[1]. Budd Hopkins, Missing Time (New York: Richard Marek Publishers, 1981) and Intruders (New York: Random House, 1987).

[2]. Whitley Strieber, Communion (New York: Beech Tree Books,1987).

[3]. Cannon, “Psychiatric Abuse of UFO Witness,” UFO magazine, Vol. 3, No. 5 (December, 1988).

[4]. Philip Klass, UFO Abductions: A Dangerous Game (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1988). Klass makes some sharp observations, which are undercut by his refusal to interview abductees directly. The work has no footnotes and depends heavily on the work of Dr. Martin Orne — of whom more anon.

[5]. See bibliography.

[6]. New York: Bantam Books, 1979.

[7]. See generally Project MKULTRA, the CIA's Program of Research In Behavior Modification, joint hearing before the Select Committee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, Unites States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977).

[8]. Robert Eringer, “Secret Agent Man,” Rolling Stone, 1985.

[9]. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti (Marks files, available at the National Security Archives, Washington, D.C.).

[10]. In an interview with John Marks, hypnosis expert Milton Kline, a veteran of clandestine experimentation in this field, averred that his work for the government continued. Since the interview took place in 1977, years after the CIA allegedly halted mind control research, we must conclude either that the CIA lied, or that another agency continued the work. In another interview with Marks, former Air Force-CIA liaison L. Fletcher Prouty confirmed that the Department of Defense ran studies either in conjunction with or parallel to those operated by the CIA. (Marks files.)

[11]. Estabrooks, Hypnosis (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1957 [revised edition]), 13-14.

[12]. A copy of this letter can be found in the Marks files.

[13]. Estabrooks attracted an eclectic group of friends, including J. Edgar Hoover and Alan Watts.

[14]. Interview with daughter Doreen Estabrooks, Marks files, Washington, D.C.

[15]. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams (New York: Grove Press, 1985) 3-4; Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 6-8.

[16]. Marks, ibid. 4-6.

[17]. Edward Hunter, Brainwashing in Red China (New York: Vanguard Press, 1951.). Hunter invented the term “brainwashing” in a September 24, 1950 Miami News article.

[18]. “Japan's germ experiments,” The Globe and Mail (Toronto), May 19, 1982.

[19]. Walter Bowart, Operation Mind Control (New York: Dell, 1978), 191-2, quoting Warren Commission documents. We cannot fairly derive from this statement a sanguine attitude about present Soviet capabilities; in this field, even outdated technology suffices for mischief.

[20]. Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 60-61. A folk etymology has it that the “MK” of MKULTRA stands for “Mind Kontrol.” According to Marks, TSS prefixed the cryptonyms of all its projects with these initials. Note, though, that MKULTRA was preceded by a still-mysterious TSS program called QKHILLTOP.

[21]. Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 224-229. Seven MKULTRA subprojects were continued, under TSS supervision, as MKSEARCH. This project ended in 1972. CIA apologists often proclaim that “brainwashing” research ceased in either 1962 or 1972; these blandishments refer to the TSS projects, not to the ORD work, which remains terra incognita for independent researchers. Marks discovered that the ORD research was so voluminous that retrieving documents via FOIA would have proven unthinkably expensive.

[22]. For a description of the research into parapsychology, see Ronald M. McRae's Mind Wars (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). The best book available on a subject which awaits a truly authoritative text.

[23]. Abduction researcher and hypnotherapist Miranda Park, of Lancaster, California, reports that she has viewed such anomalies in abductee MRI scans. See also Whitley Strieber, Transformations (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1988) 246-247. At this writing, both Strieber and Hopkins report initially promising results in their efforts to document the presence of these “extras” in abductees.

[24]. Allegedly, the experiment took place in 1964. However, in Were We Controlled? (New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1967), the pseudonymous “Lincoln Lawrence” makes an interesting argument (on page 36) that the demonstration took place some years earlier.

[25]. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Much of Delgado's work was funded by the Office of Naval Intelligence, a common conduit for CIA funds during the 1950s and '60s. (Gordon Thomas' Journey Into Madness (New York: Bantam, 1989) misleadingly implies that CIA interest in Delgado's work began in 1972.)

[26]. J.M.R. Delgado. “Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients,” Psychotechnology (Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel, editors; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973): 195.

[27]. David Krech, “Controlling the Mind Controllers,” Think 32 (July-August), 1966.

[28]. Delgado, Physical Control of the Mind.

[29]. Delgado, “Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free patients,” 195.

[30]. Note, for example, Charles Hickson's account of the Pascagoula Incident. Charles Hickson and William Mendez, UFO Contact at Pascagoula (Tucson: Wendelle C. Stevens, 1983).

[31]. John Ranelagh, The Agency (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1986): 208. Marchetti casts this story in the form of an amusing anecdote: After much time and expense, a cat was suitably trained and prepared — only, on its first assignment, to be run over by a taxi. Marchetti neglects to point out that nothing stopped the Agency from getting another cat. Or from using a human being.

[32]. Of course, this suggestion raises the knotty question of whether the abductees suffer from a form of schizophrenia, which may also be characterized by “voices.” I refer the reader to the work of Hopkins, Strieber, Thomas Bullard, and others who have described the difficulties of ascribing all abductions to psychotic states.

[33]. Alan W. Scheflin and Edward M. Opton, Jr., The Mind Manipulators (London: Paddington Press, 1978), 347.

[34]. Thomas, Journey Into Madness, 276.

[35]. James Olds, “Hypothalamic Substrates of Reward,” in Physiological Reviews, 1962, 42:554; “Emotional Centers in the Brain,” Science Journal, 1967, 3 (5).

[36]. Vernon Mark and Frank Ervin, Violence and the Brain (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), chapter 12, excerpted in Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior Modification, prepared by the Staff of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1974).

[37]. John Lilly, The Scientist (Berkeley, Ronin Publishing, 1988 [revised edition]), 90. Monkeys allowed to stimulate themselves continually via ESB brought themselves to orgasm once every three minutes, sixteen hours a day. Scientific gatherings throughout the world saw motion pictures of these experiments, which surely made spectacular cinema.

[38]. Scheflin and Opton, The Mind Manipulators, 336-337. Heath even monitored his patient's brain responses during the subject's first heterosexual encounter. Such is the nature of the brave new world before us.

[39]. Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Richard M. Bird, “Sociotechnical Design Factors in Remote Instrumentation with Humans in Natural Environments,” Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 1970, 2, 99-105.

[40]. Thomas, Journey Into Madness, 277. In the Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation article referenced above, Schwitzgebel details how the radio signals may be fed into a telephone line via a modem and thus analyzed by a computer anywhere in the world.

[41]. Scheflin and Opton, The Mind Manipulators, 347-349.

[42]. Louis Tackwood and the Citizen's Research and Investigation Committee, The Glass House Tapes (New York: Avon, 1973), 226.

[43]. Perry London, Behavior Control (New York: Harper and Row, 1969), 145.

[44]. Scheflin and Opton, The Mind Manipulators, 351-353; Tackwood, The Glass House Tapes, 228.

[45]. “Beepers in kids' heads could stop abductors,” Las Vegas Sun, Oct. 27, 1987.

[46]. Lilly, The Scientist, 91.

[47]. Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 151-154.

[48]. Interestingly, Lilly has come out of the closet as a sort of proto-Strieber; The Scientist recounts his close interaction with alien (though not necessarily extraterrestrial) forces which he labels “solid state entities.”

[49]. The story of Deep Trance, an MKULTRA “insider” who provided invaluable information, is somewhat involved. I do not know who Trance is/was and Marks may not know either. He contacted Trance via the writer of an article published shortly before research on The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate” began, addressing his informant “Dear Source whose anonymity I respect.” I respect it too — hence my reticence to name the aforementioned article, which may mark a trail to Trance. The fact that I have not followed this trail would not prevent others from doing so.

[50]. London, Behavior Control, 139.

[51]. See generally, UFO magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2; especially the interesting contribution by Whitley Strieber.

[52]. Lawrence, Were We Controlled?, 36-37; Anita Gregory, “Introduction to Leonid L. Vasiliev's Experiments In Distant Influence,” in Psychic Warfare: Fact Or Fiction (editor: John White) (Nottinghamshire: Aquarian, 1988) 34-57.

[53]. Lawrence, Were We Controlled?, 38.

[54]. Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 261-264.

[55]. Ibid. 263.

[56]. Lawrence, Were We Controlled?, 52.

[57]. Human Drug Testing by the CIA, 202.

[58]. Note especially the Supreme Court's decision in Central Intelligence Agency et al. v. Sims, et al. (No. 83-1075; decided April 16, 1986). The egregious and dangerous majority opinion in this case held that disclosure of the names of scientists and institutions involved in MKULTRA posed an “unacceptable risk of revealing 'intelligence sources.' The decisions of the [CIA] Director, who must of course be familiar with 'the whole picture,' as judges are not, are worthy of great deference...it is conceivable that the mere explanation of why information must be withheld can convey valuable information to a foreign intelligence agency.” How do we square this continuing need for secrecy with the CIA's protestations that MKULTRA achieved little success, that the studies were conducted within the Nuremberg statutes governing medical experiments, and that the research was made available in the open literature?

[59]. Letter, P.A. Lindstrom to Robert Naeslund, July 27, 1983; copy available from Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko, Finland. Lindstrom writes that he fully agrees with Lincoln Lawrence, author of Were We Controlled?

[60]. Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 265. I have attempted without success to contact Dr. Lindstrom.

[61]. Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 233-249. This interview was reprinted without attribution in a bizarre compendium of UFO rumors called The Matrix, compiled by “Valdamar Valerian” (actually John Grace, allegedly a Captain working for Air Force intelligence).

[62]. Robert Anton Wilson, “Adventures with Head Hardware,” Magical Blend, 23, July 1989.

[63]. Michael Hutchison, Mega Brain (New York: Ballantine, 1986) 199-201; Gerald Oster, “Auditory Beats in the Brain,” Scientific American, September, 1973.

[64]. Marilyn Ferguson, The Brain Revolution (New York: Taplinger, 1973), 90.

[65]. Ibid., 91-92. The presence of delta in a waking subject can indicate pathology.

[66]. Bio-Pacer promotional and price sheet, available from Lindemann Laboratories, 3463 State Street, #264, Santa Barbara, CA 93105.

[67]. Hutchison, Mega Brain, 117-118. Compare Light's observations about “the grant game” to Sid Gottlieb's protestations that nearly all “mind control” research was openly published.

[68]. Thomas Martinez and John Gunther, The Brotherhood of Murder (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988), 230.

[69]. Interview, Sandy Monroe of the Los Angeles office of the Christic Institute.

[70]. See generally Paul Brodeur, The Zapping of America (Toronto, George J. MacLeod, 1977).

[71]. Until recently, the American Embassy was on a street named after the composer.

[72]. It was finally determined that the microwaves were used to receive transmissions from bugs planted within the embassy. DARPA Director George H. Heimeier went on record stating that PANDORA was never designed to study “microwaves as a surveillance tool.” See Anne Keeler, “Remote Mind Control Technology,” Full Disclosure #15. I would note that the Soviet embassy was “bugged and waved” in Canada during the 1950s, and according to the Los Angeles Times (June 5, 1989), the Soviet embassy in Britain had been similarly affected.

[73]. Ronald I. Adams and R.A. Williams, Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (Radiowaves and Microwaves) Eurasian Communist Countries, (Defense Intelligence Agency, March 1976.) Brodeur notes that much of the work ascribed to the Soviets in this report was actually first accomplished by scientists in the United States. Keeler argues that this report constitutes an example of “mirror imaging” — i.e., parading domestic advances as a foreign threat, the better to pry funding from a suitably-fearful Congress.

[74]. Keeler, “Remote Mind Control Technology.”

[75]. R.J. MacGregor, “A Brief Survey of Literature Relating to Influence of Low Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Function” (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 1970).

[76]. Keeler, “Remote Mind Control Technology.”

[77]. Larry Collins, “Mind Control,” Playboy, January 1990.

[78]. Allan H. Frey, “Behavioral Effects of Electromagnetic Energy,” Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurements of Radio Frequencies/Microwaves, DeWitt G. Hazzard, editor (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977).

[79]. quoted in The Application of Tesla's Technology in Today's World (Montreal: Lafferty, Hardwood & Partners, Ltd., 1978).

[80]. Keeler, “Remote Mind Control Technology.”

[81]. L. George Lawrence, “Electronics and Brain Control,” Popular Electronics, July 1973.

[82]. Susan Schiefelbein, “The Invisible Threat,” Saturday Review, September 15, 1979.

[83]. E. Preston, “Studies on the Nervous System, Cardiovascular Function and Thermoregulation,” in The Biological Effects of Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation, edited by H.M. Assenheim (Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council of Canada, 1979), 138-141.

[84]. Robert O. Becker, The Body Electric (New York: William Morrow, 1985) 318-319.

[85]. Ibid.

[86]. Ibid., 321.

[87]. See Bowart's Operation Mind Control, page 218, for an interesting example of this “rationalization” process at work in the case of Sirhan Sirhan, who was convicted for the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. In prison, Sirhan was hypnotized by Dr. Bernard Diamond, who instructed Sirhan to climb the bars of his cage like a monkey. He did so. After the trance was removed, Sirhan was shown tapes of his actions; he insisted that he “acted like a monkey” of his own free will — he claimed he wanted the exercise.

[88]. Keeler suggests that the proposal was revealed only because Schapitz' sensationalistic implications may have worked to discredit — and therefore hide — the real research. Personally, I don't accept this argument, but I respect Keeler's instincts enough to repeat her caveat here.

[89]. Margaret Cheney's Tesla: A Man Out of Time (New York: Dell, 1981), the most reliable book in the sea of wild speculation surrounding this extraordinary scientist, confirms Tesla's early work with the psychological effects of electromagnetic radiation. See especially pages 101-104; note also the afterword, in which we learn that certain government agencies have kept important research by Tesla hidden from the general public.

[90]. Noted in Lawrence, Were We Controlled?, 29.

[91]. Particularly one Thomas Bearden of Huntsville, Alabama; I have in my possession a document written by Bearden associate Andrew Michrowski which identifies Bearden as an intelligence agent for an undisclosed agency.

[92]. Kathleen McAuliffe, “The Mind Fields,” Omni Magazine, February 1985.

[93]. May 5, 1985.

[94]. I refer to an individual who later wrote a very clear-headed and thoughtful letter to Dr. Paul Lowinger, who has graciously made his files available to me. For now, I feel compelled to withhold this person's name.

[95]. Cameron became president of the American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychiatric Association, and the World Association of Psychiatrists. He previously sat on the Nuremberg panel, helping to draw up the statutes governing ethical medical behavior!

[96]. In particular, Opton and Scheflin's overview, though excellent in scope and detail, continually seeks reassuring interpretations of evidence which points toward more distressing conclusions.

[97]. Martin T. Orne, “Can a hypnotized subject be compelled to carry out otherwise unacceptable behavior?” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1972, vol. 20, 101-117.

[98]. Marks mentions, in a letter to Orne, the latter's claim to have been an unwitting participant in subproject 84. Yet the papers released concerning subproject 84 clearly establish the Agency's willingness to put Orne in the know; Orne's letter admitted to Marks that he was made aware of his CIA sponsorship (Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 172-173). In an interview with Marks, Orne discounted the story of Candy Jones (which we shall recount later) by insisting that if such an experiment had occurred “someone in some agency would have come to me.” Why would they come to him about a super-secret project, unless Orne had a high security clearance and worked extensively with intelligence agencies? Note also that Orne conducted extensive studies for the Office of Naval Research from June 1, 1968 to May 31, 1971. He has also been funded by DARPA. Moreover, I consider noteworthy the fact that Orne somehow became president of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis despite the fact that the organization had decided not to have a president. (This fact was related to Marks by a prominent hypnosis specialist in an off-the-record interview that I probably wasn't supposed to see.)

[99]. The story has been told many times. See Turner and Christian's The Killing of Robert F. Kennedy, 207-208; also Peter J. Reiter, Antisocial or Criminal Acts and Hypnosis (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1958).

[100]. John G. Watkins, “Antisocial behavior under hypnosis: Possible or impossible?” International Journal for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1972, vol. 20, 95-100.

[101]. Milton H. Erickson, “An experimental investigation of the possible anti-social use of hypnosis,” Psychiatry, 1939, vol. 2. Erickson argues that if a hypnotist has convinced his subject to misperceive reality, then resulting actions cannot be considered “anti-social,” for the actions would be acceptable within the subject's internal reality construct. This argument strikes me as semantic quibbling.

[102]. See generally Flo Conway and Jim Seigelman, Snapping (New York: Lippincott, 1978).

[103]. Lee and Schlain, Acid Dreams, 8-9.

[104]. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti, December 19, 1977 (Marks files).

[105]. Martin T. Orne, “On the Mechanisms of Posthypnotic Amnesia,” The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1966, vol. 14, 121-134. Orne's work with post-hypnotic amnesia was funded by NIMH, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Office of Naval Research. I should like to hear what innocent explanation, if any, the Air Force has to offer to explain their interest in post-hypnotic amnesia.

[106]. Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 242-243.

[107]. Obviously Allan Dulles. This may have been a hypnotically-induced delusion; on the other hand, Dulles' legendary sexual rapacity makes this claim rather less unlikely than one might first assume.

[108]. Always the best indicator of whether or not hypnosis is genuine; I can't understand why Orne didn't use this test in the Bianchi case.

[109]. Herbert Spiegel, “Hypnosis and evidence: Help or hindrance,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.; 1980, 347, 73-85.

[110]. See, for example, Kroger, Hypnosis and Behavior Modification, 21-22.

[111]. See especially Klass, UFO Abductions: A Dangerous Game, 60-61. Orne, interviewed here, makes reference to the work summarized in his article “The use and misuse of hypnosis in court” (International Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1979, vol. 27, 311-341.)

[112]. Klass argues that ufologists, in conducting hypnotic regression sessions, inadvertently cue their subjects. A close reading of his text reveals that he never proves or claims that such “cues” have taken place in any individual instance; he simply believes that cueing might have occurred. Had Klass been more willing to deal with abductees directly, he might have found evidence of cause and effect; as it stands, his argument really amounts to no more than a suggestion. For all that, I find his ideas regarding the running of “clean” hypnotic regression sessions potentially valuable.

[113]. Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 34-37.

[114]. Donald Bain, The Control of Candy Jones (Chicago, Playboy Press, 1976).

[115]. The use of hypnotized couriers in warfare goes back to the 19th century.

[116]. Estabrooks, Hypnotism, 193-214.

[117]. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files). In another interview, Professor Clare Young (a colleague of Estabrooks' at Colgate University) confirmed that Estabrooks' hypnosis work for the government has never been published.

[118]. Or could her marriage have been part of the program? “Long John,” as he was popularly known, was famous in UFO circles, and had provided a forum for such early-day contactees as Howard Menger. He also knew Jackie Gleason, a prominent (if unlikely) name in the “crashed disk” rumor vaults. Could Candy have been assigned to discover what Nebel knew?

[119]. Marks files. John Marks did excellent work on the Candy Jones story; he erred — almost unforgivably — on the side of conservatism when he refused to include information about this incident in his book. I know the name of the institute involved; however, since Candy saw fit to keep this aspect of her story secret (probably for sound legal reasons), I shall follow her lead.

[120]. Scheflin and Opton, The Mind Manipulators, 446-447.

[121]. Interviews, Marks files. One of Marks' informants offered the interesting speculation that Candy's torture sessions were not conducted in the field, but in the lab — her entire mission might have been a hypno-programmed fantasy.

[122]. The information about Candy's CIA files stems from a telephone interview with Candy Jones. A problem looms here: CIA cover stories unravel like the skin of an onion; once you remove the outer layer, the next lie is revealed. In the case of Candy Jones, the substrata of buncombe involves allegations that she willingly complied with the CIA, and used Jensen's hypnosis experiments as a rationalization for her compliance. Such is the explanation offered by certain of Marks' informants; alas, Opton and Scheflin seem to have bought this line. Anyone familiar with the vile acts of self-degradation to which Candy's programmers subjected her will laugh this story out of court. No one, short of a severely psychotic masochist, would willingly undergo what she went through.

[123]. Marks files.

[124]. William Kroger, Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963), 299.

[125]. Recently, ufologist Jim Moseley, an acquaintance of Candy's, has claimed that an unidentified source on the Nebel's “inner circle” once, off-the-record, pronounced Candy's story “a crock.” This assertion deserves careful and respectful consideration. Still, Moseley won't identify his source, and we have no way of telling if this insider spoke from instinct or certain knowledge, or indeed, what he really meant. Did he feel Candy was fantasizing or fibbing? If the former, why did her hallucinations match details of MKULTRA released only after publication of her book? If the latter, how are we to explain the many hypnotic regression tapes, at least some of which were made available to outside investigators? (Fairly elaborate, for a hoax.) In any case, how could Candy have known the fact (confirmed by Marks' associates) that Kroger taught “Jensen” at a certain West-coast institute? Why, if the story was “a crock,” would Candy risk libel suits by naming — to associates and investigators, if not to the general public — real-life hypnotherapists? All in all, I would suggest that Moseley's “insider” was speaking glibly, and did not know the true facts.

[126]. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1976.

[127]. Ibid., 415.

[128]. Similar paranoid outbreaks led to the dissolution of Dr. Richard Neal's UFO abductee group in Los Angeles, according to a telephone interview I had with Dr. Neal.

[129]. Affidavit of Dr. Simpson-Kallas in the case of Sirhan-Sirhan, 1973; see Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 225.

[130]. All true MPs have experienced some form of abuse or trauma, psychological or physical, during childhood.

[131]. One was ritually abused in an occult setting. If I were a “spy-chiatrist” scouting potential fodder for mind control experiments, I would seek out abused children from military families. (A military background would ensure that the “right” doctor gets access to the child.) Abduction researchers should look for such a pattern.

[132]. I refer here to the vast upsurge in alien abductions which took place that year; see generally Kevin Randle, The October Scenario (Middle Coast, 1988). Of course, abductions (or, according to my hypothesis, disguised mind control operations) occurred previous to this year.

[133]. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files).

[134]. Brenda Butler et al., Sky Crash, expanded edition (London: Grafton Books, 1986), 305-321, 354-355.

[135]. Telephone interview with Nancy Wright.

[136]. Telephone interview with Miranda Parks.

[137]. William Moore, “UFOs and the U.S. Government,” Focus, vol. 4, June 30, 1989. Moore's role in the affair strikes me as highly questionable, even scandalous — although at least here we have one instance of direct and irrefutable “insider” testimony of government harassment.

[138]. Some have also raised questions about his psychiatric treatment of Oswald assassin Jack Ruby. I find it odd that a CIA mind control veteran — who did not reside or practice in Dallas — should have been assigned to the Ruby case.

[139]. Samuel Chavkin, The Mind Stealers (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), 96-107.

[140]. Raymond Fowler, The Andreasson Affair (New York: Prentice Hall, 1979).

[141]. New York: Warner Books, 1989; 198-202.

[142]. Ruth Montgomery, Aliens Among Us (Ballantine, 1985), 49. My article “Psychiatric Abuse of UFO Witness,” referred to earlier, also documents this phenomenon.

[143]. Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy, “Quantization of Microwave Biological Effects,” in Symposium of Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves, edited by Dewitt G. Hazzard (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977).

[144]. Miami Herald, May 28, 1984 and June 6, 1984; National Examiner, Vol. 22, No. 18, April 30, 1985. Although the Examiner is a supermarket tabloid, and therefore a questionable source, this periodical has rendered researchers the service of printing the X-ray of Petit's brain, showing the implant.

[145]. Los Angeles Times, March 28, 1988.

[146]. Raymond Fowler, The Andreasson Affair, Phase Two (Reward, 1982). This book includes rare photographs of the unmarked helicopters which have plagued this abduction victim and her family.

[147]. A mutual friend described for me an incident in which the former SEAL, mistakenly perceiving a threat, almost instantly felled, and nearly killed, a man twice his size. Whatever the truth of my informant's other statements, he certainly has received advanced combat training.

[148]. Fenton Bresler, Who Killed John Lennon? (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989), 45-46.

[149]. Bowart, Operation Mind Control, 27-42.

[150]. Denise Winn, The Manipulated Mind (London, Octagon Press, 1983), 72-73; Bresler, Who Killed John Lennon?, 41; see generally: Peter Watson, War on the Mind (London: Hutchison, 1978) (Watson broke the story on Narut for the London Times).

[151]. Larry Collins, “Mind Control,” Playboy, January 1990.

[152]. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files).

[153]. Richard A. Gabriel, No More Heroes (New York: Hill and Wang, 1987), 124.

[154]. Ibid., 150-151.

[155]. See generally: Mark Lane, Conversations With Americans (Simon and Shuster, 1970); A.J. Langguth, Hidden Terrors (New York: Pantheon, 1978).

[156]. John G. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey (New York: Dell, 1966).

[157]. This detail plays a part in other abductions — for example, it crops up in the Betty Andreasson Luca case. See Raymond Fowler, The Andreasson Affair (New York: Bantam, 1980), 50-51.

[158]. Stanton Friedman, for example; the reader is referred to his 1988 Whole Life Expo lecture, “UFOs: A Cosmic Watergate.”

[159]. The Body Electric, 196-202.

[160]. The Fish map has received wide discussion; for a representative sampling, the reader is directed to the aforementioned Friedman lecture (note 3); Terence Dickenson, “The Zeti Reticuli Incident,” Astronomy, December, 1974; Klass, UFO Abductions: A Dangerous Game, 20-23; and John Rimmer, The Evidence For Alien Abductions (Weillingborough: Aquarian, 1984), 88-92. Incidentally, Klass has proposed to Friedman a test regarding the ability to recall such material accurately under hypnotic regression; Friedman, for reasons best known to himself, declined the offer to participate.

[161]. Jacques Vallee, Dimensions (Chicago: Contemporary, 1988), 266.

[162]. See Rimmer, The Evidence For Alien Abductions, 91-92. None of this is meant to denigrate Marjorie Fish, whose work has received universal praise.

[163]. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey, 18-19.

[164]. Athan G. Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978), 325; Chip Berlet, “The Hunt for the Red Menace,” Covert Action Information Bulletin, No. 31 (Winter, 1989); J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO (memo), March 4, 1968.

[165]. For example, Delgado's work pre-dates the Hill incident. Moreover, one of the few pages released on MKULTRA subproject 119 concerns “a critical review of the literature and scientific developments related to the recording, analysis and interpretation of bioelectric signals from the human organism, and activation of human behavior by remote means.” The review took place in 1960-61. Presumably, the CIA wanted to do something with the information so derived.

[166]. “UFO Abductions Workshop,” Whole Life Expo, March, 1988.

[167]. Ludwig Mayer, Die Technik der Hypnose (Munich: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1953), 225; quoted in: Heinz E. Hammerschlag (translation: John Cohen), Hypnotism and Crime (Hollywood: Wilshire Book Company, 1957), 24-25.

[168]. Numerous articles discuss this possibility; see, for example, William C. Coe et al. “An Approach Toward Isolating Factors that Influence Antisocial Conduct in Hypnosis,” The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1972, Vol. XX, No. 2, 118-131, as well as other reports in that issue. The difference between the laboratory and the “field” settings may account for success of Mayer's experiment and the apparent failure of the “aliens.”

[169]. For a description of a quite similar experiment conducted under CIA auspices in 1954, see “CIA Able To Control Minds By Hypnosis, Data Shows,” The Washington Post, February 19, 1978.

[170]. Abductee interview, “Veronica.” The reader will, I hope, forgive my use of a pseudonym here. For the most part, I hope to deal in this work with published cases. Suffice it to say, Veronica's testimony proved fascinating, troubling, convoluted, and problematical; in spite of all the questions raised by this case, I still believe it to have substantial bearing on my thesis. The reader will forgive me for severing relations with this abductee before completing an investigation; she keeps a mini-armory next to her bed.

[171]. Abductee interview, “Veronica.” At one point, she ran an informal abductee/contactee group; as a result, she was able to describe many other cases to me.

[172]. One ARTICHOKE document explicitly details a failed attempt to use hypnosis to induce the assassination of a foreign leader. The document is undated; the experiment took place January 8-January 15, 1954. Document reproduced in CIA Papers, Vol. 1 (Ann Arbor, MI: Capitol Information Associates, 1986), 39-41.

[173]. John Marks interview of Prof. Jack Tracktir (Marks files).

[174]. Jenny Randles, Abductions (London: Robert Hale, 1988), 52-53.

[175]. As in, for example, the Palle Hardrup affair.

[176]. Private correspondence, Robert Durant to the author.

[177]. Abductee interview, “Polly.” I won't give the facial details here; suffice it to say that this abductor, like Margary's (noted earlier), has something of the smell of greasepaint about him.

[178]. The base is mentioned in Ann Druffel's and D. Scott Rogo's The Tujunga Canyon Contacts (New York: Signet, 1989) [expanded edition], 157.

[179]. On the other hand, Armstrong asks us to accept his own channelled material, so he would have an awkward time should he choose to challenge the “psychic impressions” of others.

[180]. Jacques Vallee, Messengers of Deception (Berkeley: And/Or Press, 1979), 192-193.

[181]. Curtis G. Fuller (editor), Proceedings of the First International UFO Congress (New York: Warner Books, 1980), 307.

[182]. For information on Pelley, see John Roy Carlson, Under Cover (New York: Dutton, 1943).

[183]. Gerald B. Bryan, Psychic Dictatorship In America (Los Angeles: Truth Research, 1940). An essential book-length expose of Ballardism. One of Bryan's sources alleges that Ballard, before founding the I AM group, may have practiced some variety of black magic.

[184]. The student should carefully compare I AM dogma with the available information on pre-Third Reich occultism; the best sources are James Webb's masterful analyses, The Occult Establishment and The Occult Underground (La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing, 1976).

[185]. Vallee, Messengers Of Deception, 192-194.

[186]. Even a cursory examination of Williamson's Secret of the Andes (London: Neville Spearman, 1961), written under the pseudonym Brother Philip, will reveal the I AM connections.

[187]. Personal sources. Van Tassell's “Integration,” a domed structure allegedly built under extra-terrestrial guidance (located near 29 Palms, California) prominently displays, to this day, key I AM artifacts such as the portraits of Jesus and Saint Germain commissioned by Ballard.

[188]. “The Afghan Arms Pipeline,” Covert Action Information Bulletin No. 30 (Summer, 1988).

[189]. Telephone interview with John Judge.

[190]. Village of Oak Creek, Arizona: Entheos, 1989, 119. I can't recall ever encountering another book title which contained so many grammatical errors. Armstrong's accomplishment is genuinely impressive.

[191]. For further information on I AM, Prophet's organization, saucer cults, and other groups, see the appropriate sections of J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religion.

[192]. Ruth Montgomery, Aliens Among Us (New York: Ballantine, 1985), 128-188.

[193]. Penny Harper, “Are Aliens Taking Over the Earth?” Whole Life Times, January 1990.

[194]. John A. Keel, Why UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse (New York: Manor Books, 1970) [paperback edition], 228.

[195]. Hickson and Mendez, UFO Contact At Pascagoula, 242.

[196]. Strieber, Communion, 134; Transformation, 109.

[197]. “Contactee: Firsthand,” UFO magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1989.

[198]. Telephone conversation, Tom Adams.

[199]. Ed Conroy, Report On Communion (New York: William Morrow, 1989), 365-385.

[200]. “Contactee: Firsthand,” UFO magazine, Vol. 3, No. 3.

[201]. New York: Zebra, 1971. See especially note 2, Chap. 9.