
to relax yourself it would be possible to achieve a similar
result, probably in a safer way, by the use of a radio field
that will relax you" said Dr. Ross Adey, chief of research
at the hospital.  [Dr. Adey is now deceased.]

[Missing one line on the photocopy] ... manual shows it
being used on a human in a clinical setting, Adey said.
The manual says it is a "distant pulse treating apparatus"
for psychological problems, including sleeplessness, hyper-
tension and neurotic disturbances.

The device has not been approved for use with humans in this
country, although the Russians have done so since at least
1960, Adey Said.

Low frequency radio waves simulate the brain's own electromagnetic
current and produce a trance-like state.

Adey said he put a cat in a box and turned on the LIDA.

"Within a matter of two or three minutes it is sitting there
very quietly ... it stays almost as though it were transfixed"
he said.

Tho hospital's experiment with the machine has been underway
for three months and should be completed within a year,
Adey said.

Eleanor White's comments (Dr. Byrd's statement follows):

1.  Heavy "fatigue attacks" are a very common experience among
involuntary neuro-electromagnetic experimentees.  The LIDA device
could, right out of the box, be used as a fatigue attack weapon,
FROM HIDING, thru non- or semi-conductive walls.

2.  If the LIDA machine is tuned for tranquilizing effect, then
it might also be tuned for "force awake" and other effects too.
This device is an electronic harassment weapon, AS IS.  A TV
documentary stated the Russian medical establishment considers
this 1950s device obsolete.  (Wonder what has taken it's place?)

Below is a statement from Dr. Eldon Byrd, U.S. psychotronic
researcher who funded Dr. Adey's work with the LIDA machine:

"The LIDA machine was made in the 1950's by the Soviets.  The CIA
purchased one through a Canadian front for Dr. Ross Adey, but
didn't give him any funds to evaluate it.

"I provided those funds from my project in 1981, and he determined
that the LIDA would put rabbits into a stupor at a distance and
make cats go into REM.

"The Soviets included a picture with the device that showed an
entire auditorium full of people asleep with the LIDA on the
podium.  The LIDA put out an electric field, a magnetic field,
light, heat, and sound (of course light and heat are
electromagnetic waves, but at a much higher frequency than the low
frequencies of the electric and magnetic fields mentioned above).

"The purported purpose of the LIDA was for medical treatments;
however, the North Koreans used it as a brain washing device
during the Korean War.  The big question is:  what did they do
with the technology?  It could have been improved and/or made
smaller.  It is unlikely that they abandoned something that

"Direct communication with Ross Adey:  While he was testing the
LIDA 4, an electrician was walking by and asked him where he got
the "North Korean brain washing machine".  Ross told him that is
was a Russian medical device.

"The guy said he had been brain-washed by a device like that when
he was in a POW camp. They placed the vertical plates alongside
his head and read questions and answers to him.  He said he felt
like he was in a dream.  Later when the Red Cross came and asked
questions, he responded with what had been read to him while under
the influence of the device.  He said he seemed to have no control
over the answers.

"The LIDA is PATENTED IN THE US.  Why?  They are not sold in the
US--the only one I know that exists is the one that was at Loma
Linda Medical Center where Adey used to work.  Eldon"

Involuntary neuro-experimentation activist Cheryl Welsh, Davis CA,
sent in this clipping from an article by Dr. Ross Adey but without
complete bibliographic references:

"Soviet investigators have also developed a therapeutic device
utilizing low frequency square wave modulation of a radiofrequency
field.  This instrument known as the Lida was developed by L.
Rabichev and his colleagues in Soviet Armenia, and is designed  for
"the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic disorders, such as
neuroses, psychoses, insomnia, hypertension, stammering, bronchia
asthma, and asthenic and reactive disturbances".

It is covered by U.S. Patent # 3,773,049.  In addition to the
pulsed RF field, the device also delivers pulsed light, pulsed
sound, and pulsed heat.  Each stimulus train can be independently
adjusted in intensity and frequency.

The radiofrequency field has a nominal carrier frequency of 40 MHz
and a maximum output of approximately 40 Watts.  The E- field is
applied to the patient on the sides of the neck through two disc
electrodes approximately 10 cm in diameter.  The electrodes are
located at a distance of 2-4 cm from the skin.

[Eleanor White's comment:  The fact that Dr. Ross Adey mentioned
an "audience" being put to sleep by the LIDA suggests that the
"E-field" electrodes may not play an essential role.  The radio
signal appears to be the primary cause of the sleep/trance effect.]

Optimal repetition frequencies are said to lie in the range from 40
to 80 pulses per minute.  Pulse duration is typically 0.2 sec.  In
an 8 year trial period, the instrument was tested on 740 patients,
including adults and children.  Postivive therapeutic effects were
claimed in more..."

Up to Contents



Human Auditory System Response To Modulated Electromagnetic Energy


General Electric Advanced Electronics Center Cornell University Ithaca, New York

TRANSCRIPTION, Courtesy of MindNet Archives, Mike Coyle
posted at http://www.ritualabuse.net/MCF/

Frey, Allan H., Human Auditory system response to modulated
electromagnetic energy. J. Appl. Physiol. 17(4): 689-692.  1962.

(*) Asterisks indicate unreadable characters in the original copy.

NOTE:  In 1962, frequencies were expressed as kiloCYCLES,
megaCYCLES, etc., with abbreviations being kc, mc

--The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomena to the
attention of physiologists.  Using extremely low average power
densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was
induced in normal and deaf humans.  The effect was induced several
hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned
on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation. Attempts
were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and
acoustic energy. 

The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by
the rf transmitter's modulator. Peak power density is a critical
factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 db, a peak power
density of approximately 275 mw / rf is needed to induce the
perception at carrier frequencies 125 mc and 1,310 mc.  The average
power density can be at rf as low as 400 _u_w/cm2.  The evidence for
the various positive sites of the electromagnetic energy sensor are
discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.

Received for publication 29 September 1961.

A significant amount of research has been conducted with the effects
of radio-frequency (rf) energy on organisms (electro- magnetic energy
between 1 kc and ** Gc). Typically, this work has been concerned with
determining damage resulting from body temperature increase.  The
average power densities used have been on the order of 0.1-t w/cm2
used over many minutes to several hours.

In contrast, using average power densities measured in microwatts per
square centimeter, we have found that ****r effects which are
transient, can be induced with rf energy.  Further, these effects
occur the instant the transmitter is turned on.  With appropriate
modulation, the perception of different sounds can be induced in
physically deaf, as well as normal, in human subjects at a distance
of inches up to thousands of feet from the transmitter.  With
somewhat different transmission parameters, you can induce the
perception of severe buffeting of the head, without such apparent
vestibular symptoms as dizziness or nausea.  Changing transmitter
parameters down, one can induce a "pins-and-needles" sensation.

Experimental work with these phenomena may yield information on
auditory system functioning and, more generally, in the nervous
system function.  For example, this energy could possibly be used as
a tool to explore nervous system coding, possibly using Neider and
Neff's procedures (1), and for stimulating the nervous system without
the damage caused by electrodes.

Since most of our data have been obtained of the "rf sound" and only
the visual system has previously been shown to respond to
electromagnetic energy, this paper will be concerned only with the
auditory effects data.  As a further restriction, only data from
human subjects will be reported, since only this data can be
discussed meaningfully at the present time.  The long series of
studies we performed to ascertain that we were dealing with a
biological significant phenomena (rather than broadcasts from sources
such as loose fillings in the teeth) are summarized in another paper
(2), which also reports on the measuring instruments used in this

The intent of this paper is to bring this new phenomenon to the
attention of physiologists.  The data reported are intended to
suggest numerous lines of experimentation and indicate necessary
experimental controls.

Since we are dealing with a significant phenomenon, we decided to
explore the effects of a wide range of transmitter parameters to
build up the body of knowledge which would allow us to generate
hypotheses and determine what experimental controls would be
necessary.  Thus, the numbers given are conservative; they should not
be considered precise, since the transmitters were never located in
ideal laboratory environments.  Within the limits of our
measurements, the orientation of the subject in the rf field was of
little consequence.

Most of the transmitters used to date in the experimentation have
been pulse modulated with no information placed on the signal.  The
rf sound has been described as being a buzz, clicking, hiss, or
knocking, depending on several transmitter parameters, i.e., pulse
width and pulse-repetition rate (PRF).  The apparent source of these
sounds is localized by the subjects as being within, or immediately
behind the head.  The sound always seems to come from within or
immediately behind the head no matter how the subjects twists or
rotates in the rf field.

Our early experimentation, preformed using transmitters with very
short square pulses and high pulse-repetition rates, seemed to
indicate that we were dealing with harmonics of the PRF.  However,
our later work has indicated that this is not the case; rather, the
rf sound appears to be incidental modulation envelope on each pulse,
as shown in Fig 1.

Some difficulty was experienced when the subjects tried to match the
rf sound to ordinary audio.  They reported that it was not possible
to satisfactorily match the rf sound to a sine wave or to white
noise.  An audio amplifier was connected to a variable bypass filter
and pulsed by the transmitter pulsing mechanism.  The subjects, when
allowed to control the filter, reported a fairly satisfactory match.
The subjects were fairly well satisfied with all frequencies below
5-kc audio were eliminated and the high- frequency audio was extended
as much as possible.  There was, however, always a demand for more
high-frequency components.  Since our tweeter has a rather good
high-frequency response, it is possible that we have shown an
analogue of visual phenomenon in which people see farther into the
ultraviolet range when the lenses is eliminated from the eye.  In
other words, this may be a demonstration that the mechanical
transmission system of the ossicles cannot respond to as high a
frequency as the rest of the auditory system.  Since the rf bypasses
the ossicle system and the audio given the subject for matching does
not, this may explain the dissatisfaction of our subjects in the


FIG. 1. Oscilloscope representation of transmitter output over            
        time (pulse-modulated).                                           
                 TRANSMITTER ELECTRONIC NOISE                             
                       |--(INCIDENTAL MODULATION)                         
                   :.:.:.:             :.:.:.:                            
                   |     |             |     |                            
                   |     |             |     |                            
                   |     |             |     |                            
                 ---     ---------------     -----------                  
                  ON     OFF          ON     OFF                          
FIG. 2. Audiogram of deaf subject (otosclerosis) who had a "normal"       
        rf sound threshold.                                               
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
            0|----|----|----|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| A = RIGHT BONE      
             |    |    A    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
             |----|----B----A--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| B = LEFT BONE       
             |    |    |  B |  A  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
  LOSS(db) 20|----|----|----B--B--AB-B--B--B--AB-|--| C = LEFT AIR        
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  A  |  |  |  |                     
             |----|----|----|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| D = RIGHT AIR       
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  C                     
             |    |    C C  C  |  |  |  |  |  C  |  |                     
             |    |    D    |  D  |  |  D  |  |  |  |                     
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
             |    |    |    |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |                     
                 125  250  500   1000  2000  4000  8000                   
                        FREQUENCY (cps)                                   
TABLE 1. Transmitter parameters                                           
Trans-   Frequency,    Wave-     Pulse Width,  Pulses Sec.   Duty Cy.     
mitter      mc       length, cm    _u_sec                                 
  A       1,310        22.9           6           244         .0015       
  B       2,982        10.4           1           400         .0004       
  C         425        70.6         125            27         .0038       
  D         425        70.6         250            27         .007        
  E         425        70.6         500            27         .014        
  F         425        70.6        1000            27         .028        
  G         425        70.6        2000            27         .056        
  H       8,900         3.4           2.5         400         .001        
FIG. 3. Attenuation of ambient sound with Flent antinoise stopples        
        (collated from Zwislocki (3) and Von Gierke (4).                  
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||                     
             |----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-||| A = FLENTS          
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||                     
           10|----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-||| B = THEORETICAL LIMIT
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||     OF ATTENUATION BY
FUNCTION(db) |----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-|||     EAR PROTECTORS  
             A    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||                     
             B    |   A  A  A | A AAA   A|   |  | |||                     
             |    |   |  |  B | | |||    | A |  | |||                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  A |A|                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||  B |   |  | |||                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    B   |  | B||                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    | B |  | |||                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||                     
             |    |   |  |  | | | |||    |   |  | |||                     
            100                    1000           10000                   
TABLE 2. Theshold for perception of rf sound (ambient noise level 70-     
         90 db).                                                          
                                 Avg        Peak     Peak    Magnetic     
                                Power      Power   Electric   Field       
Trans-   Frequency,  Duty Cy.  Density,   Density   Field      amp.       
mitter      mc                 mw, cm2    mw, cm2   v cm     turns, m     
  A       1,310      .0015      0.4         267      14         4         
  B       2,982      .0004      2.1       5,250      63        17         
  C         425      .0038      1.0         263      15         4         
  D         425      .007       1.9         271      14         4         
  E         425      .014       3.2         229      13         3         
  F         425      .028       7.1         254      14         4         
FIG. 4. Threshold energy as a function of frequency of electromagnetic    
        energy (ambient noise level 70-90 db).                            
  PEAK       |---------|-------------|--------------|                     
  POWER      |---------|-------------|-------------*|                     
  DENSITY    |---------|-------------|------------*-|                     
  (mw/cm2)   |         |             |          *   |                     
             |         |             |       *      |                     
             |         |             |    *         |                     
             |         |             |   *          |                     
             |         |             | *            |                     
             |         |       *     |              |                     
             | * * * * * * *         |              |                     
             |         |             |              |                     
             |         |             |              |                     
             |         |             |              |                     
            200       1000          2000           3000                   
                        FREQUENCY (mc)                                    
FIG. 5. Microwave power distribution in a forehead model neglecting       
        resonance effects and considering only first reflections          
        (from Nieset et al. (5), modified).                               
             |    REFLECTED                    ABSORBED                   
          1.5|--- FREQUENCIES                  FREQUENCIES                
             |                   * *                                      
             |                  *    *         * = 10% OF INCIDENT        
 CENTIMETERS |Cortical         *                       POWER              
             |Tissue                    *                                 
             |                *                @ = 20% OF INCIDENT        
          1.0|---                         *            POWER              
             |                *                                           
             |                *              *                            
             |               *                 *                          
          0.5|---           *      @  @   @       *                       
             |Muscle     *    @               @                           
             |Fat          @                     @    *                   
             |Skin       @                          @ @                   
             0          100        1000        10000       100000         
                        FREQUENCY (mc)                                    
FIG. 6. Area most sensitive to electromagnetic energy (shaded portion).   
                            *   *  * * * *                                
                        *                    *                            
                      *                        *                          
                     * *       ::::::           *                         
                      *  *   :::::::::          *                         
                     *  O  *  ::::::::          *                         
                   *              * *           *                         
                     *               *          *                         
                     *               *         *                          
                      ***         **          *                           
                     *        *             *                             
                       *  * * *             *                             
                              *              *                            
                              *               *                           
                               * * * * * * * * *                          


At one time in our experimentation with deaf subjects there seemed to
be a clear relationship between the ability to hear audio above 5 kc
and the ability to hear rf sounds.  If a subject could hear above 5
kc, either by bone or air conduction, then he could hear the rf
sounds.  For example, the threshold of the subject whose audio gram
appears in Fig. 2 was the same average power density as our normal
subjects.  Recently, however, we have found people with a notch
around 5 kc who do not perceive the rf sounds generated by at least
one of our transmitters.


As shown in Table 1, we have used a fairly wide range of transmitter
parameters.  We are currently experimenting with transmitters that
radiate energy at frequencies below 425 mc, and are using different
types of modulation, e.g., pulse-repetition rates as low as 3 and

In the experimentation reported in this section, the ordinary noise
level was 70-90 db (measured with a General Radio Co. model 1551-B
sound level meter.)  In order to minimize the rf energy used in the
experimentation, subjects wore Flent antinoise ear stoppers whenever
measurements were made.  The ordinary noise attenuation of the Flents
is indicated in Fig. 3.  Although the rf sounds can be heard without
the use of Flents, eventhough they have an ambient noise evel of 90
db, it appears that the ambient noise to some extent "masked" the rf

Table 2 gives the thresholds for the perception of the sounds.  It
shows fairly clearly that the critical factor in the perception of
the rf sound is the peak power density, rather than the average power
density.  The relatively high value for transmitter B was expected
and will be discussed below.  Transmitter G has been omitted from the
table since the 20-mw/cm2 reading for it can be considered only
approximate.  The field-strength-measuring instruments used in that
experiment did not read high enough to give an accurate reading.  The
energy from transmitter H was not perceived, even when the peak power
density was as high as 25 w/cm2.

When the threshold energy is plotted as a function of the rf energy
(Fig. 4), a curve is obtained which is suggestive of the curve of
penetration of rf energy into the head.  Figure 5 shows the
calculated penetration, by frequency of rf energy, into the head. Our
data indicate that the calculated penetration curve may well be
accurate at the higher frequencies but the penetration at the lower
frequencies may be greater than that calculated on this model.

As previously noted, the thresholds were obtained in a high ambient
noise environment.  This is an unusual situation as compared to
obtaining thresholds of regular audio sound.  One recent
experimentation leads us to believe that, if the ambient noise level
were not so high, these threshold fields strengths would be much
lower. Since one purpose of this paper is to suggest experiments, it
might be appropriate to theories as to what the rf sound threshold
might be if we assumed that the subject is in an anechoic chamber.
It is also assumed that there is no transducer noise.

Given: As a threshold for the rf sound, a peak power density of 275
mw/cm2 determined in an ambient noise environment of 80 db. Earplugs
attenuate the ambient noise 30 db.

If: 1 mw/cm2 is set equal to o db, then 275 mw/cm2 is equal to 24 db.

Then: We can reduce the rf energy 50 db to -26 db as we reduce the
noise level energy from 50 db to o db.  We found that -26 db rf
energy is approximately 3 _u_w/cm2.

Thus:  If an anechoic room, rf sound could theoretically be induced
by a peak power density of 3 _u_w/cm2 measured in free space.  Since
only 10% of this energy is likely to penetrate the skull, the human
auditory system and a table radio may be one order of magnitude apart
in sensitivity to rf energy.

Up to Contents


One possibility that seems to have been ruled out in our
experimentation is that of a capacitor-type effect with the tympanic
membrane and oval window acting as plates of a capacitor. It would
seem possible that these membranes, acting as plates of a capacitor,
could be set in motion by rf energy.  There are, however, three
points of evidence against this possibility.  First, when one rotates
a capacitor in an rf field, a rather marked change occurs in the
capacitor as a function of its orientation in the field.  When our
subjects rotate or change the positions of their heads in the field,
the loudness of the rf sound does not change appreciably.  Second,
the distance between these membranes is rather small, compared with
the wavelengths used.  As a third point, we found that one of our
subjects who has otosclerosis heard the rf sound.

Another possible location for the detecting mechanism is in the
cochlea.  We have explored this possibility with nerve-deaf people,
but the results are inconclusive due to factors such as tinnitus. We
are currently exploring this possibility with animal preparations.

The third likely place for the detection mechanism is the brain. Burr
and Mauro (6) presented evidence that indicates that there is an
electrostatic field about neurons.  Morrow and Sepiel (7) presented
evidence that indicates the existence of a magnetic field about
neurons.  Becker (personal communication) has done some work
indicating that there is longitudinal flow of charged carriers in
neurons.  Thus, it is reasonable to suspect that possibly the
electromagnetic field could interact with neuron fields.  As yet,
evidence of this possibility is inconclusive.  The strongest point
against it is that we have not found visual effects although we have
searched for them.  On the other hand, we have obtained other
nonauditory effects and have found that the sensitive area for
detecting rf sounds is a region over the temporal lobe of the brain.
One can shield, with a 2-in.2 piece of fly screen, a portion of the
stippled area shown in Fig. 6 and completely cut off the rf sound.

Another possibility should also be considered.  There is no good
reason to assume that there is only one detector site.  On the
contrary, the work of Jones et al. (8), in which they placed
electrodes in the ear and electrically stimulated the subject, is
sufficiently relevant to suggest the possibility of more than one
detector site. Also, several sensations have been elicited with
properly modulated electromagnetic energy.  It is doubtful that all
of these can be attributed to one detector.

As mentioned earlier, the purpose of this paper is to focus the
attention of physiologists on an unusual area and stimulate
additional work on which interpretations can be based.
Interpretations have been deliberately omitted from this paper since
additional data are needed before a clear picture can emerge. It is
hoped that the additional exploration will also result in an increase
in our knowledge of nervous system functions.


Neider, P.C. and W.D. Neff. Science 133: 1010, 1961.
Frey, A.H.  Aero Space Med. 32: 1140, 1961.
Zwislocki, J. Noise Control 4:42, 1958.
Von Gierke, H. Noise Control 2:37, 1956.
Nifset, R., Pinneo R. Baus J. Fleming, & R. McAfee.  Ann. Rept. USAF
Rome Air Development Command, TR-61-65, 1961.
Burr, H., & J.  Seipel, J. Wash Acad. Sci. 21: 455, 1949.
Morrow, R., & J.  Seipel. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30: 1, 1969.
Jones, R.C., S.S.  Stevens, & M.H. Laurie. J. Acoust. Sci. Am. 12: 281, 1940.

Up to Contents





TITLE: Effects of low power microwaves on the local cerebral blood flow of
conscious rats

Original web link, folded for readability

Eleanor White's inserted note:

See the ITALIC text below.  This abstract has implications
FAR beyond "rats"

Document ID:   19810004209  N (81N12720) File Series: NASA Technical Reports
Report Number: AD-A090426
Sales Agency & Price: CASI Hardcopy or Microfiche

Oscar, K. J. (Army Mobility Equipment Command)

Published: Jun 01, 1980

Corporate Source:
Army Mobility Equipment Command (Fort Belvoir, VA, United States)
Pages: 10
Contract Number: None



A decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to
remotely create the perception of noise in the heads of personnel by
exposing them to low power, pulsed microwaves. When people are
illuminated with properly modulated low power microwaves the
sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems
to originate (regardless of the person's position in the field)
within or just behind the head. The phenomena occurs at average power
densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier
frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. By proper choice of pulse
characteristics, intelligible speech may be created. Before this
technique may be extended and used for military applications, an
understanding of the basic principles must be developed. Such an
understanding is not only required to optimize the use of the concept
for camouflage, decoy and deception operations but is required to
properly assess safety factors of such microwave exposure.

Major Subject Terms:


Minor Subject Terms:


Language Note: English

NASA Access Help Desk

E-mail:  help@sti.nasa.gov
Phone:   301-621-0390 
FAX: 301-621-0134

Eleanor White's comments:  I have received this report in it's
entirety and I find that the article itself is about the title:
Cerebral blood flow in rats.  We involuntary experimentees are
extremely lucky that the authors mentioned the success of microwave
voice to skull transmission in this official document.

Below I have extracted some of the references to the full document
which appear to be more promising and specific.  This sub-list is
guesswork since the references omit article titles, but any articles
by Frey or Justesen are potentially useful.

1.  Frey, A.H., Messenger, R. and Eichert, E.,
    National Technical Information Service,
    Doc. No. AD747684 (1972)

5.  Justesen, D.R., IEEE Spectrum 16, 67-68 (1979)

7.  Frey, A.H., Feld, S.R., & Frey, B. Annals of
    N.Y. Academy of Science, 247, 433-439 (1975)

18. Frey, A.H., & Messenger, R., Science  181,
    356-358 (1973)

25. Frey, A.H., & Feld, S.R., Journal of Comp.
    Physiology and Psychology,  89, 183-188

27. King, N.W., Justesen, D.R., & Clarke, R.L.,
    Science  172, 398-401 (1977)

Up to Contents




Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect

Web address:
Awarding Agency:  Department of Defense
SBIR Contract Number: F41624-95-C-9007
Title: Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect
Principal Investigator: Mr. Brian Kohn

Company Name:
Science & Engineering Assoc, Inc.
6100 Uptown Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Telephone Number: 505-884-2300
Business Representative:
Project Period:
Project Amount: $739,995
Research Category: Monitoring/Analytical


An innovative and revolutionary technology is described that offers a
means of low-probability-of-intercept Radio frequency (RF)
communications.    The feasibility of the concept has been
established using both a low intensity laboratory system and a
high power RF transmitter.  Numerous military applications exist in
areas of search and rescue, security and special operations.

Supplemental Keywords: small business, SBIR,
See also: http://www.seabase.com
Last Updated:  November 17, 1997



Program: SBIR
Agency: AF  Field
Office: AL
TOPIC Number: AF93-026
Control Number: 93AL -185
Contract Number: F41624-93-C-9013
Phase: 1
Awarded In: 93
Award Amount: $37,806
Award Start Date: 17 MAY 93
Award Completion Date: 17 DEC 93
Proposal Title: Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect
Principal Investigator Name:Brian Kohn
Principal Investigator Phone:505-884-2300
SEA Plaza
6100 Uptown Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Woman Owned:  N
Minority Owned:  N
Number of Employees:  95



In this research program, we plan to investigate a revolutionary new
form of communication based on the microwave auditory effect. This
proposed communication idea satisfies the requirements for an
innovative, natural interface requiring no learning or training for
efficient operation and effective communications. The purpose of the
program proposed here is to extend the results of a recent
feasibility study, performed for the Armstrong Laboratory/OEDR. The
study found that voice communications, via the microwave auditory
effect, are highly feasible. In Phase I of this SBIR, we propose to
investigate the range of potential applications for this radically
different form of voice communication and recommend hardware and
systems concepts suitable for laboratory and brassboard
demonstrations to be built under Phase II.

Up to Contents




Electromagnetic Interaction With Biological Systems
edited by Dr. James C. Lin, University of Illinois
1989 Plenum Press, New York

Proceedings of the Joint Symposium on Interactions of
Electromagnetic Waves with Biological Systems, held as part
of the Twenty-Second General Assembly of the International
Union of Radio Science, Aug 25 - Sept 2, 1987, in Tel Aviv,

ISBN 0-306-43109-2
QP82.2.N64E44 1989
612.01448-dc19 88-38957

Eleanor White's comments on this posting:

This book focusses on NON-ionizing radiation, and contains
detailed texts about NON-THERMAL effects.  In other words,
"right up our alley".

The main use of this book is to show that it is easy for
electromagnetic signals to cause radio frequency hearing and other
effects at LOW power levels.  This in turn can be used to explain why
DETECTION is so very difficult.

I don't understand the biological jargon, however, a few of the more
plain-language paragraphs STUNNINGLY verify that with careful choice
of signal frequency and modulation, not only can the body's cells
detect the modulation envelope of an incoming radio signal (i.e.
function as a "cellular crystal set") but even AMPLIFY these
carefully formed signals.  (Amplification of other effects, such as
proneness to disease, is also covered in the book.)

"Detection", in terms of radio signal reception, means that some
portion of the reciever "rectifies", that is, turns the AC of the
incoming signal into varying DC.  If this conversion is not done,
voice to skull wouldn't work.

The book touches also on ways in which cells communicate, and
shows that electromagnetic fields of relatively weak power levels
can affect intercellular communication, which is, as I understand
the subject, what the brain is "all about".

Bio-amplification is apparently why radio signals of very low average
power ("MICROwatts" per NASA) can still produce audio effects,
and no doubt plays a part in difficulties in detection.

When two more characteristics of voice to skull are factored in:

1. The carrier signal can be "hopped" continuously within the
   bioeffective bandwidth, known as "spread spectrum" transmission,

2. The voice modulation most effective for undetectable hypnosis
   is evidently a voice shifted just above normal hearing, but still
   audible to the brain,

...you have a recipe for incredibly difficult signals to detect.

This book is a mainstream publication, very well suited to use
in our publicity and persuasion campaigns, and our dealings with
authorities who claim radio signals don't affect living tissue
except to heat it.

Finally, many thanks to Blanche Chavoustie for providing me
photocopies of this book - a saintly work!


Page 110:
At that time [1953] excitatory mechanisms in nerver fibers
and nerve cells were grouped under a common rubric of ionic
equilibrium mechanisms.  There was little interest in the
possibility that functional organization of mebranes of cell
bodies might involve threshhold sensitivities to both
oscillating EM fields and to molecular stimuli at energy
levels substantially lower than predicted by Hodgkin-
Huxley models, and substantially below typical threshholds
in nerve fibers.

Much recent research cited below has shown that imposed weak
low frequency fields (and radiofrequency fields amplitude-
modulated at ELF frequencies) that are many orders of
magnitude weaker in the pericellular fluid [fluid between
adjacent cells] than the membrane potential gradient [voltage
across the membrane] can modulate actions of hormone, anti-
body neurotransmitter and cancer-promoter molecules at their
cell surface receptor sites.

From their electrical characteristics, these sensitivities
appear to involve nonequilibrium and highly cooperative
processes that mediate a major amplification of initial
weak triggers associated with binding of these molecules at
their specific cell surface receptor sites.

(Adey, 1983, 1986, 1987; Adey and Lawrence, 1984; Lawrence
and Adey, 1982).

Page 122:

Cooperative Modification of Calcium Binding by RF Fields
at Cell Surfaces with Amplification of Initial Signals

Initial stimuli associated with weak perpindicular EM fields
and with binding of stimulating molecules at their membrane
receptor sites elicit a HIGHLY COOPERATIVE modification of
Ca++ binding to glycoproteins along the membrane surface.

As noted above, a longitudinal spread is consistent with
the direction of extracellular current flow associated with
physiological activity and imposed EM fields.  This cooper-
ative modification of surface Ca++ binding is an
AMPLIFYING STAGE, with evidence from concurent initial molecular
binding events by imposed RF fields that there is a far greater
increase in Ca++ efflux than is accounted for in the events of
receptor-ligand binding (Bawin and Adey, 1976; Bawin et al,
1975; Liu-Liu and Adey, 1982).

Page 124:
Enzymes are protein molecules that function as catalysts,
initiating and enhancing chemical reactions that would not
otherwise occur at tissue temperatures.  This ability resides
in the pattern of electrical charges on the molecular surface.
In the fashion of more familiar chemical catalysts, such as
the hydrocarbon oxidation systems which function only at very
high temperatures in automotive exhaust systems, a catalyst
emerges unchanged from these reactions and is thus able to
participate indefinitely in a specific reaction.

Activation of these enzymes and the reactions in which they
participate involve energies millions of times greater than
in the cell surface cell surface triggering events initiated
by the EM fields, emphasizing the MEMBRANE AMPLIFICATION
inherent in this trans-membrane signaling sequence.

Page 131:
Stimulus Amplification in Cooperative Systems
It is therefore clear that OBSERVED EM field interactions
with cells and tissues based on oscillating ELF tissue gradients
between 10 E-7 and 10 E-1 volts per centimeter would involve
cooperativity MANY ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE GREATER than envisaged in
the examples just cited.

In part this discrepancy appears to relate to far greater
sensitivities to low-frequency EM fields [EW: ELF, that is, the
"entrainment" frequencies] and to RF fields with low-frequency
amplitude-modulation [EW: this includes radar hearing signals]
than to imposed step functions or DC gradients [EW: common
with contact electrodes, not of interest in mind control at a
distance] used in many electrochemical experiments and models
to test levels of cooperativity in biological systems.
(Blank, 1972)

[EW: In plain language, both entrainment (ELF) fields and
pulsating radar-like (RF) fields are a hell of a lot more
influential on cells than some experimental work using DC
and electrode methods.]

Page 95:

[EW: This section is not part of the demonstration that EM
signals can be biologically amplified, as above.  It's main
interest is that a magnetophosphene "gun" was under consider-
ation by the U.S. National Institute of Justice in 1993, along
with a "fever" gun and a "convulsion" gun, both using micro-
wave technology.  As of 1999, nothing has been heard from NIJ
on this development, however, page 95 here suggests that such
a microwave weapon is feasible.]


An effect of time-varying magnetic fields on humans was first
described by d'Arsonval (1896) [EW: Anyone doubt there has
been some progress since 1896?] is the induction of a flicker-
ing illumination within the visual field field known as
magnetophosphenes.  This phenomenon occurs as an immediate
response to stimulation by either pulsed or sinusoidal magnetic
fields with frequencies less than 100 Hz, and the effect is
completely reversible with no apparent influence on visual
acuity.  The maximum visual sensitivity to sinusoidal magnetic
fields has been found at a frequency of 20 Hz in human subjects
with normal vision.

[EW: Radio signals are a combination of electric and magnetic
fields.  To radiate a 20 Hz signal would require such huge
antennas that it is impractical to do so.  I'd recommend that
if someone has the facilities and skills, I'd try some VHF (or
microwave) pulsing at 20 Hz on an RF carrier at, say, the 2-meter
(144-148 MHz) ham band with a duty cycle, say, of 20% pulse-ON

Up to Contents



Microwaves and Behavior
Dr. Don R. Justesen
Laboratories of Experimental Neuropsychology
Veterans Administration Hospital
Kansas City, Missouri
as published in
American Psychologist
Journal of the American Psychological Association
Volume 30, March 1975, Number 3

................ Eleanor's comments .........................

This article describes in precise terms how Dr. Joseph C.
Sharp and staff transmitted the WORDS for the digits 1 to 10
using a modulated version of an Allan Frey type pulsed
microwave transmitter.  A detailed description of Frey
transmitters can be viewed at:

Appendix PM2

The relevant text is below.

Page 396:


The demonstration of sonic transduction of microwave energy
by materials lacking in water LESSENS the likelihood that a
thermohydraulic principle is operating in human perception
of the energy.  Nonetheless, some form of thermoacoustic
transduction probably underlies perception.  If so, it is
clear that simple heating is NOT a sufficient basis for the
Frey effect; the requirement for pulsing of radiations
appears to implicate a thermodynamic principle.

Frey and Messenger (1973) and Guy, Chou, Lin, and Christen-
sen (1975) confirmed that a microwave pulse with a slow rise
time is INeffective in producing an auditory response; only
if the rise time is SHORT, resulting in effect in a square
wave with respect to the leading edge of the envelope of
radiated radio-frequency energy, does the auditory response

[Eleanor's comment:  This is why we don't "hear" ordinary
radio and TV signals.]

Thus the rate of change (the first derivative) of the
waveform of the pulse is a CRITICAL factor in perception.
Given a thermodynamic interpretation, it would follow that
information can be encoded in the energy and "communicated"
to the "listener".

Communication has in fact been demonstrated.  A. Guy (Note
1), a skilled telegrapher, arranged for his father, a retired
railroad telegrapher, to operate a key, each closure and
opening of which resulted in a pulse of microwave energy.
By directing the radiations at his own head, complex mess-
ages via the Continental Morse Code were readily received
by Guy.

Sharp and Grove (note 2) found that appropriate modu-
lation of microwave energy can result in "wireless" and
"receiverless" communication of SPEECH.  The recorded by
voice on tape each of the single-syllable words for digits
between 1 and 10.  The electrical sine-wave analogs of each
word were then processed so that each time a sine wave
pulse of microwave energy was triggered.

[Eleanor's comment:  This is, in effect a form of what is
called pulse-RATE modulation.]

By radiating themselves with these "voice modulated"
microwaves, Sharp and Grove were READILY able to hear,
identify, and distinguish among the 9 words.  [Typo?]
The sounds heard were not unlike those emitted by persons
with artificial larynxes.

Communication of more complex words and of sentences was
not attempted because the averaged densities of energy
required to transmit longer messages would approach the
current 10 milliwatts per square centimeter limit of safe

The capability of communicating directly with a human being
by "receiverless radio" has obvious potentialities both
within and without the clinic.  But the hotly debated and
unresolved question of how much microwave radiation a human
being can safely be exposed to will probably forestall
applications within the near future.

Up to Contents




A Warning to the World from Russian Psychotronic Researchers

Unclassified FOIA document, courtesy Cheryl Welsh, which is a bulletin
circulated among U.S. government agencies reviewing an October 6, 1995
Russian TV news segment titled "Man and Law" on the topic of mind
control technology.  The images below complement another video produced
by German ZDF TV and shown on December 22, 1998.  The 1998 video's
transcribed sound track, in English is posted at:


Here are the images of the FOIA document:



Up to Contents






Date sent:        Fri, 10 May 1996 17:52:55 -0700 (PDT)
To:               MindNet@c2.org
From:             vericomm@c2.org
Subject:          MindNet Journal - Vol. 1, No. 73

    V E R I C O M M / MindNet         "Quid veritas est?"

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copy remain intact and unedited.

Editor: Mike Coyle

Assistant Editor: Rick Lawler

Research: Darrell Bross


Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Physiological Responses Applicable to Development of
Less-Than-Lethal Weapons

Sponsored by National Institute of Justice

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Less-than-lethal weapons have a variety of applications in law
enforcement, including rescuing hostages, stopping fleeing
felons, and quelling prison disturbances. The National Institute
of Justice is sponsoring a broad program to develop new
techniques for "friendly force" as an alternative to the use of
deadly force. As part of this program, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL) is examining approaches based on known
physiological responses to certain types of stimuli. These
"weapons" would temporarily incapacitate an individual or a
group with no lasting physiological damage. These concepts are
based on ORNL's experience and expertise in biological-based
systems and biophysical responses, particularly in evaluating
the physical responses of humans to a variety of chemical,
physical and radiological agents. ORNL also has extensive
experience and expertise in risk analysis and in risk assessment
and modeling.

The ORNL less than-lethal weapons project sponsored by the
National Institute of Justice began in September 1993. The
following tasks are being performed:

*   Locate and compile data from tests, accidents, medical
    literature, etc. on biological and biophysical responses
    to energetic stimuli (such as electromagnetic fields).
*   Analyze the information and identify promising candidate
    mechanisms for further development for a friendly force
*   Evaluate the applicability of the proposed approaches to
    several realistic scenarios (such as hostage rescue or riot

ORNL has already examined several possible concepts for
less-than-lethal weapons based on known physiological responses
to energetic stimuli, including a thermal gun, a seizure gun,
and a magnetophosphene gun. A thermal gun would have the
operational effect of heating the body to 105 to 107F, thereby
incapacitating any threat, based on the fact that even a slight
fever can affect the ability of a person to perform even simple
tasks. This approach is built on four decades of research
relating radio frequency exposure to body heating. A seizure gun
would use electromagnetic energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures in persons within the range of a particular
electromagnetic field. The magnetophosphene gun is designed
around a biophysical mechanism which evokes a visual response
and is thought to be centered in the retina, known as
magnetophosphenes. This effect is experienced when a person
receives a blow to the head and sees "stars". This same effect
can be produced with electromagnetic energy. While there are a
number of technical challenges to be overcome in building
devices of these types, less-than-lethal weapons based on
physiological responses to energetic stimuli would provide a
safe and effective means of dealing with a number of law
enforcement situations where use of deadly force is not

For further information contact:

Ray Downs, National Institute of Justice (202) 616-3509 Susan
Sherrow, Oak Ridge Special Projects Office (615) 576-8024

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy
Laboratory Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.


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Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Section A, November 22, 1976

Mind-Altering Microwaves:  Soviets Studying Invisible Ray

A newly declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report
says extensive Soviet research into microwaves might lead to
methods of causing disoriented human behavior, nerve disorders,
and even heart attacks.


A copy of the study was provided by the agency to the Associated
Press in response to a request under the Freedom of Information


Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating
intercranially (within the head) can be induced by signal
modulation at very low average power densities, the study said.


One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart
seizure, the report said.

It said this has been accomplished experimentally in frogs
by synchronizing the pulses of a microwave signal with the
animal's heartbeat and beaming the radiation at the chest


Microwave News, January-February 1987


Six hundred scientists and engineers with security clearances
spend the first week of December at Kirtland Air Force Base in
New Mexico examining the potential of high-power microwaves to
zap enemy electronics...

... Many branches of the Department of Defense were represented,
including the Air Force, the Army and the Navy, together with
DARPA, DIA, and DNA.  The Lawrence Livermore Labs were also
well represented, as were most of the big defense contractors -
General Dynamics, Physics International and TRW each have a
high-power microwave testing facility.

In addition to these sources, susceptibility and hardening,
there was one on biological effects:  Dr. David Erwin and
Major Robert Downs represented the Air Force and Howard Bassen
and Dr. John D'Andrea described the Army and Navy programs,
respectively.  Dr. Frank Barnes of the University of Colorado
in Boulder presented a poster paper on his and Dr. Howard
Wachtel's research on the effects of pulsed microwaves.

Chuck de Caro, a former correspondent for the Cable News Network,
considers the possibility that the U.S. is falling behind the
U.S.S.R. in microwave weapons in "The Zap Gap", to be published
in the March issue of "The Atlantic" (see also MWN November-
December 1986).


Microwave News, January-February 1996

RF WEAPONS - Disabling People and Electronics

The military continues to explore development of RF weapons
for the conflicts of the future.  For instance, the "First
Directed Energy Warfare (DEW) Conference", held last year
at the Mitre Corp. in McLean VA, featured Dr. David Erwin
of the Armstrong Lab at Brooks AFB, San Antonio, TX, on
"Directed Energy Warfare RF Effects", and D.r Jose Pina of
the CIA on "Ground Combat Applications of RF".  Other topics
included "Personnel Vulnerability" and Directed Energy
Warfare Biological Effects".

The June meeting was organized by the Association of Old
Crows, whose members are specialists in electronic warfare.
Conference participants had to have security clearances of
"Secret" or higher, as has been the case at similar meetings
in the past (See MWN, J-F 87 and N-D 93).

Public discussions of RF/MW weapons have focussed on dis-
rupting technology.  But a recent Article in the Airpower
Journal revealed "for the first time that the military is
developing high-powered microwave weapons for use against
human beings", reports Peter Cassidy in the January 1996
"Progressive" (see p. 14).

RF/MW and EMF-based weapons are also being studied for
civilian law enforcement.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) in Oak Ridge TN will soon complete a literature
review for the National Insitute of Justice on the
feasibility of "thermal guns" which could heat the body to
105 to 107 degrees F and incapacitate the target; "seizure
guns" which would use EM energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures; and "magnetophosphene guns" which would cause
the target to "see stars".

The institute's Ray Downs in Washington cautioned that the
report may not be made public.  ORNL's Dr. Clay Easterly
has said that some effects not associated with heating
could be useful in developing nonlethal weapons.
(See MWN, N-D 93.)


Microwave News, September-October 1996, page 19

Stop That Car or We'll Zap You

They're the sexiest gadgets in this year's action movies:
EMP weapons, which use electromagnetic pulses to zap
electronics.  They have starring roles in Goldeneye, the
latest James Bond movie, as well as in Broken Arrow, Escape
From LA, and Eraser.  And soon they may be coming to a
police car near you.

Law Enforcement News (September 30) reports that the U.S.
Army and the National Institute of Justice are running a
$500,000 field test to see if EMP guns can force a car to
stop by disabling its electrical systems.  The plan is to
use EMP to do away with high speed chases (another Hollywood
staple).  This is another example of the growing interest in
using nonlethal weapons developed by the military.

Up to Contents